Skip to main content

Full text of "The fruit manual : a guide to the fruits and fruit trees of Great Britain"

See other formats


FRUIT MANUAL 




y^^i^r-: 



^iO^^:-^ 



^:.m 










Digitized by the Internet Archive 
^ in 2007 with funding from 
^^' Microsoft Corporation 



[tp://www.archive.org/details/fruitmanualguideOO. 



Vr^i 



UNIVERSITY OP CALIF*- -»NIA LIBRARY 



i' 



THE 

IF I^ U I T IMI^^lTTJ^^L 

" Fruit of all kinds, in coat, 



Bough or smooth rind, or bearded husk or ahelL"— MiLTOW. 




v.^^^^^5^ 



THE 



FRUIT MANUAL: 

THE FEUITS AND FEUIT TEEES OF 
GEEAT BEITAIN. 



Br EGBERT HOGG, LL.D., F.L.S., 

Viee-Prttident, and latt Secretary, of The Royal Horticultural Society ; Editor of the 
*' Journal of horticulture," dtc, ±c., dte. 



FIFTH 




EDITION. 



JOURNAL OF HORTICULTUEE OFFICE, 
171, FLEET STREET. 



1884. 



ipfl 



i p tfs i»^ (^ fl 



Co t^t pernor; of i^t htt 
MR. THOMAS RIVERS, 

OF BAWBKIDOEWORTH, 
THIS FIFTH EDITION OF 

THE FRUIT MANUAL; 

NOT THAT HE REQUIRES A MEMORIAL OTHER THAN THAT WHICH HE 
HIMSELF HAS RAISED; BUT FOR FORTY YEARS WE WERE KNIT TOGETHER 
BY THE CLOSEST FRIENDSHIP, WORKING TOGETHER AND STIMULATING ONE 
ANOTHER IN THE STUDY OF POMOLOGY: AND NOW THAT HE HAS PASSED AWAY 
I THUS CHERISH IN MY MEMORY A SINCERE FRIEND AND A GOOD MAN. 



HE 3DIEID OOTOBER. IVth, ia7"7. 
Aged 80 Years. 



y/j 



PREFACE. 



It is twenty-four years since this work was first published, and 
during the first fifteen of that period it passed through three 
large editions. The fourth appeared nine years ago, and that 
has long since been out of print. I have now finished the Fifth 
Edition, in which will be found a great deal of new matter, 
enlarging the work to upwards of 150 pages more than there 
were in the last. 

The increase in size is mainly due to the introduction of 
additional descriptions of Fruits which are actually existing in 
our Gardens and Orchards, as I have been desirous of putting on 
record a description of all the fruits generally cultivated in the 
United Kingdom so far as it was in my power to do so. I could 
easily have increased the size of this volume if I had been so 
disposed by introducing fruits cultivated abroad or which are 
described in foreign works; but this would have answered no 
useful purpose, for until these have been grown in this country 
w^e can form no idea of what their merits or demerits might be. 
Much harm has already been done and much disappointment has 
been caused by the indiscriminate introduction and recommend- 
ation of foreign fruits with the merits they are reputed to possess 
in other soils and other climates. Fruits are so easily influenced 
by these two agencies that even in this country, in localities not 
far distant from each other, we meet with the most conflicting 
results. In the fertile valley of the Thames about Teddington 
and Twickenham every kind of hardy fruit might be expected to 



Vlll PREFACE. 

be produced in its greatest perfection ; but the reports furnished 
by that experienced cultivator and acute observer, Mr. R. D. 
Blackmore, which will be found in the descriptions of Peaches 
and Pears, are quite staggering, and destroy the long-cherished 
opinion which some of us have held respecting our favourite 
fruits. 

The new Classification of the Apple upon which I have for 
some years been engaged is another additional feature in this 
volume, and I trust that, when its principles have been mastered, 
it will be found of service in the identification of the different 
varieties. 

The same success that has attended my Classification of the 
Apple has been denied me in my attempt to do the same for the 
Pear. I have merely given a sketch of a system which I hope 
to be able some day more fully to elaborate. If one could every 
year, or even at short intervals of years, ensure a crop of fruit the 
work might soon be accomplished ; but in this uncertain climate 
we must be content to proceed by slow marches and wait with 
patience till our opportunities arise. 

I have consented to a request which has been frequently made 
to introduce descriptions of the leading kinds of Pine-apples. 
Since the large importations of this fruit from the West Indies 
and the Azores, where it is extensively grown for the supply 
of the European markets, the cultivation of the Pine-apple has 
fallen off in British gardens. Nevertheless, it is all the more 
needful that some convenient record should be accessible for 
the identification of those varieties which have been grown in 
the pine-stoves of our large establishments. 



CONTENTS 



PAGE 

Almonds 1 

Classification of 1 

Apples 4 

Classification of xi 

Lists of Select 253 

The Best Dessert 257 

The Best Kitchen 258 

The Best Cideb 259 

Apricots 260 

Synopsis of 260 

Lists of Select 273 

Berberries 273 

Cherries 274 

Synopsis of 274 

Lists op Select 316 

Chestnuts 317 

Cranberries 317 

Currants 318 

Lists of Select 322 

Figs 322 

Synopsis of 322 

Lists of Select 337 

Gooseberries 337 

Synopsis of 337 

Lists of Select 365 

Table for Weights of 366 

Grapes 366 

Synopsis op 366 

Lists of Select 413 

Medlars 414 

Mulberries 414 

Nectarines 415 

Synopsis of 415 

List of Select 426 

Nuts and Filberts 426 

Synopsis of 426 

List of Select 433 



X CONTENTS. 

PAGE 

Peaches .----*- 43H 

Synopsis op 43B 

List of Select 464 

Pears 465 

Classification of 465 

Lists of Select 670 

The Best ... - 673 

Pine-apples 675 

Synopsis of 675 

Plums 680 

Synopsis of 680 

Lists of Select 733 

The Best Desseet 733 

Quinces 734 

Raspbeeries 734 

Synopsis of 734 

List of Select 739 

Strawbeeeies -- 739 

List of Select 758 

Walnuts 758 



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES. 



Many attempts have been made to devise a classification for the Apple. 
Diel, Sickler, Dochnahl, Lucas, and others have each produced one, 
but they are all modifications or altered forms the one of the other, 
and the characters upon which they are constructed are too inconstant 
and indefinite to render their work of much practical utility. As the 
ultimate design of classification is mainly to facilitate the identification 
of the numerous objects that are the subject of inquiry, if it fails in 
this, much of its usefulness is impaired. The systems to which I 
have alluded have all proved failures, and, with the exception of 
Diel's and Doehnahl's, I am not aware that under either of them the 
numerous varieties of Apples have ever been classified. 

In British Pomolof/y, which was published many years ago, I 
suggested a classification for the Apple that was intended to lead to 
the discovery of the names of the difl'erent varieties described in that 
work, but its scope was too limited, and it consequently failed in its 
purpose. Previous to this I had attempted to make use of Diel's 
arrangement, but without success, and then I resolved to search out for 
myself characters upon which to base a system that would accomphsh 
what I had in view. 

In 1876 my earliest views of a new system were published in The 
Journal of Horticulture. It appeared while I was absent from home, 
and was set up in so confused a manner that it called forth some well- 
merited criticism. I reconstructed it in what I conceived to be a better 
shape, and it was printed in a tUstinct form as A New Classiji cation of 
Ajjples. This is the basis upon which my new and amended system is 
founded. I find, however, that in this as in every other classification 
of natural objects there are the usual difiiculties to contend with. 
Kature refuses to be bound, and will not submit to be confined, within 
the narrow limits that man would assign to her. There is still the 
debatable ground to deal with, where there arc no definite boundaries 



XU THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

and we are met on every hand by the difficulties experienced by M. 
Milne-Edwards, who says, " We sometimes see the transition of one 
plan of structure to an entirely different scheme of organisation take 
place by degrees so completely shaded one into the other that it 
becomes very difficult to trace the line of demarcation between the 
groups thus connected ; " and it must always be so. No classification 
of natural objects has yet been constructed on perfectly fixed principles, 
and if we were to wait, expecting to arrive at that state of scientific 
accuracy, we should continue waiting. Every system now in use has 
been crude in its beginning. The natural system of botany, for 
instance, which is now almost universally in use, was evolved, and is 
still being evolved, out of one which "abounded in errors and imper- 
fections." I am not discouraged, therefore, when I meet with difficulties 
in applying my system. I feel assured that after it has been put into 
operation, and some of its imperfections have been discovered and 
have disappeared, it will eventually be found to answer the purpose for 
which it is intended ; for I am convinced that the principles upon 
which it is founded are sound. 



The structural characters on which this classification is based are — 
1. The Stamens; 2. The Tube; 3. The Carpels; and 4. The Sepals. 

When we make a longitudinal section of an Apple through the 
centre of the eye to the stalk we see these various organs. At the top 
of the section are the calycine segments, or what is technically called 
the eye, and immediately below them there is a cavity called by 
botanists the flower-tube. Inserted in this tube is a ring of small 
bristle-like organs, which are the remains of the stamens, and these 
occupy three difi'erent positions. In some fruits they are very near 
the top of the tube ; in others they are lower down, and occupy a 
position about the middle ; whilst in others they are very near the 
base. The tube itself is of two forms — the conical and the funnel- 
shaped. Just below the tube is the core, composed generally of five 
cells or carpels, and these assume four difi'erent forms — round, ovate, 
obovate, and elliptical ; and each of these varies in its relation to the 
axis of the fruit, some extending close to it and forming symmetrical 
cells, while others are distant from it and are unsymmetrical. 

These being the principal characters with which we have to deal, I 
shall now proceed to treat of them individually. 



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES. XIU 

1. The Stamens. — I have already stated that these occupy three 
different positions in the tube, and 1 have adopted them as the primary 
divisions of this system, having found by experience that they are on 
the whole the most reliable characters where all are more or less 
changeable. The marjinal position is shown in Fim. 1, 2 a, 3, and 
4 a ; the median in Fif/s. 5 a, G a, and 7 ; and the basal in Figs. 8 a 
and 9 n. 

2. The Tube. — The tube is of two distinct forms — the conical and 
\he funnel-shaped — and these are more or less modified in shape, as will 
be seen on reference to the various diagrams. The outlines of the 
conical tube, as shown in F'^s. 1, 2, 6, and 9, proceed from the base 
of the sepals in a curved line downwards towards the core, forming an 
inverted cone. These curves are generally inwards, but occasionally 
they are outwards, as in Fuj. 1, which has suggested to me the forma- 
tion of another division under the name of urn-shaped ; but it occurs 
so seldom that no importance need be attached to it. The lines of 
the funnel-shaped tube proceed, like those of the conical, from the 
base of the sepals, curving outwards in the same downward direction, 
and then, curving inwards, form a hump or shoulder which is higher or 
lower than the middle of the tube ; and this has the appearance of a 
funnel shape, as is shown in Figs. 3, 4, 5, 7, and 8. 

3. The Cay-pels. — These constitute what is popularly called the core 
of the apple. They are generally five, occasionally they are four, 
and I have seen only three, but this is very rarely met with. These 
carpels or seed-cells vary in shape. If one is spht down the middle 
its walls or membranous lining will be either rounds as represented in 
Fig. 2 b ; ovate, as in Fig. 6 b ; obovate, as in Fig. 9 6; or elliptical, 
as in Fig. 4 b. Then in relation to the axis of the fruit, they are 
either axile or abaxile. When the walls extend to the axis, and these 
characters will be best seen by making a transverse section of the fruit, 
the cells are symmetrical, as shown in Figs. 10 and 11, and then they 
are said to be axile, whether they are open, as in Fig. 11, or closed, as 
in Fig. 10. When they are distant from the axis, and the cells are 
unsymmetrical, as shown in Fig. 12, they are called abaxile. 

4. The Sepals or Eye. — These are a portion of the remains of the 
flower, which in their original form, when accompanied by the corolla, 
were uniformly expanded and spreading. After the petals drop, and 
as the fruit develops, they gradually assume various directions, and 
when it is perfectly matured we find them in four distinct forms. 
The first of these is shown in Fig. 13, where the segments are quite 
reflexed, frequently so much as to fall back flat on the fruit in tha 



XIV 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 




\m 



y 



Fig. 1. 




F g. 3. 





Fig. 2. 




Fig. 6. 



Fig. 4. 



Fig. 7. 




Fig. 9. 




6- 




Fig. 6. 




Fix. 8. 



CLASSIFICATION OF APPLES. 




Fig. 10. 





Fig. 12. 




Fi?. 14. 



Fig. 11. 





Fig. i; 



?v"-r -"-W- 



Fig. 16. 




Fig. 18. 



XYl THE FBUIT MANUAL. 

form of a star; they are then said to be divergent. In Fig. 14 we 
have another form, in which the segments are never reflexed, but are 
erect with their margins merely touching and their points divergent ; 
and these are erect convergent. Then there is the flat convergent 
position [Figs. 15 and 16), in which the segments are flat, closing the 
eye, but with their margins merely touching and not overlapping each 
other. And lastly we have the connivent form (Figs. 17 and 18), in 
which the segments are all close together, overlapping each other and 
forming a compact cone. 

The minor divisions require no great explanation. They classify 
the fruit according to form as they are round or oblate, conical or 
ovate, and these again are further divided according to their surface 
colouring. This latter character requires a little explanation. When 
fruit is said to be pale it signifies that it is of an uniform colour of 
yellow or green, notwithstanding that it may be faintly tinged on the 
Bun side with orange or pale red. It is said to be striped when the 
only additional colour to that of the ground colour consists of distinct 
red stripes without any ground colour of red. It is said to be coloured 
when the skin is wholly or partially a decided red, and this may be 
accompanied with stripes or with some russet. The 7'usset skin is that 
in which a russet coat prevails. When a russet coat has a brown or 
red cheek the fruit is not on that account to be classed in the coloured 
section. In every case I have indicated the time of year during which 
the fruit is in use as a further help to the identification of it. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION. 



ANALYTICAL KEY. 

In all Apples the stamens are inserted either near the margin, in the 
middle, or at the base of the tube ; and these characteristics constitute 
the three primary divisions of this classification. 

Stamens marpnal A. 

Stamens median B. 

Stamens basal C. 

A. STAMENS MARGINAL. 

Tube conical I. 

Tube funnel-shaped . . . .II. 

I. Tube Conical. 

Cells round, axile. Group 

Calyx divergent 1 

Calyx erect convergent 2 

Calyx flat convergent 3 

Calyx connivent 4 

Cells round, abaxile. 

*■ Calyx divergent 5 

Calyx erect convergent 6 

Calyx flat convergent 7 

Calyx connivent 8 

Cells ovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 9 

Calyx erect convergent 10 

Calyx flat convergent 11 

Calyx connivent 12 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 13 

Calyx erect convergent 14 

Calyx flat convergent 15 

Calyx connivent 16 

Cells obovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 17 

Calyx erect convergent 18 

Calyx flat convergent 19 

Calyx connivent 20 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 21 

Calyx erect convergent 22 

Calyx flat convergent 23 

Calyx connivent .24 

b 



.'Ill THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Cells elliptical, axile. Group 

Calyx divergent 25 

Calyx erect convergent 26 

Calyx flat convergent 27 

Calyx connivent 28 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 29 

Calyx erect convergent 30 

Calyx flat convergent 31 

Calyx connivent 32 

II. Tube Funnel-shaped. 

Cells round, axile. 

Calyx divergent 3$ 

Calyx erect convergent 34 

Calyx flat convergent 35 

Calyx connivent 36 

Cells round, at) axile. 

Calyx divergent 37 

Calyx erect convergent 38 

Calyx flat convergent 39 

Calyx connivent 40 

Cells ovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 41 

Calyx erect convergent 42 

Calyx flat convergent 43 

Calyx connivent 44 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 45 

Calyx erect convergent 46 

Calyx flat convergent. iT 

Calyx connivent 48 

Cells obovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 49 

Calyx erect convergent 50 

Calyx flat convergent 51 

Calyx connivent 52 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 53 

Calyx erect convergent 54 

Calyx flat convergent 55 

Calyx connivent 56 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

Calyx divergent 57 

Calyx erect convergent 58 

Calyx flat convergent 59 

Calyx connivent 60 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 61 

Calyx erect convergent 62 

Calyx flat convergent 63 

Calyx connivent 64 



SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION. XIX 

B. STAMENS MEDIAN. 

Tube conical I. 

Tube funnel-shaped . . . .II. 

I. Tube Conical. 

Cells round, axile. Group 

Calvx divergent 65 

Calyx erect convergent 66 

Calyx flat convergent 67 

Calyx connivent 68 

Cells round, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 69 

Calyx erect convergent 70 

Calyx flat convergent 71 

Calyx connivent 72 

Cells ovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 73 

Calyx erect convergent 74 

Calyx flat convergent 75 

Calyx connivent 76 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 77 

Calyx erect convergent 78 

Calyx flat convergent 79 

Calyx connivent 80 

Cells obovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 81 

Calyx erect convergent 82 

Calyx flat convergent 83 

Calyx connivent 84 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 85 

Calyx erect convergent 86 

Calyx flat convergent 87 

Calyx connivent 88 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

Calyx divergent 89 

Calyx erect convergent 90 

Calyx flat convergent 91 

Calyx connivent 92 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 93 

Calyx erect convergent 94 

Calyx flat convergent 95 

Calyx connivent 96 

II. Tube Funnel-shaped. 

Cells round, axile. 

Calyx divergent 97 

Calyx erect convergent 98 

Calyx flat convergent 99 

Calyx connivent 100 



XX THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

Cells round, abaxile. Group 

Calyx divergent 101 

Calyx erect convergent 102 

Calyx flat convergent 103 

Calyx connivent 104 

Cells ovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 105 

Calyx erect convergent 106 

Calyx flat convergent 107 

Calyx connivent 108 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 109 

Calyx erect convergent 110 

Calyx flat convergent Ill 

Calyx connivent 112 

Cells ob ovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 113 

Calyx erect convergent 114 

Calyx flat convergent 115 

Calyx connivent 116 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 117 

Calyx erect convergent 118 

Calyx flat convergent 119 

Calyx connivent 120 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

Calyx divergent 121 

Calyx erect convergent 122 

Calyx flat convergent 123 

Calyx connivent 124 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 125 

Calyx erect convergent 126 

Calyx flat convergent 127 

Calyx connivent 128 

C. STAMENS BASAL. 

Tube conical I. 

Tube funnel-shaped . . . .II. 

I. Tube Conical. 

Cells round, axile. 

Calyx divergent 129 

Calyx erect convergent 130 

Calyx flat convergent 131 

Calyx connivent 132 

Cells round, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 133 

Calyx erect convergent 134 

Calyx flat convergent 135 

Calyx connivent .136 



SYNOPSIS OF THE CLASSIFICATION. XX 

Cells ovate, axile. Group 

Calyx divergent 137 

Calyx erect convergent 138 

Calyx flat convergent 139 

Calyx connivent 140 

Cells ovate, abaxlle. 

Calyx divergent 141 

Calyx erect convergent 142 

Calyx flat convergent 143 

Calyx connivent 144 

Cells obovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 145 

Calyx erect convergent 146 

Calyx flat convergent 147 

Calyx connivent 148 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 149 

Calyx erect convergent 150 

Calyx flat convergent 151 

Calyx connivent 152 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

Calyx divergent 153 

Calyx erect convergent 154 

Calyx flat convergent 155 

Calyx connivent 156 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 157 

Calyx erect convergent 158 

Calyx flat convergent 159 

Calyx connivent 160 

II. Tube Funnel-shaped. 

Cells round, axile. 

Calyx divergent 161 

Calyx erect convergent 162 

Calyx flat convergent 163 

Calyx connivent 164 

Cells round, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 165 

Calyx erect convergent 166 

Calyx flat convergent 167 

Calyx connivent 168 

Cellsovate, axile. 

Calyx divergent 169 

Calyx erect convergent 170 

Calyx flat convergent 171 

Calyx connivent 172 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 173 

Calyx erect convergent 174 

Calyx flat convergent 175 

Calyx connivent 176 



xxu 



THE FEUIT MANUAL. 



Cells obovate, axile. Group 

Calyx divergent 177 

Calyx erect convergent 178 

Calyx flat convergent 179 

Calyx connivent 180 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 181 

Calyx erect convergent 182 

Calyx flat convergent 183 

Calyx connivent 184 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

Calyx divergent 185 

Calyx erect convergent 186 

Calyx flat convergent 187 

Calyx connivent " . 188 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

Calyx divergent 189 

Calyx erect convergent 190 

Calyx flat convergent 191 

Calyx connivent 192 



A. STAMENS MARGINAL. 
I. Tube Conical. 



Cells round, axile. 

(1) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Grosse Casseler Eeinette, Nov. 
— ^Jan. 

Striped. 
Haffner's Gold Eeinette, Nov. — 
Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Beachamwell, Dec. — Mar. 

(2) Calyx erect convergent, 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Leyden Pippin, Aug. 

Coloured. 
Lord Burghley, Dec. — May. 
Melon, Dec. 
Sops in Wine, Oct. 
Surrey Flatcap, Oct. — Jan. 

(3) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 



(4) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 

Coloured. 
Bastard Foxwlielp, Oct. — Dec. 
Cornish Mother, Oct. — Nov. 
Kerry Pippin, Sep. — Oct. 

Striped. 
Slack my Girdle, Oct. — Dec. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Vale Mascal Pearmain, Dec- 
Feb. 

Cells round, abaxile. 

(5) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(6) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Corn Apple, Oct. — Dec. 

(7) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Hawthornden, Oct. — Dec. 



STAMENS MARGINAL. 



XXlll 



(8) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
New Hawthomden, Sep. — Oct. 
Russian Transparent, Nov. — 
Jan. 

Striped. 
Frogmore Prolific, Sep. — Dec. 

Cells ovate, axile. 

(9) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Flat Nonpareil, Oct. — Jan. 

Coloured, 
Nanny, Oct. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 
Striped. 
Royal Somerset, Nov. — Mar. 

(10) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Keddleston Pippin, Nov. — May. 

Striped. 
Nonesuch, Sep. — Oct. 

Jiusset. 
Martin Nonpareil, Dec. — Mar. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 
Coloured. 
Tom Putt, Nov. 

(11) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round, roundish or oblate. 
jRusset. 
St, Edmund's Pippin, Oct. 
Acklam Russet, Nov. — Mar. 

(12) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 
Green Norman, Oct. — Dec. 
Ringer, Nov. — Feb. 

Striped. 
Ringer, Nov. — Feb. 

Coloured. 
Devonshire Quarrenden, Aug. — 
Sept. 

Busset. 
Royal Russet, Nov. — May. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 
Colimred. 
Handsome Norman, Oct. — Jan. 
Red Foxwhelp, Oct. — Nov. 



Cells ovate, abaxile. 

(13) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(14) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(15) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(16) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Maiden's Blush, Sep. — Oct. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Dutch Codlin, Aug. — Sep. 
Lord Grrosvenor, Sep. — Nov. 

Coloured. 
Sheep's Nose, Oct. — Nov. 

Cells obovate, axile. 

(17) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Burr-Knot, Oct. — Nov. 
Cambusnethan Pippin, Oct. — 

Nov. 
Christie's Pippin, Dec. — Feb. 
Bringewood Pippin, Jan. — Mar. 
Reinette Blanche d'Espagne, 

Dec. — Apr. 
Ronalds's Grooseberry Pippin, 

Nov.— Feb. 
Small's Golden Pippin, Dec. — 

Jan. 
Waltham Abbey Seedling, Sep. 

—Dec. 

Coloured. 
Allen's Everlasting, Nov. — 

May. 
Cherry Apple, Oct. — Nov. 
Uellners Gold Reinette, Jan. — 

May. 

Russet. 
Caraway Russet, Nov. — Feb. 
Pitmaston Nonpareil, Dec. — 

Jan. 
Sam Young, Nov. — Feb. 
Screveton Golden Pippin, Dec. 

— Apr. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Rosemary Russet, Dec. — Feb. 
Tulip, Nov. — Apr. 



XXIV 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



(18) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Whiting Pippin, Oct. — Jan. 
Gralloway Pippin, Nov. — Jan. 
Keddleston Pippin, Nov. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
De Neige, Nov. — Jan. 
Lord Burghley, Dec. — May. 
Marriage-maker, Oct. — Dec. 
Team's Pippin, Nov. — ^Feb. 

Russet. 
Ashmead's Kernel, Dec. — May. 
Sweeny Nonpareil, Jan. — ^Apr. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Lewis's Incomparable. 

(19) Caljrx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Hunt's Green Newtown Pippin, 

Dec. — Mar. 
North End Pippin, Apr. — May. 

Coloured. 
Kadford Beauty, Oct. — Dec. 
Kymer, Oct. — Dec. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Mark Marshall. . 

(20) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 
Ringer, Nov. — Feb. 
Early Nonpareil, Oct. — Dec. 

Striped. 
Dutch Mignonne, Dec. — May. 
Pomeroy of Hereford, Sep. — 

Oct. 
Winter Strawberry, Dec. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
Early Harvest, Aug. 
Hawkridge, Aug. 
Mr. Gladstone, Aug. 
Irish Peach, Aug. 
Kerry Pippin, Sep. — Oct. 
Joeby Crab, Oct. — Dec. 
Philip Maundy, Oct.— Dec. 
Api, Oct. — Apr. 
Cherry Norman, Oct. — Dec. 

Musset. 
Pomeroy of Hereford, Sep. — 

Oct. 
Greenwood Eusset, Nov. — Feb. 
New Rock Pippin, Jan. — May. 



** Fruit;conical, oblong or obovate. 
Pale. 
Edmund Jupp, Sep. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Goose Apple, Oct. — Jan. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. 
Ord's, Jan. 



Cells obovate, abaxile. 

(21) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
No Core, Sep. 

(22) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round, roundish or oblate. 
Pale. 
Shoreditch White, Sep. — Nov. 

(23) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or ovate. 

Pale. 
Hawthomden, Oct. — Dec. 

(24) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Jolly Beggar, Aug. — Oct. 
Huntingdon Codlin, Aug. — Sep. 
Grenadier, Sept. — Oct. 
Potts's Seedling, Sept. — Oct. 
Curl Tail, Oct.— Jan. 
Calville Blanche d'Hiver, Jan. 
— Apr. 

Coloured. 
Malakovna, Oct. — Dec. 
Annie Elizabeth, Dec. — Mar. 
Kentish Fillbasket, Nov. — Jan. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Springrove Codlin, Sep. — Oct. 

Coloured. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

(25) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Lady's Finger of Hereford. 

Oct. — Jan. 
Brabant Bellefleur, Nov. — Apr. 

(26) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(27) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Hunthouse, Dec. — Mar. 



STAMENS MARGINAL. 



XXV 



Coloured. 
Bennet, Oct. — Dec. 

(28) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or ovate. 

Pale. 
Croft Peannain, Oct. — Dec. 
White Norman, Oct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Handsome Norman, Oct. — Dec. 
Royal Wildinf^, Oct. — Dec. 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

(29) Calyx divergent. 

None. 



(30) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(31) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Melrose, Oct. — Jan. 

(32) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
New Hawthornden, Sep. — Oct. 
Grenadier, Sep. — Oct. 



II. Tube Funnel-shaped. 



Cells round, axile. 

(33) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round, roundish or oblate. 
Pale. 
Frogmore Nonpareil, Oct. — 
Nov. 

Colo^ired. 
Lucombe's Seedling, Oct. — Feb. 

Iiui(i<et. 
Queen of the Pippins, Oct. — 

Dec. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Isleworth Crab, Oct. 

Coloured. 
Barchard's Seedling, Oct. 

(34) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Leyden Pippin, Aug. 

CoUmred. 
Baumann's Reinette, Nov. 
Nonpareil, Jan. — May. 

(35) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Oslin, Aug. — Sep. 
Lord Clyde, Dec. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
St. Alban's Pippin, Oct. 
Vineyard Pippin, Oct. — Dec. 

(36) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 
Gennet Moyle, Oct. — Dec. 
Penhallow Pippin, Oct. — Jan. 



Coloured. 
Annat Scarlet. Aug. 
Isle of Wight Pippin, Sep. — Jan. 
Siegende Reinette, Dec. — Mar. 
London Pippin, Nov. — Apr. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Lucombe's Pine, Oct. — Dec. 

Cells round, abajcile. 

(37) Cal3rx divergent. 

None. 

(38) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Ruxset. 

Buffcoat, Nov. — May. 

•• Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Com Apple, Dec. 

(39) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(40) Calyx connivent. 

None. 

Cells ovate, axile. 

(41) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Frogmore Nonpareil, Oct. — 

Nov. 
Golden Pippin, Nov. — Apr, 
Golden Nonpareil, Jan. — Feb. 
Royal Somerset, Nov. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
Scarlet Nonpareil, Jan. — Mar. 

Russet. 
Nonpareil. 



XXVI 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Queen of Sauce, Nov. — Jan. 

(42) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Keddleston Pippin, Nov. — Mar. 
Hughes's Grolden Pippin, Dec. — 
Feb. 

Coloured. 
Morning Pippin, Dec. — Mar. 

Russet. 
Byson Wood, Dec. — Feb. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Pigeonnet. 

(43) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(44) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 
Pale. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 

Striped. 
Hoary Morning, Oct. — Dec. 
Nonesuch, Sep. — Oct. 

Coloured. 
Ked Astrachan, Aug. 
Devonshire Quarrenden, Aug, 
Ten Commandments, Nov. 

Russet. 
Knight's Lemon Pippin. 
Royal Russet, Nov. — May. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Red Norman, Oct. — Nov. 
White Astrachan, Aug. — Sep. 

Coloured. 
Hutton Square, Nov. — Mar. 

Cells ovate, alDaxile. 

(45) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(46) Calyx erect connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Golden Noble, Sep. — Dec. 

(47) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Woodley's Favourite, Oct. — 
Dec. 



(48) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Russet. 
Burntisland Pippin, Oct. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Keswick Codlin, Aug. — Sep. 

Coloured. 
Devonshire Queen, Oct. 
Amassia, Oct. — Jan. 
Northern Spy, Dec. — May. 

Cells obovate, axile. 

(49) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Evargil, Sep. 
Morris's Court of Wick, Oct.— 

Feb. 
Downton Pippin, Nov.— Jan. 
Squire's Pippin, Dec. — May. 

Coloured. 
Early Red Calville, Oct.— Nov. 
Orange Goff, Oct. — Jan. 
Golden Reinette, Nov. — Apr. 
Brickley Seedling, Jan. — Apr. 

Russet. 
Redding's Nonpareil, Oct. — Dec. 
Screveton Golden Pippin, Dec. 

—Apr. 
Sitchampton Russet, Nov. — 

Feb. 
Caraway Russet, Nov. — Feb. 
Powell's Russet, Nov. — Jan. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
King Harry, Oct. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Barchard's Seedling, Oct. 
Frogmore Golden Pippin, Nov. 

— Jan. 
Crimson Quoining, Dec. — Mar. 

(50) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Oakley Grove Pippin, Oct. — 

Dec. 
Dredge's Fame, Dec. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
Algarkirk Beauty, Sep. — Oct. 
Cowarne Red, Oct. — Dec. 
Cox's Orange Pippin, Oct. — 

Feb. 
Lane's Prolific, Oct. — Jan. 
Fearn's Pippin, Nov. — Feb. 



STAMENS MARGINAL. 



XXVll 



•• Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Coe's Golden Drop, Nov. — May. 
Hubbard's Pearmain, Nov. — 
Apr. 

Striped. 
College Apple, Oct.— Dec. 

Coloured. 
Summer Pearmain, Sep. — Oct. 
New German, Oct. — Dec. 
Rosemary Russet, Dec— Feb. 

Busset. 
Hunt's Duke of Gloucester, 
Dec. — Feb. 

(61) Calyx flat convergent. 

♦ Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Green Balsam, Oct. — Feb. 
Hunt's Green Newtown Pippin, 
Dec. — Mar. 

Striped. 
Orange Pippin, Nov. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Redstreak, Oct. — Nov. 
Peasg<XKi'sNonesuch,Oct. — Dec. 
Haggerston Pippin, Dec. — Apr. 

•• Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Pearmain, Oct. — Dec. 

Rugset. 
King Charles, Nov.— Mar. 

(52) Calyx connivent. 

♦ Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Joaneting, July. 
Early Harvest, July— Aug. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 
Early Nonpareil, Oct. — Dec. 
Gennet Moyle, Oct.— Dec. 
Schoolmaster, Oct. — Dec. 

Striped. 
Hoary Morning, Oct, — Dec. 
Winter Strawberry, Dec— Mar. 

Coloured. 
Izard's Kernel, Oct. — Dec. 
Mabbot's Pearmain, Oct. — Jan. 
Northern Greening, Nov. — Apr. 
Forge, Oct. — Jan. 
Brown's Seedling, Oct. — Feb. 
Sturmer Pippin, Feb. — June. 

Russet. 
Redleaf Russet, Dec— Feb. 



•♦ Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Lincoln Codlin, Oct. — Jan. 
Ncthcrton Late Blower, Oct. — 

Dec. 
Doctor Harvey, Oct.— Jan. 
Cockpit, Nov. — Dec. 
Winter Majetin, Jan. — May. 

Coloured. 
Worcester Pearmain, Aug. — 

Sep. 
Upright French, Oct. — Dec. 
John Gidley Pearmain, Nov. — 

Mar. 
Hard Bearer, Oct.— Dec. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. 

Russet. 
Leathercoat, Nov. — Feb. 

Cells o"bovate, abaxile. 
(63) Calyx divergent. 

• Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. 
♦♦ Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
White Paradise, Oct. 

(64) Calyx erect convergent. 

• Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Golden Noble, Sep. — Dec. 

Striped. 
New Cockpit, Oct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Northern Sweet, Oct. — Nov. 
•* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
Smart's Prince Arthur, Dec. — 
Mar. 

Coloured. 
Cowan's Seedling, Oct. 

(65) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(68) Calyx connivent. 

• Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Oaken Pin, Oct. — Jan. 

•* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Manks Codlin, Aug. — Nov. 
Springrove Codlin, Oct, 
Morgan's Sweet, Nov. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



Cells elliptical, axile. 
(v7) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Court of Wick, Oct.— Mar. 

Coloured. 
Court of Wick, Oct. — Mar. 
Scarlet Nonpareil, Jan. — Mar. 

(68) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Greenup's Pippin, Sep. — Jan. 
Fox -whelp, Oct.— Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Russet. 
Cockle's Pippin, Jan. — Apr. 

(59) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Hunthouse, Dec. — Mar. 

(60) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Newland Sack, Oct. — Feb. 
Styre, Oct. — Dec. 



** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Borden Pippin, Dec. — Jan. 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

(61) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(62) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Alfriston, Nov. — Apr. 

(63) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Melrose, Oct. — Jan. 

(64) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
French Codlin, Aug. 

Coloured. 
Granges, Oct. — Jan. 



B. STAMENS MEDIAN. 
I. Tube Conical. 



Cells round, axile. 

(65) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Striped. 
Embroidered Pippin, Dec. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Cellini, Oct.— Nov. 
Amphlett's Favourite, Oct. — 
Dec. 

Russet. 
Busty Coat, Oct. — Nov. 

(66) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Leyden Pippin, Aug. 

Coloured. 
Winter Colman, Nov. — ^Apr. 
Melon, Dec. 
Lord Burghley, Dec. — May. 



(67) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Russet. 
Old Middlemas, Jan. 

(68) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. * 
Walsgrove Wonder, Oct. — Dec. 
Bascombe Mystery, Nov. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Kerry Pippin, Sep. — Oct. 
Eldon Pippin, Dec. — Apr. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
Winter Marigold, Oct. — Dec. 

Cells round, abaxile. 

(69) Calyx divergent. 

None. 



STAMENS MEDIAN. 



XXIX 



(70) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit conical. 
Pale. 
Pine-apple, Oct. 

(71) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(72) Calyx connivent. 

None. 

Cells ovate, axile. 
(78) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Golden Pearmain, Nov. — Mar. 

StHped. 
Prince of Wales, Oct. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Braddick's Nonpareil, Nov. — 
Apr. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Wormsley Pippin, Sep. — Oct. 

StHped. 
Royal Somerset, Nov. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
Fox Kernel, Oct. — Jan. 
First and Last, Sep. — May. 
Winter Pearmain, Dec. — Apr. 

Russet. 
Morris's Nonpareil Russet, May 
— June. 

(74) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Paradise, Aug. 

Coloured. 
Queen, Oct. — Nov. 
Calville Rouge d'Automne, Oct. 
— Nov. 

Russet. 
St. Edmund's Pippin, Oct. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Emperor Alexander, Sep. — Dec. 
Kentish Pippin, Oct. — Jan. 

(75) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(76) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Striped. 
Sack and Sugar, July — Sep. 



Coloured. 
Black Crab, Oct.— Jan. 
Black Norman, Oct. — Jan. 
Ten Shillings, Nov. 

Russet. 
Brownlees's Russet, Jan. — May. 
Royal Russet, Nov. — Mar. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Green Wilding, Oct. — Dec. 

Striped. 
Flower of Herts, Nov. — Dec. 
Longville's Kernel, Aug. — Sep. 

Coloured. 
Esopus Spitzenberg, Nov. — Feb. 
Margil, Nov. — Feb. 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

(77) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Cat«head, Oct. — Jan. 

(78) Calyx erect convergept. 

None. 

(79) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Murfitt's Seedling, Oct.— Jan. 

(80) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Ecklinville, Oct.— Dec. 
Lord Derby, Oct. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Lord SuflSeld, Aug. — Sep. 
Keswick Codlin, Aug. — Sep. 
St. Sauveur, Oct. 
Royal Codlin, Oct. 

Coloured. 
Warner's King. 

Cells obovate, axile. 

(81) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
White Whorle, Oct.— Dec. 
Wyken Pippin, Dec. — Apr. 
Winter Peach, Nov. — Apr. 

Striped. 
Coole's Seedling. 



XXX 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



Coloured. 
Cellini, Oct.— Nov. 
Lamb Abbey Pearmain, Jan. — 
Apr. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Golden Pearmain, Nov. — Dec. 
Waltham Abbey Seedling, Sep. 
—Dec. 

Coloured. 
Loan's Pearmain, Nov. — Feb. 
Kosemary Russet, Dec. — Feb. 

(82) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Cox's Pomona, Oct. 
Norfolk Bearer, Dec. — Jan. 
Norfolk Beefing, Jan. — June. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Sussex Mother, Aug. 

Striped. 
Margaret, Aug. 
Russet. 
Grolden Russet, Dec. — Mar. 

(83) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Rymer, Oct. — Dec. 
Miller's Glory, Oct.— Feb. 
Norfolk Beefing, Jan. — June. 

Russet. 
Golden Knob, Dec— Mar. 
♦* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Mark Marshall, Oct.— Dec. 

Striped. 
Grange's Pearmain, Nov. — Feb. 

(8i) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Early Harvest, July— Aug. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 
Rhode Island Greening, Nov.— 

Apr. 
Newtown Pippin, Dec— Apr. 

Striped. 
Pomeroy, Sep. — Oct. 

Coloured, 
Irish Peach, Aug. 
Philip Maundy, Oct.— Dec. 
Winter Pippin, Oct.— Dec 
Cornish Aromatic, Oct. — Jan. 



Ribston Pippin, Nov. — Mar. 
Fairy, Dec. — Apr. 

Russet. 
Pomeroy, Sep. — Oct. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Sussex Mother, Aug. 

Striped. 
Winter Marigold, Oct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Comey Norman, Oct. — Jan. 
Styre Wilding, Oct.— Dec. 
Black Fox-whelp, Oct. — Jan. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. 
Watson's Dumpling, Oct. — Feb. 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

(85) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Gloria Mundi, Oct. — Jan. 
Lady Henniker, Oct. — Feb. 

Coloured. 
Newtown Spitzenberg, Nov. — 

Feb. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Gilliflower, Oct. 
Adams's Pearmain, Dec. — Feb. 

(86) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Stirling Castle, Aug. — Sep. 
Pomme Poire, Oct. — Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Castle Major, Oct. — Jan. 
Tower of Glammis, Nov. — Feb. 
Doctor Hogg, Nov. — Feb. 

Coloured. 
South Queening, Oct. — Nov. 
Beauty of Kent, Oct.— Feb. 

(87) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Hawthornden, Oct. — Dec. 

Striped. 
Yorkshire Greening, Oct. — Jan. 

(88) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Curl Tail, Oct.— Feb. 



STAMENS MEDIAN. 



XXXI 



striped. 
Flanders Pippin, Oct. — Nov. 

Coloured. 
Malakovna, Oct. — Dec. 
Graham, Oct. — Feb. 
Hambledon Deux Ans, Jan. — 
May. 

♦♦ Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Wilding BittersweetjOct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Winter Quoining, Nov. — May. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. 

Cells elliptioal, azile. 

(89) Calyx divergent. 

♦ Fruit conical or ovate. 

Colo^ired. 
Hunthouse, Dec. — Mar. 

(90) Calyx erect convergent. 

♦ Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
Baron Ward, Jan. — May. 

(91) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(92) Calyx conn i vent. 

♦ Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Loddington, Oct. — Nov. 

Striped. 
Summer Strawberry, Sep. 



** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Golden Bittersweet, Oct. — Jan. 

Cells elliptical, abazile. 

(93) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Harvey's Wiltshire Defiance, 

Oct. — Jan. 
Stoup Leadington, Nov. — Jan. 

(94) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Winter Hawthomden, Nov. — 
Dec. 

Coloured. 
American Mother, Oct. 

(95) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(96) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Sugar-loaf Pippin, Aug. 
Domino, Sep. — Oct. 
Royal Codlin, Oct. 
St. Sauveur, Oct. 
Natural Pocket, Oct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Summer Gilliflower, Sep. — Oct. 

Ru^get. 
Grey Leadington, Nov. — Jan. 



II. Tube Funnel-shaped. 



(97) 



Cells ronnd, axile. 

Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Eggleton Styre, Oct. — Jan. 
Betsey, Nov. — Jan. 

Striped. 
Formosa Nonpareil. 

Coloured. 
Cellini, Oct.— Nov. 

Russet. 
Guernsey Pippin, Dec. — Feb. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Challenge Pippin, Oct. — Jan. 
Rosemary Russet, Oct. — Dec. 
Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. 
—Mar. 



(98) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Leyden Pippin, Aug. 

CoUmred. 
Bramley's Seedling, Oct. — Jan. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Barcelona Pearmain, Nov. — 

Mar, 
Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. 
— Mar. 

(99) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Oslin, Aug. 

Lodgemore Nonpareil, Feb. — 
June. 



XXXll 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



Coloured. 
Ked Splash, Oct. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Eostocker, Nov. — May. 

(100) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Calville Blanche d'Et^, Aug.— 

Sep. 
Walsgrove Wonder, Oct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Hunt's Early, Aug. 
Kerry Pippin, Sep. — Oct. 
Cherry Pearmain, Oct. — Jan. 
Koyal Shepherd, Nov. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Lucombe's Seedling, Oct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec. — May. 

Cells round, abaxile. 

(101) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(102) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Striped. 
Shepherd's Newington. 

(103) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(104) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Cornish G-illiflower. 

Cells ovate, axile. 

(105) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Golden Pippin, Nov. — Apr. 
Duke of Gloucester, Dec. 
Marble Pippin, Nov. — Jan. 
Royal Somerset, Nov. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
Kingston Black, Oct. — Dec. 
Bull's Golden Reinette, Dec. — 
Jan. 

Russet. 
Pitmaston Golden Pippin, Dec. 
—Feb. 



** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Headcroft's Seedling, Oct. — 
Dec. 

Coloured. 
Holbert's Victoria, Dec- 
First and Last, Sep. — May. 
Winter Pearmain, Dec. — Apr. 

Russet. 
Forman's Crew, Nov. — Apr. 

(106) Calyx erect convergent, 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Black Taunton, Oct. — Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Bartod's Incomparable, Oct. — 
Feb. 

Coloured. 
Margaret, Aug. 

Emperor Alexander, Sep. — Dec. 
Herefordshii-e Costard, Nov. — 

Jan. 
Bess Pool, Nov. — Mar. 

(107) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
White Nonpareil, Dec. — Feb. 

Strqjed. 
Winter Whorle, Nov. — Mar. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Belle et Bonne, Oct. — Jan. 

(108) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or ovate. 

Pale. 
Yellow Ingestrie, Sep. — Oct. 
White Star, Oct.— Dec. 

Striped. 
Duchess of Oldenburg, Aug. 

Coloured. 
Red Astrachan, Aug. 

Russet. 
London Royal Russet, Oct. — 

Dec. 
Dundee, Dec. — Jan. 
Wheeler's Russet, Nov. — Apr. 
Royal Russet, Nov. — May. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
Granny Giffard, Nov. — Apr. 
Sam's Crab, Oct. — Nov. 
Hangdown, Nov. — Feb. 



STAMENS MEDIAN. 



XXXIU 



Coloured. 
Haymaker, Aug. 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

(109) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Catshead, Oct. — Jan. 

(110) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Cohmred. 
Bess Pool, Nov. — Mar. 

(111) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(112) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Lord Derby, Oct. — Dec. 

Coloured. 
Birdstowe Wasp, Sep. — Oct. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Warner's King, Nov. — Mar. 

Cells obovate, axile. 

(113) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Downton Pippin, Nov. — Jan. 
Birmingham Pippin, Jan. — 

June. 
Gooseberry, Nov. — July. 

Striped. 
Formosa Nonpareil, Nov. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Broad-eyed Pippin, Sep. — Jan. 
Borsdorfer, Nov. — Jan. 
Blenheim Pippin, Nov, — Feb. 
Court of Wick, Oct. — Mar. 
Duchess's Favourite, Nov. — 

Jan. 
Maggie, Oct. — Dec. 
Pearson's Plate, Dec. — Mar. 
Lamb Abbey Pearmain, Jan. — 

Apr. 
Scarlet Golden Pippin, Nov. — 

Apr. 
Cellini, Oct.— Nov. 
Gipsy King, Oct. — Dec. 
Hermann's Pippin, Oct. — Jan. 
Betty Geeson, Apr. — May. 



Bustet. 
Burchardt's Reinette,Oct. — Dec. 
Cluster Golden Pippin, Nov. — 

Mar. 
Pine Golden Pippin, Oct. — Nov. 
Robinson's Pippin, Dec. — Feb. 
Morris's Russet, Oct. — Feb. 
Golden Harvey, Dec. — May. 
Ross Nonpareil, Nov. — Feb. 

•♦ Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Betsey, Nov. — Jan. 

Striped. 
Goodyear Pippin, Sep. 

Coloured. 
Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. 

— Mar. 
Pignose Pippin, Oct. — Dec. 
Rosemary Russet, Dec. — Feb. 

(114) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Small's Admirable, Nov. — Dec. 

Striped. 
Cook's Kernel, Oct. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Cox's Orange Pippin, Oct. — 

Feb. 
Moss's Incomparable, Jan. — 

Apr. 
Norfolk Bearer, Dec. — Jan. 
Premier, Oct. — Dec. 
Wareham Russet, Oct. — Dec. 
Sweet Lading, Oct. — Dec. 
Wanstall, May — June. 
Norfolk Beefing, Jan. — June. 
Red Splash, Oct.— Dec. 

Russet. 
Corras Pippin, Oct. — Jan. 
Reinette Grise, Nov. — May. 
Sykehouse Russet, Oct. — Feb. 

*• Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Lemon Pippin, Oct. — Apr. 
Hubbard's Pearmain, Nov. — 
Apr. 

Striped. 
Claygate Pearmain, Nov. — Mar. 
Margaret, Aug. 

Coloured. 
Pomeroy of Somerset, Oct. — 

Dec. 
Herefordshire Pearmain, Nov. 
—Mar. 

C 



XXXIV 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



(115) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Forester, Oct.— Jan. 
Hormead Pearmain, Oct.— Mar. 

Coloured. 
Benoni, Sep. 
Ked Royal, Oct.— Nov. 
Lord Lennox, Oct. — Jan. 
Brockhead, Nov. — Jan. 
Norfolk Beefing, Jan.— June. 

Busset. 
Golden Knob, Dec— Mar. 

(116) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Early Harvest, July— Aug. 
Early Julyan, Aug. 
Edinburgh Cluster, Nov.— Jan. 
Winter Greening, Nov.— June. 
Nonesuch Park, Nov.— Feb. 

Coloured. 
Irish Peach, Aug. 
Royal Redstreak, Oct.— Nov. 
Chaxhill Red, Oct.— June. 
Dredge's Queen Charlotte, Dec. 

— Mar. 
Red Styre, Oct.— Dec. 
Cornish Aromatic, Oct.— Jan. 
Ribston Pippin, Nov.— Mar. 
Maltster, Oct.— Dec. 
Mannington's Pearmain, Nov. 

— Mar, 
Forge, Oct. — Jan. 

Busset. 
Princess Royal, Oct. — Jan. 
Redleaf Russet, Dec— Feb. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Pine-apple Russet, Sep.— Oct. 

Coloured. 
Margaret, Aug. 

Cornish Gilliflower, Dec— May. 
Herefordshire Spice, Oct.— Nov. 
Jonathan, Dec— Apr, 
Skyrme's Kernel, Oct.— Dec. 
Spreading Norman, Oct,— Dec. 
Plum, Oct,— Dec. 
King of the Pippins, Oct.— Dec. 

Busset. 
Fitmaston Pine-apple, Dec- 
Jan. 



Cells olDOvate, a"baxile. 

(117) Calyx divergent, 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Golden Ducat, Oct.— Nov. 
Lady Henniker, Oct.— Feb. 
Fall Pippin, Oct. — Dec. 
** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Colour-ed. 
Adams's Pearmain, 

(118) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Longstart, Oct, — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 
Nelson Codlin, Sep.— Jan. 
Doctor Hogg, Nov.— Feb. 

(119) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Ribston Pearmain, Nov. — Jan. 

(120) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Striped. 
Round Winter Nonesuch, Nov. 

— Mar. 
King of Tompkins County, Dec. 
—Mar. 

Coloured. 
New Bess Pool, Oct.— Feb. 
Malakovna, Oct. — Dec, 
** Fruit conical or ovate, 

Str'qjed. 
Smart's Prince Arthur, Dec. — 
Mar. 

Coloured. 
Cornish Gilliflower, Dec— May. 
Winter Quoining, Nov.— Mar. 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

(121) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Court of Wick, Oct,— Mar. 

Strijycd. 
Fish's Pippin, Nov, — Jan. 
** Fruit conical or oblate. 

Pale. 
Claygate Pearmain, Nov. — Mar. 



STAMENS BASAL. 



XXXV 



(122) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Greenup's Pippin, Sep. — Jan. 
Winter Pomeroy, Dec. — Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Russet. 
Rough Pippin, Oct. — Jan. 
Cockle's Pippin, Jan. — Apr. 

(123) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Russet. 
Brenchley Pippin, Nov. — May. 

(124) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Charlemagne, Aug. 

Striped. 
Yellow Styre, Oct. — Dec. 

Russet. 
Boston Russet. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Haymaker, Aug. 
Sack, Oct.— Nov. 
London Pearmain, Oct. — Jan. 



Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

(125) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(126) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Winter Hawthomden, Nov.- 
Dec. 

(127) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
Kitchen Door, Oct. — Jan. 

(128) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Munn's Red, Oct. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Domino, Sep. — Oct. 
Deans' Codlin, Nov. — Feb. 
Iron Pin, Jan. — Feb. 

Striped. 
Hodges's Seedling, Oct. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
July Pippin, Aug. 
Grey Leadington, Nov. — Jan. 

Russet. 
Grey Leadington, Nov. — Jan. 
Royale, Oct. — Dec. 



C. STAMENS BASAL. 
I. Tube Conical. 



Cells round, axile. 

(129) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
Shepherd's Fame, Oct. — Mar. 

(130) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Devonshire Buckland, Oct.- 
Feb. 

Coloured. 
Winter Colman, Nov. — Apr. 
Melon, Dec. 

Russet. 
Melcombe Russet, Oct. — Jan. 

(131) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 



(132) Calyx connivent. 
None. 

Cells round, abaxile. 

(183) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. 

(184) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(135) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Mere de Manage, Oct. — Jan. 

(136) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Sugar-loaf Pippin, Nov. — Dec. 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



Cells ovate, axile. 

(137) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate, 

ColouTed. 
Braddick's Nonpareil, Nov. — 
Apr. 

(138) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Franklin's Grolden Pippin, Oct. 
—Dec. 

Coloured. 
Calville Eouge d'Automne, Oct. 

— Nov. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Emperor Alexander, Sep. — 
Dec. 

(139) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(140) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Sack and Sugar, July — Sep. 

Coloured. 
Ten Shillings, Nov. 
Woodcock, Oct. — Dec. 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

(141) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(142) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(143) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(144) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Warner's King, Nov. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Hollandbury, Oct. — Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Transparent Codlin, Sep. — 

Nov. 



Cells obovate, axile. 

(145) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
White Musk, Oct.— Dec. 
Queen Caroline, Oct. — Nov. 
MinchuU Crab, Nov. — Mar. 
Dumelow's Seedling, Nov. — 

Mar. 
Bringewood Pippin, Jan. — Mar. 

Striped. 
Green Woodcock, Oct. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Cellini, Oct.— Nov. 

(146) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Franklin's Golden Pippin, Oct. 
—Dec. 

Coloured. 
Duke of Bedford, Dec— Feb. 
Striped Beefing, Oct. — May. 
D'Arcy Spice, Nov. — May. 

Pusset. 
Ostrogotha, Oct. — Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Sussex Mother, Sep. 

Coloured. 
Cowarne Quoining, Oct. — Jan. 

(147) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Fair Maid of Taunton, Nov. — 
Feb. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Striped. 
Roundway Magnum Bonum, 
Nov. — Apr. 

Coloured. 
Tyler's Kernel, Oct. — Jan. 
D'Arcy Spice, Nov. — May. 

(148) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Clarke's Pippin, Oct. — Dec. 
Rhode Island Greening, Nov. — 

Apr. 
Eeinette de Canada, Nov. — 
Apr. 

Striped. 
Sack and Sugar, July — Sep. 



STAMENS BASAL. 



XXXVll 



Colmbred. 
Dr. Hare's, Nov. — May. 
Gloucestershire Quoining, Oct. 

— Jan. 
Ribston Pippin, Nov. — Mar. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Hanwell Souring, Dec. — Mar. 

Coloured. 
Cullen, Oct.— Dec. 
Rivers's Nonesuch, Nov. — Jan. 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 
(149) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Breitling, Sep. — Jan. 
Gloria Mundi, Oct. — Dec. 
Dumelow's Seedling, Nov. — 
Mar. 

Coloured. 
M6re de Manage, Oct. — Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Bedfordshire Foundling, Nov. 
— Mar. 

(160) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Striped Beefing, Oct. — May. 

(151) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
M^re de Manage, Oct. — Jan. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Tyler's Kernel, Oct. — Jan. 

(152) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Severn Bank, Oct. 
Coloured. 
Flower of Kent, Oct.— Jan. 
Hambledon Deux Ans, Jan. — 
May. 



** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
English Codlin, Aug. — Sep. 

Coloured. 
Cullen, Oct.— Dec. 
Harvey's Reinette, Oct. — Dec. 

Cells elliptioal, axile. 

(153) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(154) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(155) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(156) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Hanwell Souring, Dec. — Mar. 

Colo^ired. 
Gloucestershire Costard, Oct. — 
Jan. 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

(157) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Golden Spire, Oct. — Jan. 

(158) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Castle Major, Oct. — Jan. 

Coloured. 
Tibbett's Pearmain, Oct. — Dec. 

(159) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(160) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Sugar-loaf, Nov. — Dec. 



II. Tube Funnel-shaped. 



Cells round, axile. 
(161) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Russet. 
Federal Pearmain, Dec- 



Mar. 



(162) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(163) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Prince Bismark, Oct. — Jan. 



XXXVIU 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured, 
Rockley's, Oct. 

(164) Calyx connivent. 

None. 

Cells round, abaxile. 

(165) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. 

(166) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(167) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(168) Calyx connivent. 

None. 

Cells ovate, axile, 

(169) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Dymock Eed. 

(170) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Emperor Alexander, Sep. — 
Dec. 

(171) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(172) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Striped. 
Duchess of Oldenburg, Aug. — 
Sep. 

Coloured. 
Wadhurst Pippin, Oct.— Feb. 

Russet. 
Eeinette Van Mons, Dec. — May. 

Cells ovate, abaxile. 

(173) Calyx divergent. 

None. 

(174) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(175) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(176) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Warner's King, Nov. — Jan. 



Striped. 
Puffin, Oct. 

Cells ob ovate, axile. 

(177) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Fall Pippin, Oct.— Feb. 
Dumelow's Seedling, |iNov. — 
Mar. 

Coloured. 
Cellini, Oct.— Nov. 
Strawberry Norman, Oct. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Golden Winter Pearmain, Oct. 

— Jan. 
Scarlet Pearmain, Oct. — ^Jan. 
Baxter's Pearmain, Nov. — Mar. 

(178) Calyx erect convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Herefordshire Beefing,''_Oct. — 

Jan. 
Penlee Pippin, Nov. — Apr. 

(179) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Trumpington, Sep. — Dec. 
Prince Bismark, Oct. — Jan. 
Captain Kernel, Oct. — Jan. 
Bromley, Oct.— Feb. 

(180) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale, 
Withington Fillbasket, Sep. — 
Oct. 

Coloured. 
Gloucester Quoining, Oct. — Jan. 
Kibston Pippin, Nov. — Mar. 

Russet. 
Eeinette Van Mons, Dec. — May. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Hanwell Souring, Dec— Mar. 

Cells obovate, abaxile. 

(181) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Dumelow's Seedling, Nov.— 
Mar. 



STAMENS BASAL. 



XXXIX 



(182) Calvx erect convergent. 

None. 

(183) Calyx flat convergent. 

None. 

(184) Calyx connivent. 

None. 

Cells elliptical, axile. 

(185) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Red Ingestrie, Oct. — Nov. 

(186) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(187) Calyx'.flat convergent. 

None. 

(188) Calyx^connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Mannington's Pearmain, Oct.- 
Mar. 

** Fruit^conical or ovate. 

' Pale. 
Hanwell Souring, Dec. — Mar. 



CoUmred. 
Washington, Oct. — Dec. 

Cells elliptical, abaxile. 

(189) Calyx divergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Gravenstein, Oct. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Pale. 
Winter Codlin, Sept.— Feb. 

(190) Calyx erect convergent. 

None. 

(191) Calyx flat convergent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Coloured. 
Mead's Broading. 

(192) Calyx connivent. 

* Fruit round or oblate. 

Pale. 
Sugar-loaf Pippin, Nov. — Dec. 

** Fruit conical or ovate. 

Coloured. 
Lane's Prince Albert, Oct. — 
Mar. 



THE FRUIT MANUAL 



ALMONDS. 

CLASSIFICATION OF ALMONDS. 
1.— FRUIT, A THIN SPONGY HUSK. 

A. KERNELS SWEET. 



Shell Hard anrfj Woody, 

Common Sweet. 
Lar^j^e Fruited Sweet. 



Shell Tender, 

Tender-Shelled Sweet 

Sultane. 

Pistache. 



Shell Hard and Woody, 

Common Bitter. 
Large Fraited| Bitter. 



B. KERNELS BITTER. 

Shell Tender. 
Am^re a Noyau Tendre. 



2.— FRUIT, A THICK SUCCULENT FLESH. 

Peach Almond. »' 

Abellan. See Tender-Shelled, 

A Coque Tendre. See Tender- Shelled, 

A Coque Tendre et a Fruit Douce. See Tender- Shelled, > 

A Gros Fruit. See Large Fruited Sweet. 

A Noyau Tendre. See Tender -Shelled, 

A Petit Fruit. See Common Sweet, 

A Petit Fruit Douce. See Common Sweet. 

A Petit Fruit et Noyau Tendre. See Sultana. 

Common. See Common Sweet. 

COMMON SWEET (Common ; A Petit Fruit ; Commune ; A Petit 
Fruit Douce ; Douce ; Gemeine HartschaWje : Siisse Mandel ; Kleine Siisse 
Steinmandel). — Fruit, one inch and a quarter to one inch and three- 
quarteru long, one inch and a half wide, and one inch and a quarter thick. 

1 



2 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Skin, pale green, and covered with a thick down. Stone, very hard and 
thick, furrowed Hke that of a peach. Kernel, sweet, and terminated by 
a sharp point. It ripens in the end of August. The flowers are always 
produced before the leaves, and are very pale, nearly white. 

Commune. See Common Sweet. 

Damen. See Tender- Shelled. 

Des Dames. See Tender' Shelled. 

Douce. See Common Sweet. 

Douce a Coque Dur. See Lair/e Fruited Sweet. 

Douce a la Peau Molle. See Tender- Shelled. 

Doux a Coque Tendre. See Tende?-- Shelled. 

Gemeine Hartschalige. See Common Sweet. 

Grosse Siisse. See Large Fruited Siveet, 

Jordan. See Tender- Shelled. 

Kleine Siisse. See Common Siveet. 

Kleine Siisse Krachmandel. See Sultana. 

Ladies' Thin-shell. See Tender- Shelled. 

LAKGE FRUITED SWEET {Sweet ; Long Hard-shell ; A Gros 
Fruit; Douce d, Coque Dur ; Grosse Siisse). — Fruit, large, about two 
inches long, and an inch and a quarter broad, terminated at the point 
by a nipple, and marked on one side with a deep suture, and covered 
with a pretty thick down. Stalk, thick and short, placed on one side 
of the base, and inserted in a deep and furrowed cavity. Stone, thick 
and hard. Kernel, large, about an inch and a half long, sweet, and of 
an excellent flavour. It ripens in the beginning of October. 

Long Hard-shell. See Large Fruited Sweet. 

PEACH (Peche). — This, which is of no real value, is singular from 
being a hybrid between the almond and the peach, and possessing a 
great deal of the character of both parents. It is covered with a very 
thick and fleshy rind, which is charged with a bitter acid ; but in some 
parts of France it acquires in warm seasons considerable succulence 
and fla.vour ; even in the neighbourhood of Paris it attains as great 
perfection as the Peches de vigne. The shell is very hard and thick, 
as much so as that of the peach. Kernel, large, long, and pointed, 
yellowish-white, and with a half-sweet, half-bitter flavour. It ripens in 
the end of October. 

This is a very old variety, beinf; mentioned by Camerarius, Gesner, Matthiolas, 
end John and Caspar Bauhin, under the names of Amygdalo-Persicus, Persica 
Amygdaloides, &c., Ac. 

PISTACHE (Pistachia Sweet; Pistazien Mandel). — Fruit, small, less 
so than the Sultana, about an inch and a quarter long, terminating in 



ALMONDS. ' 3 

a blunt point, and covered with fine down. The stone terminates in a 
sharp point, and is about the size and shape of a Pistachia, hence the 
name ; it is tender, but not so easily broken between the fingers as the 
Tender-Shelled. The kernel is sweet and well-flavoured. It ripens in 
the end of August. 

This, of all others, is most esteemed in Provence and the southern departments 
of France, particularly when it is green, as being then more relishing. 

Pistachia Sweet. See Pistache. 

Pistazien Mandel. See Pistache. 

Princesse. See Tender- Shelled. 

Prinzessia See Tender- Shelled. 

Soft-Shelled Sweet. See Tender- Shelled, 

Sultan. See Sultana. 

SULTANA {A Petit Fruit et Noyau Tendre ; Sultane ; Sultana Sweet ; 
Sultan ; Kleine Susse Krachmandel). — This is larger than the Pistache, 
but much smaller than the Tender- Shelled Almond, of which it is a 
variety, and possesses the same delicate shell. The kernel is sweet 
and well-flavoured. It ripens in the beginning of September. 

Sultana Sweet. See Sultana, 

Sultane. See Sultana. 

Sultane a Coque Tendre. See Tender- Shelled. 

Siisse Elrachmandel. See Tender-Shelled. 

Siisse Mandel. See Common Sweet. 

Sweet. See Large Fruited Sweet. 

TENDER-SHELLED (A Coque Tendre; A Noyau Tendre; Doux d 
Coque Tendre ; Sultan a Coque Tendre ; Des Dames ; A Coque Tendre 
et h Fruit Douce ; Douce d la Peau Molle ; Soft- Shell Sweet ; Ladie^ 
Thin-Shell ; Jordan ; Damen ; Prinzessin ; Siisse Krachmandel ; Abel- 
Ian : Princesse). — Fruit, above one inch and a half long, and one inch 
wide ; rather oval, at least more so than any of the other varieties, 
convex on one side, and almost straight on the other, terminated with 
a small point, and marked with a suture, which is higher on one side 
than the other. Stalk, inserted in a plain cavity. Shell, very tender, 
consisting of a network of large fibres, which are easily removed, 
because the exterior layer is more tender than the interior, so much so 
that it may be broken between the finger and thumb, and so porous as 
to be easily rubbed to dust. Kernel, large, white, sweet, and relishing. 
It ripens in the end of August and beginning of September. 

The tree attains a good size, is vigorous, and bears well ; the flowers 
are very small, and of a pale red colour, and are produced at the same 
time as the leaves. 

This is the Sweet or Jordan Almond of the fruit shops. It very frequently has 
a double kernel. 



4 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

BITTER ALMONDS. — Besides the common, there are several 
varieties of Bitter Almond, such as the Large Fruited, the Tender- 
Shelled, and the Amandier d'ltalie, but as they cannot be regarded as 
esculent fruit, and as they are not likely ever to be cultivated in British 
fruit gardens, even as objects of curiosity, it is foreign to the design of 
this work to introduce them here. 



APPLES. 



ACKLAM RUSSET {Aclemy Russet).— Fvmi, below the medium 
size, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches high ; round and 
somewhat flattened, and bluntly angular. Skin, pale yellow tinged 
with green, and covered with thin grey russet, particularly on the side 
exposed to the sun, and sometimes it is quite covered with russet, so 
much so that only small spots of the ground is visible. Eye, small 
and closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a smooth, round, and 
shallow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short, conical. Stalk, short, 
inserted in a moderately deep cavity. Flesh, white with a greenish 
tinge, firm, crisp, juicy, and highly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; ripe in November, and will 
keep under favourable circumstances till March. The tree is very 
hardy, and an excellent bearer. It succeeds best in a dry soil, and is 
well adapted for espalier training. 

This variety originated at the village of Acklam, in Yorkshire. 

Ackland Vale. See Orange Gof. 

Aclemy Russet. See Acklam Russet. 

ADAMS'S PEARMAIN (Hanging Pearmain; Norfolk Pippin).— 
Fruit, large, varying from two inches and a half to three inches high, 
and about the same in breadth at the widest part ; pearmain-shaped, 
very even, and regularly formed. Skin, pale yellow, tinged with green, 
and covered with delicate russet on the shaded side ; but deep yellow 
tinged with red, and delicately streaked with livelier red, on the side 
next the sun. Eye, small and open, with acute erect divergent seg- 
ments, set in a narrow, round, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped, sometimes conical. Stalk, varying from half 
an inch to an inch long, obliquely inserted in a shallow cavity, 
and generally with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, 
yellowish, crisp, juicy, rich, and sugary, with an agreeable and plea- 
santly perfumed flavour. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to 
February. It is a very handsome variety, and worthy of general 



APPLES. 5' 

cultivation. The tree is a free and healthy grower, i)roducing long 
slender shoots, by which, and its spoon-shaped ovate leaves, it is easily 
distinguished. It is an excellent bearer, even in a young state, 
particularly on the paradise or doucin stock, and succeeds well as 
an espalier. 

I have endeavoured unsuccessfully to discover the origin of this valuable apple. 
The name of Adams is that of a gentleman who, about the year 1826, gave 
scions of it to the Horticultural Society of London under the name of Norfolk 
Pippin, because he had received them from Norfolk. No evidence can be found 
of its having at any time been considered a Norfolk apple ; and it was not till I 
attended the first Pomological Meeting of the Woolhope Club at Hereford that I 
obtained a clue as to its history. I there found it exhibited in almost every 
collection as the Hanging Pearmain, and so widely is it grown in the county, 
there cannot be any doubt that it is originally a Ilerefordshire apple. It is also 
called Lady's Finger in the county, but as there is also a cider Lady's Finger, the 
synonyme should be suppressed. 

-^sopus Spitzenberg. See Esopus Spitzenberg. 
Alexander. See Emperor Alexander, 

ALEXANDRA {Bumjard's Seedliruj). — ^Fruit, small, roundish, of 
the shape of Golden Harvey, even and regular in its outline. Skin, 
yellowish, and covered with a thin coat of pale russet, with a blush 
of orange on one side. Eye, small and half open, set in a wide basin. 
Stalk, nearly an inch long, slender. Flesh, tender, very juicy, and very 
richly flavoured, with a fine aroma. 

This is a delicious little early apple ; ripe in the first week of 
September. 

It was raised by Messrs. Bunyard & Son, nurserymen, Maidstone, and first 
fruited in 1868. 

ALFRISTON {Lord Gwydijr's Newtoum Pippin ; Oldaker's New ; 
Shepherd's Pipjnn ; Shepherd's Seedling). — Fruit of the largest size, 
generally about three inches and a half wide, and from two and three- 
quarters to three inches high ; roundish and angular on the sides. 
Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, and tinged with orange next 
the sun, covered all over with veins, or reticulations of russet. Eye, 
open, with erect convergent segments, set in a deep and uneven basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted in a 
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, juicy, sugary, and briskly 
flavoured. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

This is one of the largest and best culinary apples. It comes into 
use in the beginning of November and continues till April. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, very hardy, and an abun 
dant bearer, but on strong soils that are not well drained it is apt to 
canker. 

This variety was raised by a person of the name of Shepherd, at Uckfield, in 
Sussex, and has for many years been extensively cultivated in that county, under 
the names of Shepherd's Seedling and Shepherd's Pippin. Some years ago a Mr., 
Brooker, of Alfriston, near Hailsham, sent specimens of the fruit to the London 
Horticultural Society, and being unknown, it was called the Alfriston, a name by 
which it is now generally known. By some it is erroneously called the Baltimore 
and Newtown Pippin. 



6 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

ALGARKIRK BEAUTY (Algarkirk Seedling).— Fxuii, small, two 
inches and a quarter wide, and an inch and three-quarters high; 
roundish oblate, even and symmetrical in its outline. Skin, entirely 
covered with brilliant crimson, which is streaked with darker crimson 
except a small patch on the shaded side, which is orange. Eye, small, 
half open, with erect convergent segments set in a shallow wide basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped, deep. Stalk, from half an 
inch to an inch long, slender, set in a round russety cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, very tender, sweet, juicy, of good flavour, and with a 
pleasant perfume. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit or closed. 

A very beautiful apple for the dessert. It is not of the first quality, 
but is well worth growing for the fine appearance it has on the table. 
It would be a very attractive market apple. Ripe in September. 

ALLEN'S EVERLASTING.— Fruit, rather below medium size, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, and two inches high ; oblate, even and 
regular in its outline. Skin, greenish yellow, becoming clearer yellow 
as it ripens, and with a few faint streaks of red or a red cheek showing 
through the russet coat ; sometimes it has a bright deep crimson 
cheek next the sun, which extends almost all over the shaded side, 
where it is paler, and also marked with a good deal of rough brown 
russet. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Eye, large and open, set 
in a wide and pretty deep round basin. Stalk, half an inch long, 
slender, set in a wide deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, sweet, 
crisp, juicy, and richly flavoured, with a fine bouquet. Cells, obovate ; 
axile. 

A very useful apple either for the dessert or kitchen use. It keeps 
well till May. 

Althorp Pippin. See Marmalade Pippin. 

AMASSIA. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and the 
same high ; conical, like a small Codlin, narrowing abruptly to the 
eye, where it forms a sort of snout. Skin, smooth, greenish yellow 
on the shaded side, and washed with red, which is streaked with 
bright crimson next the sun. Eye, very small and closed, set in a 
narrow puckered basin surrounded with small knobs or ridges. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep wide funnel-shaped. Stalk, from a 
half to three-quarters of an inch long, set in a pretty deep cavity. 
Flesh, white, crisp, tender, very juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. 
Cells, wide open, ovate oblong ; abaxile. 

A fine apple for kitchen use. It is excellent in a tart, and requires 
no sugar. It does not cook to a pulp, the pieces retain the shape into 
which they are cut. 

This is a very beautiful and ornamental apple. On some soils, when 
the fruit is much exposed to the sun, it is bright crimson all over, 
marked with broken streaks on a bright yellow ground. It is the 
apple most generally grown in Asia Minor, on the shores of the 
Mediterranean. 



APPLES. 7 

American Fall Pippin. See Fall Pippin, 

AMERICAN GOLDEN RUSSET.— Fruit, about the size of Golden 
Harvey. In form it is roundish ovate, even and regular in its outline. 
Skin, yellow when ripe, and covered with patches of pale brown, or 
rather ashen grey russet. Eye, closed, set in a narrow and shallow 
basin. Stalk, an inch long and slender. Flesh, yellowish, very tender 
and fine grained, juicy, rich, and with an aromatic flavour. 

This is a very valuable dessert apple, and is in use from October to 
January. 

The origin of this variety is unknown, but it has long existed in America, being 
mentioned by Coxe in 1817. 

AMERICAN MOTHER {Mother Ajiple ; Queen Anne ; Gardener's 
Aj)ple). — Fniit, medium size, two inches and three-quarters wide, and 
the same in height ; conical, even, and slightly undulating on its sur- 
face, and generally longer on one side of the axis than the other. 
Skin, golden yellow, covered with mottles and streaks of crimson on 
the side next the sun, and strewed with russet dots. Eye, small, 
closed and tapering, set in a narrow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
conical, inclining to funnel-shape. Stalk, half an inch long, very 
slender, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, remark- 
ably tender, crisp, and breaking, very juicy, sweet, and with a balsamic 
aroma. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile, wide and Codlin-like. 

One of the finest dessert apples in October. In shape it resembles 
Adams's Pearmain. 

This is an American apple, and one of the few that ripen well in this country. 
I may here state that the indiscriminate introduction and recommendation of 
American fruits have led to grievous disappointment, and growers cannot exercise 
too much caution in the reception of advice on this subject. I have distinguished 
this as the " American " Mother Apple, as there are other varieties in this country 
known as the Mother Apple. It originated at Bolton, Massachusetts. 

American Newtown Pippin. See Newtown Pippin, 

American Plate. See Golden Pipjnn, 

AMERICAN SUMMER PEARMAIN {Early Summer Pearmain). 
— ^Fruit, medium sized, obloug, regularly and handsomely shaped. 
Skin, yellow, covered with patches and streaks of hght red, on the 
shaded side, and streaked with fine bright red, interspersed with 
markings of yellow, on the side next the sun. Eye, set in a wide and 
deep basin. Stalk, slender, inserted in a round and deep cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, very tender, rich, and pleasantly flavoured. 

An excellent early apple, either for dessert or kitchen use. It is 
ripe in the end of August, and will keep till the end of September. 

The tree is a healthy grower, a prolific bearer, and succeeds well 
on hght soils. 

AMPHLETT'S FAVOURITE.— Fniit, two inches and a half wide, 



8 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

and two inches high ; roundish oblate, prominently ribbed on the 
sides, and with five prominent ridges round the crown. Skin, bright 
red on the side next the sun, and striped with darker red, but where 
shaded it is yellow with a greenish tinge ; over the base it is covered 
with thin pale grey russet. Eye, with long, pointed, somewhat 
divergent segments, set in a deep angular basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, short, and very slender, inserted its whole length 
in the cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, juicy, and of good flavour. 
Cells, round; axile, open. 

A culinary apple of Herefordshire in use during the autumn and up 
to Christmas. 

Anglesea Pippin. See Red Astrachan. 

ANNAT SCAKLET. — Fruit, two inches wide, and an inch and a. 
half high ; roundish oblate, even and regular in its outline, and bear- 
ing a close resemblance to Devonshire Quarrendon, both in shape and 
colour. The flesh is also stained with red, but it is inferior in flavour 
to Devonshire Quarrendon. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Cells, closed, round. It was raised by Mr. A. Gorrie, at Annat, 
Perthshire. 

ANNIE ELIZABETH.— Fruit, large, round, widest at the base, 
prominently ribbed or angular. Skin, pale yellow on the shaded side,, 
streaked and spotted on the side next the sun with bright crimson. 
Eye, with connivent segments, deeply set in an irregular angular 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, deep conical. Stalk, short, deeply 
set, frequently with a swelling on one side of it. Flesh, white, and 
of firm, yet crisp and tender texture, with a fine, brisk, sprightly 
flavour. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent late kitchen or dessert apple. 

A seedling raised by Messrs. Harrison & Sons, of Leicester. Keceived a First 
Class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society, 1868. 

API (Lady Apple ; Api Rouge ; Pomme d'Api ; Petit Api Rouge ; 
Api Petit). — Fruit, small, oblate. Skin, thick, smooth, and shining, 
yellowish green in the shade, changing to pale yellow as it attains 
maturity, and deep glossy red, approaching to crimson, on the side 
next the sun. Eye, small, set in a rather deep and plaited basin. 
Stalk, short, and deeply inserted. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical- 
Flesh, white, crisp, tender, sweet, very juicy, and slightly perfumed. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A beautiful little dessert apple in use from October to April. It 
should be eaten with the skin on, as it is there that the perfume is. 
contained. The skin is very sensitive of shade, and any device may be 
formed upon it, by causing pieces of papers, in the form of the design 
required, to adhere on the side exposed to the sun, before it has- 
attained its deep red colour. 

The tree is of a pyramidal habit of growth, healthy, and an abundant 



APPLES. 9 

bearer. It succeeds well in almost any situation, provided the soil is 
rich, loamy, and not too light or dry ; and may be grown with equal 
success either on the doucin or crab stock. When worked on the 
French paradise it is well adapted for pot culture. The fruit is firmly 
attached to the spurs and forcibly resists the effects of high winds. 

It has been asserted that this apple was brought from Peloponessus to Rome by 
Appius Claudius. Whether this be true or not, there can be no doubt it is of great 
antiquity, as all the oldest authors regard it as the production of an age prior to 
their own. Dalechamp and Harduin are of opinion that it is the Tetisia of 
Pliny ; but J. Baptista Porta considers it to be the Appiana of that author, who 
thus describes it, "Odor est his cotoneorum magnitudo quee Claudianis, color 
rubens."* From this description it is evident that two varieties are referred to, 
the Appiana and Claudiana. Such being the case, J. Baptista Porta says, *' duo 
sunt apud nos mala, magnitudine, et colore paria, et preciosa, quorum unum 
odorem servat cotoneorum, alterum minimd. Quod odore caret, vulgo dictum 
Melo rosa. Id roseo colore perfusum est, mira teneritudine et sapore, rainime 
fugax, pomum magnitudine media, ut facile cum ceteris de principatu certet, nee 
indignum Claudii nomine. Hoc Claudianum dicerem."t This Melo Rosa may 
possibly be the Pomme Rose or Gros Api ; and if so, we may infer that the Api 
is the Appiana, and the Gros Api the Claudiana of Pliny, This, however, may 
be mere conjecture, but as the authority referred to was a native of Naples, and 
may be supposed to know something of the traditionary associations of the Roman 
fruits, I have deemed it advisable to record his opinion on the subject. 

According to Merlet, the Api was first discovertd as a wilding m the Forest of 
Api, in Brittany. 

Although mentioned by most of the early continental writers, the Api does not 
appear to have been known in this country till towards the end of the 17th 
century. It is first mentioned by Worlidge, who calls it "Pomme Appease, a 
curious apple, lately propagated ; the fruit is small and pleasant, which the 
Madams of France carry in their pockets, by reason they yield no unpleasant 
scent." Lister, in his ''Journey to Paris, 1698," speaking of this as being one of 
the apples served up in the dessert, says, " Al.»o the Pome d'Apis, which is served 
here more for show than for use ; being a small flat apple, very beautiful, and 
very red on one side, and pale or white on the other, and may serve the ladies at 
their toilets as a pattern to paint by." De Quintinye calls it '* Une Pomme des 
Damoiselles et de bonne compagnie." 

Under the name of Lady Apple, large quantities of the Api are annually 
imported to this country from the United States, where it is grown extensively 
and profitably, as it always commands the highest price of any other fancy apple 
in the market. In the winter months they may be seen encircled with various 
coloured tissue papers, adorning the windows of the fruiterers in Covent Garden 
Market. 

There are other varieties mentioned by J. Baptista Porta as belonging to the Api 
family ; one which ripened in August, in size like the Claudiana already men- 
tioned, and commonly called Melo Appio Bosso, because it retained the scent of 
the Api ; this is probably the Rother Sommer-api of Diel. There is another, of 
which he says, " Assererem tuto esse Melapium Plinii," and which was held in 
such estimation as to give rise to the proverb — 

" Omme malum malum praeter appium malum.** 

API ETOILLE {Pomme EtoilUe ; Sternapfel). — This is a variety of 
the Api, from which it is distinguished by being very much flattened, 
and furnished with five very prominent angles on the sides, which give 
it the appearance of a star, hence its name. Skin, of a deep yellow on 

• Plinii Hist. Nat. Lib. xt., cap. 14. t Villa, p. 278. 



10 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

the shaded side, and reddish orange next the sun. It is a well-flavoured 
apple, but only of second-rate quality ; and ripens about the middle or 
end of September. 

The variety received under this name by the London Horticultural Society must 
have been incorrect, as in the last edition of their catalogue it is made synonymous 
with Api Petit. 

API GROS {Pomme Rose; Fomme d'Api Gros ; Fasse-rose). — 
Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three-quarters wide, and 
two inches high ; oblate. Skin, pale green, changing as it ripens to 
pale 3^ellow on the shaded side, and pale red, mottled with green, 
where exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a shallow 
and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide, rather deep, and 
russety cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, very juicy, and briskly 
flavoured. 

Suitable either for the dessert, or for culinary purposes ; it is inferior 
to the Api and not a first-rate apple. In use from December to March. 
The tree has much similarity to the Api in its growth, and is a good 
bearer. 

This is a variety of Api, and closely resembles it in all its parts, except 
that it is much larger. "La Pomme Kose resemble extremement partout son 
exterieur a la Pomme d*Apis, mais a mon godt elle ne la vaut pas quoy que 
puissent dire les curieux du Rhone, qui la veulent autant elever aussi au dessus 
des autres, qu'ils elevent la Poire Chat au dessus des autres Poires." — De 
Quintinye. 

API NOIR. — Fruit, small, but a little larger and somewhat flatter 
than the Api, to which it bears a close resemblance. Skin, tender, 
smooth, and shining as if varnished, and almost entirely covered, where 
exposed to the sun, with very dark crimson, almost approaching to 
black, like the Pomme Violette, but becoming paler towards the shaded 
side, where there is generally a patch of light j^ellow ; it is strewed 
with fawn-coloured dots, and some markings of russet. Eye, very 
small, set in a pretty deep and plaited basin. Stalk, slender, about 
three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a rather deep, wide, and 
funnel-shaped cavity, which is slightly marked with russet. Flesh, 
pure white, firm and juicy, tinged with red under the skin, and with 
a pleasant, vinous, and slightly perfumed flavour. 

A dessert apple, inferior to the Api, and cultivated merely for 
curiosity. It is in use from November to April, but is very apt to 
become mealy. The habit of the tree is similar to that of the Api, 
but it is rather a larger grower. 

Api Petit. See Api. 

Api Rouge. See Api. 

Aporta. See Emperor Alexander. 

Arbroath Pippin. See Oslin. 

Arley. See Wyken Pij>pin. 



APPIJ2S. 11 

AROMATIC RUSSET.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a 
half wide, and about two inches and a quarter high ; roundish ovate, 
and flattened at both ends. Skin, greenish yellow, almost entirely 
covered with brownish grey russet, strewed with brownish scales on 
the shaded side, and slightly tinged with brownish red, strewed with 
silvery scales on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and open, 
with broad recurved segments, and set in a rather shallow basin. 
Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and round cavity. Flesh, greenish 
yellow, firm, crisp, brisk, sugary, and richly aromatic. 

A very richly flavoured dessert apple of the first quality, in use from 
December to February. 

The tree is very hardy, and an abundant bearer. 

The Golden Russet is often confounded with this, but the former is covered with 
cinnainun-coloored russet and has often a bright red cheek next the sun as if 
varnished. 

ASHMEAD'S KERNEL.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a half to two and three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter to 
two and a half high, round and flattened, but sometimes considerably 
elongated. Skin, light greenish yellow, covered with yellowish brown 
russet, and a tinge of brownish orange next the sun. Eye, small and 
partially open, placed in a moderately deep round and plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a round 
and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, rich, 
and highly aromatic. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of the very first quality, possessing all the richness 
of the Nonpareil, but with a more sugary juice. It comes into use in 
November, and is in greatest perfection from Christmas till May. 

The tree is very hardy, an excellent bearer, and will succeed in 
situations unfavourable to the Nonpareil, to which its leaves and shoots 
bear such a similarity as to justify Mr. Lindley in believing it to be a 
seedling from that variety. 

I have seen an apple called Improved Ashmead's Kernel^ which is no 
improvement at all. It is much like the old one, and has more orange 
next the sun. 

This delightful apple was raised at Gloucester, about the beginning of last 
century, by Dr. Ashmead, an eminent physician of that city. The original tree 
existed within the first quarter of the present century, in what had originally 
been Dr. Ashmead's garden, but was destroyed in consequence of the ground 
being required for building. It stood on the spot now occupied by Clarence Street. 

It is difficult to ascertain the exact period when it was raised ; but the late Mr. 
Hignell, an orchardist at Tewkesbury, in Gloucestershire, informed me in 1840 
that the first time he ever saw the fruit of Ashmead's Kernel was from a tree in 
the nursery of Mr. Wheeler, of Gloucester, in the year 1796, and that the tree in 
question had been worked from the original, and was at that time upwards of 
thirty years old. From this it may be inferred that the original tree had attained 
some celebrity by the middle of last century. Ashmead's Kernel has long been a 
favourite apple in all the gardens of West Gloucestershire, but it does not seem to 
have been known in other parts of the country. Like the Ribston Pippin it appears 
to have remained long in obscurity, before its value was generally appreciated ; it 



12 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

is not even mentioned in the catalogue of the extensive collection which was cul- 
tivated by Miller and Sweet, of Bristol, in 1790. I find it was cultivated in the 
Brompton Park Nursery in 1780, at which time it was received from Mr. Wheeler, 
nurseryman, of Gloucester, who was author of " The Botanist's and Gardener's 
Dictionary," published in 1763, and great-grandfather of the present proprietor of 
the nursery. 

Astrachan. See White Astrachan. 

AUGUSTUS PEARMAIN.— Fruit, below medium size ; pearmain- 
shaped, regular and handsome. Skin, thick and membranous, yellow 
in the shade, and marked with a few broken stripes of red ; but red, 
streaked all over with deeper red, on the side next the sun ; it is 
dotted with grey dots, and sometimes marked with patches of grey- 
coloured russet, which is strewed with scales of a darker colour. Eye, 
small and closed, with long segments, set in a narrow and even basin. 
Stalk, very short, not protruding beyond the base, and having the 
appearance of a knob obliquely attached. Flesh, tender, juicy, brisk, 
and vinous, with a pleasant aromatic flavour. 

A dessert apple, generally of only second-rate quality ; but in some 
seasons it is of a rich flavour and of first-rate quality. 

It is in use from November to Christmas. 

Aurore. See Golden Reinette. 

Autumn Calville. See Calville Rouge d'Automne. 

Autumn Bed Calville. See Calville Rouge d' Automne, 

Autumn Pearmain. See Summer Pearmain, 

BACHELOR'S GLORY. — Fruit large, three inches wide, and two 
and three-quarters high ; roundish and irregularly ribbed, generally 
higher on one side of the eye than on the other. Skin, smooth and 
shining, striped with deep golden yellow, and crimson stripes. Eye, 
closed, with broad flat segments, and set in a plaited, irregular, and 
angular basin. Stalk, about half an inch long, deeply inserted in a 
funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with rough scaly russet. Flesh, 
yellow, tender, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. 

A second-rate fruit, suitable either for the dessert or culinary pur- 
poses ; in use from October to November. 

This is a variety grown in the neighbourhood of Lancaster, where it is much 
esteemed, but in the southern districts, where the more choice varieties can be 
brought to perfection, it can only rank as a second -rate Iruit. 

Bache's Kernel. See Best Bache. 
Baddow Pippin. See D'Arcy Spice. 

BALCHIN'S PEARMAIN. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and the same high. Roundish in shape, but 
narrowing a little towards the apex, one side of which is higher than 
the other. Skin, smooth and lemon yellow, with a few scattered 
broken streaks of pale crimson on the shaded side, and a light crimson 



APPLES. IB 

cheek marked with broken stripes of darker crimson on the side 
exposed to the sun ; the whole surface is strewed very thinly with 
small brown dots. Eye, small and open, with erect pointed segments, 
and set in a deep and wide basin. Stalk, short and slender, the cavity 
of which is very shallow and straight, not unlike that of Kerry Pippin. 
Flesh, white, firm, crisp, very juicy, sugary, and well-flavoured. 

An excellent apple, either for the dessert or kitchen purposes, the 
great recommendation of which is that it keeps in sound condition till 
May. So highly was it appreciated by the Fruit Committee of the 
Hoyal Horticultural Society that it was awarded a first-class certificate 
in 1867. 

This was raised by Mr. Balchin, Master of the Union, Dorking. 

BALDWIN (Red Baldwin; Butters; Woodpecker). — Fruit, large, 
three inches and a half wide, and about three inches high ; ovato- 
conical. Skin, smooth, yellow on the shaded side, and on the side 
next the sun deep orange, covered with stripes of bright red, which 
sometimes extend over the whole surface to the shaded side, and 
marked with large russety dots. Eye, closed, set in a deep, narrow, 
and plaited basin. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, and inserted in 
a deep cavity, from which issue ramifying patches of russet. Flesh, 
yellowish, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly acid, with a rich and agreeable 
flavour. 

A culinary apple, in season from November to March. The tree is 
vigorous, and an abundant bearer ; but, like the generality of the 
American sorts, it does not attain the size or flavour in this country 
which it does in its native soil. 

This is considered one of the finest apples in the Northern States of America, 
and is extensively grown in Massachusetts, for the supply of the Boston market. 

Balgone Pippin. See Golden Pippin. 

Baltimore. See Gloria Mundi. 

BANK APPLE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quar- 
ters wide, and about two inches and a half high ; roundish-ovate, 
regularly and handsomely formed. Skin, greenish yellow, with a 
blush and faint streaks of red next the sun, dotted all over with 
minute dots, and marked with several large spots of rough russet ; the 
base is covered with a coating of russet, strewed with silvery scales. 
Eye, large and open, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, half 
an inch long, obliquely inserted by the side of a fleshy prominence. 
Flesh, firm, crisp, brisk, juicy, and pleasantly acid, resembUng the 
Winter Greening in flavour. 

It is an excellent culinary apple, in use from November to 
February ; but as it has nothing to recommend it, in preference to 
other varieties already in cultivation, it need only be grown in large 
colietitions. 

The original tree was produced from a pip, accidentally sown in the home 



14 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

nursery of Messrs. Konalds, of Brentford, and from growing on a bank by the side 
of a ditch, it was called the Bank Apple. 

BARCELONA PEARMAIN (.Speckled Golden Beinette ; Speckled 
Pearmain ; Polinla Pearmam). — Fruit, below medium size, two 
inches and a half wide, and the same high ; ovate. Skin, clear pale 
yellow, mottled with red in the shade, but dark red next the sun, the 
whole covered with numerous star-like russety specks, those on the 
shaded side being brownish, and those next the sun yellow. Eye, 
small and open, with erect acuminate segments, and set in a round, 
even, and pretty deep basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, about an inch long, slender, inserted in a rather shallow cavity, 
which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, very 
juicy, and with a rich, vinous, and highly aromatic flavour. Cells, 
roundish oblate ; axile, 

One of the best dessert apples, and equally valuable for culinary 
purposes. It comes to perfection about the end of November, and 
continues in use till March. 

The tree is a free grower, but does not attain the largest size. It is 
very hardy, an abundant bearer, and succeeds well either as a standard 
or an espalier. 

In the third edition of the Horticultural Society's Catalogue, this is said to be 
the same as Reinette Rouge. I do not think that it is the Reinette Rouge of the 
French, which Duhamel describes as being white, or clear yellow in the shade, 
having often prominent ribs round the eye, which extend down the sides, so as to 
render the shape angular ; a character at variance with that of the Barcelona 
Pearmain. But I have no doubt of its being the Reinette Rousse of the same author, 
which is described at page 302, vol. i., as a variety of Reinette Franche, and which 
he says is of an elongated shape, skin marked with a great number of russety spots, 
the most part of which are of a longish figure, so much so, when it is ripe, it 
appears as if variegated with yellow and red ; a character in every way applicable 
to the Barcelona Pearmain. 

BARCHARD'S SEEDLING. —Fruit, below medium size ; roundish 
ovate, with broad obtuse angles on the sides, terminating in knobs 
round the crown. Skin, clear greenish yellow on the shaded side, and 
lemon yellow, striped and suffused with bright crimson, on the side 
next the sun and all the exposed parts. Eye, wide open, set in a 
rather deep plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, half an inch to an inch long, slender, deeply set. Flesh, 
yellowish white, firm, crisp, sweet, and with a fine brisk sub-acid 
flavour, like that of Manks Codlin. Cells, round or obovate ; axile, 
sht. 

An excellent culinary or dessert apple ; ripe in October. The tree is 
a constant bearer. 

It is now much grown in some of the market gardens about London, 
its fine colour making it attractive in the markets. In shape and in 
colour it has a resemblance to the Nonesuch. 

This was raised by Mr. Higgs, gardener to R. Barchard, Esq., Putney Heath, 
Surrey, and was brought into notice by being exhibited by Mr. Alexander Dancer, 
of Fulham, at a meeting of the British Pomological Society, in 1856. 



APPLES. 15 

BARON "WARD. — Fruit, small, two and a quarter inches wide, and 
two inches high ; roundish ovate. Skin, smooth and shining, of a fine 
uniform deep yellow colour, marked with broken streaks of pale red 
Dext the sun. Eye, slightly open, and not much depressed, set in a 
shallow plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, very 
short. Flesh, tender, crisp, juicy, and agreeably acid. Cells, elliptical ; 
axile. 

This is an excellent apple for culinary purposes, but its small size is 
a great objection to it. It is in use from January till May. 

This was raised, from Dumelow's Seedling, in 1850, by Mr. Samuel Bradley, 
at Elton Manor, Nottingham, and first exhibited at the British Pomological Society, 
May 5th, 1859. 

BARTON'S INCOMPARABLE.— Fruit, below medium size; in 
shape somewhat like a Golden Pippin, ovate or conical, with obtuse 
ribs on the sides, which terminate in ridges round the eye. Skin, 
yellowish green, covered with patches of pale brown russet, thickly 
strewed with large russety freckles, like the Barcelona Pearmain, and 
tinged with orange next the sun. Eye, small, open, with erect seg- 
ments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a narrow and angular basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, nearly three-quarters 
of an inch long, inserted in a narrow and round cavity. Flesh, yel- 
lowish white, tender, crisp, brittle, very juicy, and when eaten is quite 
a mouthful of lively, vinous juice. Cells, roundish ovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of the highest excellence ; in use from October to 
February. 

The tree is a good and healthy grower, attains a considerable size, 
and is an excellent bearer. 

This variety seems to be but little known, and, considering its excellence, too 
rarely cultivated. I am not aware that it exists in any of the nurseries, or that it 
was at any period extensively propagated. The only place where I ever met with 
it was in the private garden of the late Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith, whence I pro- 
cured grafts from a tree in the last stage of decay. 

BASCOMBE MYSTERY.— Fruit, two inches and a half wide, and 
two inches high ; roundish oblate, obscurely ribbed on the sides, and 
with ridges round the eye. Skin, of an uniform grass green colour, 
changing to greenish yellow as it ripens. Eye, closed, with erect 
segments, which are pointed and reflexed at the tips, and set in a 
narrow, shallow, and ribbed basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, 
conical. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, set in a wide and deep 
cavity. Flesh, tender, crisp, juicy, sweet, and with a delicate perfume. 
Cells, round ; axile, closed. 

An excellent dessert apple, with tender flesh ; ripe in November and 
December. 

BASTARD FOXWHELP.— Fruit, small, an inch and three-quarters 
wide, and an inch and a half high ; oblate, sometimes inclining to 
roimdish, even and regularly formed. Skin, smooth, and shining as 



16 



THE FEUIT MANUAL. 



if varnished, entirely covered with bright crimson, and striped with 
darker crimson on the side exposed to the sun ; but on the shaded 
side it is greenish yellow striped with crimson ; the stalk cavity only 
is lined with russet. Eye, very small, and closed with short connivent 
segments. Stamens, marginal; tube, conical. Stalk, very long and 
slender at its insertion and throughout its length, except at the end ; 
inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, stained with red ; firm, 
and unusually acid. Cells, round ; axile, slit. 
A Herefordshire cider apple. 

BAUMANN'S REINETTE.— Fruit, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and an inch and three-quarters high ; oblate, with blunt angles on the 
sides, which extend to the crown, and form ridges round the eye. Skin, 
smooth, bright yellow, tinged with bright red on the shaded side, and a 
briUiant red cheek on the side next the sun, with a large stellate patch 
of russet over the base, the whole surface strewed with imbedded pearly 
specks. Eye, small and closed, with erect pointed segments, and set 
in a narrow, rather deep, and ribbed basin. Stamens, marginal; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, inserted in a deep 
narrow cavity. Flesh, white, crisp, juicy, and with a pleasant aroma. 
Cells, oblate ; axile, open. 

A good but not high-class dessert apple. It is, however, very 
beautiful, and in the eye and round the crown resembles Pomme de 
Neige. It is ripe in the end of November, and keeps till March. 

It was raised by MM, Baumann, of Bolwyller, in Alsace. 

BAXTER'S PEARMAIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a 
half wide, and the same high ; roundish ovate or conical, ^nd slightly 
angular. Skin, pale green, but tinged with red, and marked with a 
few indistinct streaks of darker red on the side exposed to the sun. 
Eye, open, with long spreading segments, and placed in a moderately 
deep basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and 
thick, not deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, firm, brisk, and sugary, 
and with an abundance of pleasantly acid juice. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent apple, suitable either for culinary purposes or the des- 
sert ; in use from November to March. 

The tree is hardy, vigorous, a most abundant bearer, and even in 
seasons when other varieties fail this is almost safe to ensure a plen- 
tiful crop. It is extensively cultivated in Norfolk, and deserves to be 
more generally known in other districts of the country. 

Bay. See Brap (TOr. 

Bayfordbury Pippin. See Golden Pippin. 

BEACHAMWELL {Motteux's Seedling). — Fruit, small, about two 
inches wide, and the same in height ; ovate or conical, handsomely and 
regularly formed. Skin, greenish yellow, covered with patches and 
dots of russet, particularly round the eye. Eye, small and open, set 



APPLES. 17 

in a sliallow, narrow, and even basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, about half an inch to three-quarters long, almost 
imbedded in a round cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, crisp, 
and very juicy, with a rich, brisk, and sugary flavour. Cells, oblate ; 
axile. 

A rich and deUciously flavoured dessert apple, of the highest excel- 
lence ; in use from December to March. 

The tree is perfectly hardy, a healthy and vigorous grower, but does 
not attain a large size ; it is an excellent bearer. 

This variety was raised by John Motteux, Esq., of Beachamwell, in Norfolk, 
where, according to Mr. George Lindley, the original tree still existed in 1831. 
It is not very generally cultivated, but ought to form one even in the smallest 
collection. 

BEAUTY OF KENT.— Fruit, large ; roundish ovate, broad and 
flattened at the base, and narrowing towards the apex, where it is 
terminated by several prominent ridges. Skin, deep yellow slightly 
tinged with green, and marked with faint patches of red on the shaded 
eide ; but entirely covered with deep red, except where there are a few 
patches of deep yellow, on the side next the sun. Eye, small and 
closed, with short erect segments, and set in a narrow and angular 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, deep, conical. Stalk, short, inserted 
in a wide and deep cavity, which, with the base, is entirel}'' covered 
with brown russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and juicy, with a plea- 
sant sub-acid flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

A valuable and now well-known culinary apple ; in use from October 
to February. When well-grown, the Beauty of Kent is perhaps the 
most magnificent apple in cultivation. Its great size, the beauty of its 
colouring, the tenderness of the flesh, and a profusion of sub-acid juice, 
constitute it one of our most popular winter apples for culinary purposes, 
nnd one of the most desirable and useful, either for a small garden, or 
for more extended cultivation. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, attains a large size, and 
is a good bearer ; but I have always found it subject to canker 
when grown on the paradise stock, and in soils which are moist and 
heavy. 

I have not been able to ascertain the time when, or the place where, this variety 
originated. It is first noticed by Forsvth in his Treatise on Fruit Trees, but is not 
mentioned in any of the nurserymen's catalogues, either of the last or the early 
part of the present century. It was introduced to the Brompton I'ark Nursery 
about the year 1820, and is now as extensively cultivated as most other leading 
varieties. In America, Downing says, " the fruit in this climate is one of the 
most magnificent of all a])ples, frequently measuring sixteen or eighteen inches in 
circumfert-nce." Tliis has a good deal of resemblance to the liambour Franc of 
the French pomologisis. 

BEAUTY OF WALTHAM.— Fruit, medium sized, of a slight 
Pearmain shape, flattened at both ends ; large, being somewhat 
angular. Skin, greenish yellow, streaked and flushed with crimson 
on the side next the sun. Eye, large, open, deeply set. Stalk, 

2 



18 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

very long and slender, deeply set in a very regularly formed cavity. 
Flesh, soft, yellowish, sweet, and pleasant, but somewhat wanting 
in juiciness. A very pretty apple for dessert use in September and 
October. 

This was raised by Mr. William Paul, of Waltham Cross, and exhibited by him. 
at the Royal Horticultural Society in 1868. 

BEDFORDSHIRE FOUNDLING {Cambridge Pippin).— Frmir 
large, three inches and a quarter wide, and three inches and a half 
high ; roundish ovate, inclining to oblong, with irregular and pro- 
minent angles on the side, which extend to the apex, and form ridges 
round the eye. Skin, dark green at first, and changing as it attain* 
maturity to pale greenish yellow on the shaded side ; but tinged with 
orange on the side next the sun, and strewed with a few fawn-coloured 
dots. Eye, open, set in a deep, narrow, and angular basin. Stamens^ 
basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh,, 
yellowish, tender, pleasantly sub-acid, and with a somewhat sugary 
flavour. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from Novem- 
ber to March. 

BEDFORDSHIRE TWIN.— This is a true twin fruit, being twa 
apples on one stalk, and so closely united at the base and on one sid& 
as to form one apple with two perfectly distinct eyes. The section is 
three inches and a quarter long, by two inches and an eighth deep.. 
Skin, yellow, strewed with russet dots, and streaked with red. Eye^ 
with erect half open segments set in a deep depression. Stamens, mar- 
ginal ; tube, short, conical. Stalk, very short, and quite imbedded in 
the cavity. Flesh, firm, pleasantly sub-acid, and with a good though 
not a rich flavour. Cells, axile, closed. 

A very firm, solid, long-keeping apple, continuing in use till 
April. 

This curious apple was sent me in 1877 by Mr. G. B. Clarke, a chemist and 
druggist, of Woburn, Bedfordshire. It is totally distinct from the Cluster Golden 
Pippin, which frequently produces the fruit in pairs, for almost invariably the Bed- 
fordshire Twin is in this condition. Mr. Clarke informed me that he found this ir* 
the garden of Mr. Bowler, a butcher at Husboriie Crawley, near Woburn, who' 
about twenty years previously obtained the grafts from the orchard of a Mr. George,, 
who lived at Bythorne, near Huntingdon. 

The twin fruits vary considerably in the degree of the twin development. Ii> 
some there is the mere suspicion of a swelling surmounted with a small " eye" ; 
others have a small twin the size of a hazel nut attached to one four times its size^ 
while the perfect apple is in pairs of equal size. 

BELLE BONNE (Winte?- Belle Bonne; Bellijhand ; Uolland). — 
Fruit, above medium size, from two and a half to three inches wide,, 
and two and three-quarters to three and a quarter high ; conical, 
even and regular in its outline ; narrow at the crown. Skin, thick, 
smooth, with only a few traces and thin patches of russet network 
here and there, pale greenish yellow, and marked with a few reddish, 
streaks on the side next the sun, and sometimes it has a brownish 



APPLES. 19 

tingo on the exposed side near the stalk, which, when the fruit is ripe, 
becomes lively red. Eye, small and closed, with flat segments set in 
a narrow, plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, half an inch long, slender, and sometimes obliquely inserted 
under a fleshy lip. Flesh, white, firm, juicy, crisp, and well flavoured. 
Cells, roundish ovate ; axile. 

A valuable culinary apple ; in use from October to January. The 
tree is very hardy, a strong, vigorous, and healthy grower, and a good 
bearer. 

This is a very old English variety. It was known to Parkinson so early as 1629, 
and also to Worlidge and Bay. Bat it is not noticed by any subsequent author, 
nor in any of the nursery catalogues of the last century, until discovered by 
George Lindlcy, growing in a garden at Gatton, near Norwich, and published 
by him in the Transactions of the London Horticultural Society, vol. iv., p. 58. 
He seems to be uncertain whether it is the Summer or Winter Belle Bonne of these 
early authors, but Worlidge's description leaves no doubt as to its identity. He 
says, " The Summer Belle et Bonne is a good bearer, but the fruit is not long 
lasting. The Winter Belle and Bon is much to be preferred to the Summer in 
every respect." I have no doubt, therefore, that the latter is the Belle Bonue of 
Lindley. Parkinson says " they are both fair fruit to look on, being yellow, and 
of a meane (medium) bignesse." 

BELLEDGE PIPPIN. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and two inches high ; roundish, narrowing a little towards 
the apex, regularly and handsomely formed. Skin, pale green, changing 
to yellow as it ripens, with a tinge of brown where exposed to the sun, 
and strewed with grey russety dots. Eye, small, partially closed with 
short segments, and placed in a round, narrow, and rather shallow 
basin. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a round and deep cavity. 
Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, soft, brisk, sugary, and aromatic. 

An excellent, but not first-rate, apple ; suitable either for the dessert 
or culinary purposes. It is in use from November to March. 

Belle Dubois. See Gloria Mundi. 

BELLE GRIDELINE. — Fruit, medium sized ; round and regularly 
formed. Skin, clear yellow, marbled and washed with clear red, and 
intermixed with thin grey russet next the sun. Eye, set in a deep, 
round basin. Stalk, slender, deeply inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, 
white, firm, crisp, and briskly flavoured. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in season from December to March. The 
tree is healthy and vigorous, of the middle size, and an excellent bearer. 

This beautiful variety was first brought into notice by Mr. George Lindley, who 
found it growing in a small garden near Surrey Street Gates, Norwich, where it 
had originated about the year 1770. Mr. Lindley first propagated it in 1793, and 
the original tree died about seven years afterwards. 

Bell's Scarlet. See Scarlet Pearmain, 

BENNET APPLE. — Fruit, rather small, conical, irregularly shaped, 
broad at the base, and narrow at the apex, but sometimes broader at 
the middle than either of the extremities, with distinctly five angles. 



20 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

which terminate at the eye. Skin, yellow, dingy-coloured russety grey 
in the shade, and on the sunny side deep clear red, with numerous 
streaks and patches of orange colour and muddy red. Eye, small and 
nearly closed, with very short, flat segments. Stamen's, marginal ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, and very slender, sometimes 
obliquely inserted by the side of a prominent protuberance. Flesh, 
yellowish, with a greenish tinge under the skin, tender, juicy, sweet, 
and without much acidity. Cells, elliptical ; axile. 
The specific gravity of the juice is 1073. 

This is a good cider apple, and produces liquor of great excellence when mixed 
with other varieties. It is chiefly grown in the deep strong soils of the south-west 
part of Herefordshire, and is common in the district known as the Golden Vale. 
Knight says it was a very old variety, and was known previous to the 17th century, 
but I have not been able to find any record of it in the early works on Pomology. 

BENONI. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half wide, 
by two and a quarter high ; roundish oblate, even and regular in its 
outline except at the crown, where it is somewhat undulating, and 
generally higher on one side than the other. Skin, when fully ripe, 
rich yellow, with a crimson cheek where exposed to the sun, with 
short, broken streaks of darker crimson ; here and there, especially 
towards the crown, there are patches of russet. Eye, closed, with 
flat segments, set in a rather deep and irregular basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter to half an inch 
long, very slender, and deeply inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, very tender and delicate, sweet, brisk, with a remarkably high 
perfume, Hke that of pine apple. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A delicious dessert apple, ripe in September. 

This is an American apple, and originated at Dedham, in Massachusetts. It 
■was introduced to this country by Mr. Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, to whom I am 
indebted for the specimens from which this description is taken. 

BENWELL'S PE ARM AIN. — Fruit, medium sized; Pearmain- 
shaped. Skin, dull green, with broken stripes of dull red on the side 
next the sun. Eye, small, set in a shallow and slightly plaited basin. 
Stalk, deeply inserted in a round cavity, scarcely protruding beyond 
the base. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, juicy, brisk, and aromatic. 

A dessert apple ; in use from December to January. 

It received its name from a gentleman of the name of Benwell, of Henley-on- 
Thames, from whom it was received and brought into cultivation by Kirke, a 
nurseryman at Brompton. 

BERE COURT PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized ; round, and slightly 
flattened. Skin, pale green, and changing to yellow as it ripens, with 
stripes of red next the sun. Eye, open, placed in a wide and shallow 
basin. Stalk, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, crisp, juicy, and 
briskly acid. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use during September and October. 

This variety was raised by the Rev, S. Breedon, D.D., of Bere Court, near 
Pangbourne, in Berkshire. 



APPLES. 21 

BESS POOL. — Fruit, above medium size, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and nearly three inches high ; roundish ovate, inclining 
to conical, and handsomely shaped. Skin, yellow with a few markings 
of red on the shaded side ; but where exposed to the sun it is almost 
entirely washed and striped with fine clear red. Eye, small and par- 
tially open, with erect convergent segments, set in a rather deep and 
plaited basin, which is surrounded with five prominent knobbed plaits. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and thick, 
inserted in a rather shallow cavity, with generally a fleshy protuberance 
on one side of it, and a knobbed end, and surrounded with yellowish 
brown russet, which extends over a considerable portion of the base. 
Flesh, white, sometimes stained with red tinder the skin, tender, and 
juicy, with a sweet vinous flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile, open, or abaxile. 

A very handsome and excellent apple, either for culinary or dessert 
use. It is in season from November to March. 

The tree is hardy, a vigorous grower, but an indifi'erent bearer till it 
is old. The flowers are very late in expanding, and are, therefore, not 
liable to be injured by spring frosts ; but they are so crowded in 
clusters, and the stalks are so slender and weak, they sufl'er much if 
attacked by honeydew or aphis. 

This is a Nottinghamshire apple. In a communication I received from the late 
Mr. J. R. Pearson, of Chilwell, he says, " My father became so in love with the 
Bess Pool that he planted it largely. lie used to tell how a girl named Bess Pool 
found in a wood the seedling tree full of ripe fruit ; how, showing the apples in her 
father's house — he kept a village inn — the tree became known, and my grandfather 
procured grafts. lie would then show the teven first-planted trees of the kind in 
one of our nurseries ; tell how Loudon had been to see them and given an account 
of them in his Gardeners^ Magazine ; make his visitors try to clasp round their 
boles, and measure the space covered by their branches. He would then boast how, 
one season, when apples were very scarce, the fruit of these trees was sold at 7s. 6d. 
a peck, and made £70, or an average of £10 a tree. 

" So far from thinking the Bess Pool a regular bearer, I believe it to be a very 
uncertain one, and anything but a profitable one to plant." 

BEST BACHE {Bache's Kernel).— Fruit, medium sized ; oblong, 
with obtuse angles on the sides, which extend to the apex. Skin, 
yellow, shaded with pale red, and streaked with darker red, interspersed 
with a few black specks. Eye, small, segments short and flat. Stalk, 
short and stout. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 1073. 

A cider apple, grown in the south-east part of Herefordshire. 

BETSEY. — Fruit, small, about two inches wide, and an inch and 

three-quarters high ; roundish, inclining to conical and flattened. 
Skin, dark green at first, and considerably covered with ashy grey 
russet, but changing to pale yellow, and with a brownish tinge on the 
side next the sun. Eye, open, with short reflexed segments, and set in 
a very shallow depression. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, short, about a quarter of an inch long, with a fleshy protuberance 
on one side of it, and inserted in a shallow and narrow cavity. Fleshy 



22 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

greenish yellow, tender, juicy, rich, and sugary. Cells, open, pointed, 
oblato-obovate. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, in use from November to 
January. 

BETTY GEESON.— Fruit, two inches and three-quarters wide, 
and two inches high, quite flat and with obtuse ribs on the sides. 
Skin, smooth and shining, of a fine bright yellow colour, and a deep 
blush on the side next the sun. Eye, large, open, with divergent 
segments, and set in a deep, wide, and irregular basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, over half an inch long, slender, 
deeply set in a wide cavity. Flesh, white, tender, sweet, and with a 
brisk acidity. Cells, obovate, open. 

A valuable late-keeping kitchen apple, which continues in use till 
April or May. The tree is a great bearer, and from its small growth 
is well adapted for bush culture. 

In the last edition of this work I described Betty Geeson as a Yorkshire apple. 
It is really a "Worcestershire variety, and was sent to a meeting of the British 
Pomological Society, in 1854, by Dr. Davies, of Pershore, by whom grafts were 
distributed among the members of the Society. 

Bide's Walking-stick. See Burr-knot, 

BIGGS'S NONESUCH.— Fruit, medium sized ; round, and broadest 
at the base. Skin, yellow, striped with bright crimson next the sun. 
Eye, open, with long reflexed segments, set in a wide and deep basin. 
Stalk, short and deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and 
jiiicy. 

An excellent culinary apple, in use from October to December. It 
is fit for use immediately it is gathered ofi" the tree, and has a strong 
resemblance to the old Nonesuch, but keeps much longer. 

The tree is hardy and an excellent bearer ; attains to the medium 
size, and is less liable to the attacks of the woolly aphis than the old 
Nonesuch. 

This variety was raised by Mr. Arthur Biggs, gardener to Isaac Swainson, 
Esq., of Twickenham, Middlesex. 

BIRDSTOW WASP {Wasp Apple).— Yxmi, large, three inches and 
a quarter wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish oblate, 
irregular in its outline, having several prominent ribs which extend to 
the crown, but sometimes the shape is more regular. Skin, smooth, 
deep lemon yellow where shaded, and with a red cheek where exposed 
to the sun, and which is splashed with broken streaks of crimson. 
Eye, large, with broad convergent segments set in a pretty deep 
angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very 
short, set in a shallow, narrow cavity. Flesh, soft and tender, mild, 
and with little or no flavour. Cells, ovate, large, abaxile, and Codlin- 
like. 
I^An early cooking apple, ripe in September and October. 



APPLES. 28 

This derives its name from the parish of Birdstow, near Ross, Herefordshire, 
and is called " the Wasp Apple," because these insects are so fond of it. The 
skin is greasy when handled, and leaves the apple scent on the hands. 

BIRMINGHAM PIPPIN (Grumass Pippin,; Brummage Pippin; 
Grumvuuje Pippin ; Stone Pippin). — Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and an inch and three-quarters high ; round, and slightly 
flattened. Skin, pale dingy yellow, mottled and veined with very thin 
grey russet, and russety round the base. Eye, small, quite open, 
frequently without any segments, and placed in a very slight depres- 
sion. Stalk, short, scarcely at all depressed. Flesh, greenish, very 
firm, crisp, and juicy, briskly and pleasantly flavoured. 

A very good dessert apple : in use from January to June. 

It is remarkable for the firmness and density of its flesh, and Mr. 
Lindley says its specific gravity is greater than that of any other apple 
with which he was acquainted. 

The tree is of diminutive size, with short but very stout shoots. It 
is a good bearer. 

This variety is supposed to be a native of Warwickshire. It is what is generally 
icnown in the nurseries under the name of Stone Pippin. 

Black Blenheim. See Hambledon Peux Ans. 

BLACK CRAB. — Fruit, small, roundish, regular in its outline. Skin, 
of a dark mahogany colour, sometimes approaching black next the 
«un ; and greenish fawn where shaded. Eye, small and closed, with 
abort erect segments. Stamens, median ; tube, long, conical. Stalk, 
Tery short and stout. Flesh, greenish yellow ; sub -acid. Cells, ovate ; 
axile, closed. 

An apple of inferior quality which keeps till Christmas. 

BLACK FOXWHELP. — Fruit, small, roundish ovate, inclining to 
short conical ; even in its outline, slightly angular towards the crown, 
where it is prominently plaited round the eye. Skin, smooth and 
rather shining, of a dark mahogany colour on the side next the sun ; 
"but on the shaded side greenish yellow, covered with broad broken 
streaks of bright crimson. Eye, small and rather open, with some- 
what connivent segments prominently set. Stamens, median ; tube, 
very short, conical. Stalk, short and slender, set in a shallow cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, sometimes with a greenish tinge, and briskly acid. 
■Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

Black Jack. See Winter Colman, 

BLACK NORMAN. — Fruit, roundish, nearly oblate ; obscurely 
ribbed, especially round the eye. Skin, smooth and shining, unctuous 
to feel after the fruit has been gathered ; dull mahogany red on the 
side next the sun, and gradually becoming paler towards the shaded 
«ide, which is green and slightly mottled with red. Eye, closed, with 



24 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

long leafy convergent segments set in a rather deep irregular basin. 
Stamens, median; tube, short, conical. Stalk, nearly an inch long, 
slender, set in a wide, funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender, 
juicy, and crisp, with a faint sweetness. Cells, ovate ; axile. 
A Herefordshire cider apple. 

BLACK TAUNTON {Taunton Black),— Froii, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches high ; roundish oblate, even and regular, 
but undulating round the apex. Skin, very prettily coloured with 
crimson, and streaked with darker crimson, which streaks extend to 
the shaded side and mingle with the rich yellow ground colour ; the 
surface prettily speckled with large fawn-coloured dots. Eye, open or 
closed, the segments being sometimes erect and sometimes connivent, 
set in a pretty deep depression, which is angular. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, and inserted 
in a deep, wide, funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with cinnamon- 
coloured russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, with a mild acidity. Cells, 
open, ovate; axile. 

A popular Somersetshire cider apple. 

Blanche de Leipsic. See Borsdorfer. 

BLAND'S JUBILEE {Jubilee Pippi7i).— Fruit, large, three inches 
and a quarter wide, and two inches and three-quarters high; round, 
narrowing a little towards the eye, and obscurely ribbed. Skin, dull 
yellow tinged with green, but changing to clear yellow as it ripens ; 
marked with russet in the basin of the eye, and strewed over its 
surface with large russety dots. Eye, small and closed, with long 
acuminate segments, set in a narrow, deep, and even basin. Stalk, 
short, inserted in a moderately deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
crisp, juicy, sugary, and perfumed. 

An excellent apple, either for culinary purposes or the dessert. It 
is in use from October to January. 

This was raised by Michael Bland, Esq., of Norwich. The seed was sown on 
the day of the jubilee which celebrated the 50th year of the reign of George III., 
in 1809, and the tree first produced fruit in 1818. It is not a variety which is met 
within general cultivation, but deserves to be more widely known. 

Blenheim Orange. See Blenheim Pippin, 

BLENHEIM PIPPIN {Blenheim Orange; Woodstock Pippin; 
Northwick Pippin; Kempster's Pippin). — Fruit, large, being generally 
three inches wide, and two and a half high ; globular, and some- 
what flattened, broader at the base than the apex, regularly and 
handsomely shaped. Skin, yellow, with a tinge of dull red next the 
sun, and streaked with deeper red. Eye, large and open, with short 
stunted segments, placed in a round and rather deep basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and stout, rather deeply 
inserted, and scarcely extending beyond the base. Flesh, yellow, 
crisp, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly acid. Cells, open, obovate ; axile. 



APPLES. 25 

A very valuable and highly esteemed apple, either for the dessert or 
culinary purposes, but, strictly speaking, more suitable for the latter. 
It is in use from November to February. 

The common complaint against the Blenheim Pippin is that the tree 
is a bad bearer. This is undoubtedly the case when it is young, being 
of a strong and vigorous habit of growth, and forming a large and 
very beautiful standard ; but when it becomes a little aged, it bears 
regular and abundant crops. It may be made to produce much earlier, 
if grafted on the paradise stock, and grown either as an open dwarf or 
an espalier. 

This valuable apple was first discovered at Woodstock, in Oxfordshire, and 
received its name from Blenheim, the seat of the Duke of Marlborough, which is 
in the immediate neigbbourhood. It is not noticed in any of the nursery cata- 
logues of the last century, nor was it cultivated in the London nurseries till about 
the year 1818. 

The following interesting account of this favourite variety appeared some years 
ago in the Gardeners^ Chronicle : — '* In a somewhat dilapidated corner of the 
decaying borough of ancient Woodstock, within ten yards of the wall of Blenheim 
Park, stands all that remains of the original stump of that beautiful and justly 
celebrated apple, the Blenheim Orange. It is now entirely dead, and rapidly 
falling to decay, being a mere shell about ten feet high, loose in the ground, and 
having a large hole in the centre ; till within the last three years, it occasionally 
sent up long, thin, wiry twigs, but this last sign of vitality has ceased, and what 
remains will soon be the portion of the woodlouse and the worm. Old Grimmett, 
the basket-maker, against the comer of whose garden-wall the venerable relict is 
supported, has sat looking on it from his workshop window, and while he wove the 
pliant osier, has meditated, for more than fifty successive summers, on the muta- 
bility of all sublunary substances, on juice, and core, and vegetable, as well as 
animal, and tlesh, and blood. He can remember the time when, fifty years ago, he 
was a boy, and the tree a fine, full-bearing stem, full of bud, and blossom, and fruit, 
and thousands thronged from all parts to gaze on its ruddy, ripening, orange burden ; 
then gardeners came in the spring-tide to select the much-coveted scions, and to 
hear the tale of his horticultural child and sapling, from the lips of the son of the 
white-haired Kempster. But nearly a century has elai>sed since Kempster fell, like 
a ripened fruit, and was gathered to his fathers. He lived in a narrow cottage 
garden in Old Woodstock, a plain, practical, labouring man ; and in the midst of 
his bees and flowers around him, and in his * glorioua pride,' in the midst of his 
little garden, he realised Virgil's dream of the old Corycian : * Et regum equabat 
opes animis.' 

" The provincial name for this apple is still * Kempster^s Pippin,'' a lasting monu- 
mental tribute and inscription to him who first planted the kernel from whence it 
sprang." 

Bonnet Carre. See Calville Blanche d'Hiver, 

Borowitsky. See Duchess of Oldenburg. 

BORDEN PIPPIN. — Fruit, two inches and a quarter wide, and 

two inches and a half high ; conical, even, and regular in its outline, 
and frequently larger and longer on one side of the axis than the 
other. Skin, quite covered with dark bright crimson, thickly sprinkled 
with large fawn-coloured russet dots, and patches of russet of the same 
colour on the side next the sun, and yellow streaked with red on the 
shaded side. Eye, small and closed, with convergent segments set 
almost level with the surface. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel- 



26 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

fihaped. Stalk, very short, generally with a swelling of the flesh on 
one side of it. Flesh, firm, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly flavoured. 
Cells, roundish elliptical ; axile, open. 

It is a good market apple in use at Christmas. 

I received it from Mr. Killick, of Langley, near Maidstone, and I believe it 
takes its name from the village of Borden, near Sittingboume. 

Borsdorf. See Borsdorfer. 

Borsdorf Hative. See Borsdorfer, 

BORSDOKFER {Borsdorf Hative; Queen's Apple; Bed Bors- 
dorfer; Borsdorf; Postophe d'Hiver; Pomme de prochain; Beinette 
d'Allemagne; Blanche de Leipsic ; Beinette de Misnie ; Grand Bohe- 
mian Borsdorfer ; Garret Pippin; King; Ki7ig George; King George 
the Third). — Fruit, below medium size ; roundish oblate, rather nar- 
rower at the apex than the base, handsomely and regularly formed, 
without ribs or other inequalities. Skin, shining, pale waxen yellow 
in the shade, and bright deep red next the sun ; it is strewed with dots, 
which are yellowish on the sunny side, and brownish in the shade, and 
marked with veins and slight traces of delicate, yellowish-grey russet. 
Eye, large and open, with long reflexed segments, placed in a rather 
deep, round, and pretty even basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a narrow, even, and 
shallow cavity, which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, white with a 
yellowish tinge, crisp and delicate, brisk, juicy, and sugary, and with 
a rich, vinous, and aromatic flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed or slit. 

A dessert apple of the first quality ; in use from November to 
January. 

The tree is a free grower, and very hardy, not subject to canker, and 
attains the largest size. It is very prolific when it has acquired its full 
growth, which, in good soil, it will do in fifteen or twenty years ; and 
even in a young state it is a good bearer. If grafted on the paradise 
stock it may be grown as an open dwarf or an espalier. The bloom is 
very hardy, and withstands the night frosts of spring better than most 
other varieties. 

This, above all other apples, is the most highly esteemed in Germany. Diel 
calls it the Pride of the Germans. It is believed to ha-ve originated either at a 
village of Misnia, called Borsdorf, or at a place of the same name near Leipsic. 
According to Forsyth it was such a favourite with Queen Charlotte that she had a 
considerable quantity of them annually imported from Germany for her own 
private use. It is one of the earliest recorded varieties of the continental authors, 
but does not seem to have been known in this country before the close of the last 
century. It was first grown in the Brompton Park Mursery in 1785. It is men- 
tioned by Cordus, in 1561, as being cultivated in Misnia, which circumstance has 
no doubt given rise to the synonyme *' Beinette de Misnie " ; he also informs us it 
is highly esteemed for its sweet and generous flavour, and the pleasant perfume 
which it exhales. Wittichius, in his '' Methodus Simplicium," attributes to it the 
power of dispelling epidemic fevers and madness ! 

There is a proverb in Germany which says, " Ihre wangen sind so roth wie ein 
Borsdorfer apfel " (Her cheeks are as red as a Borsdorfer apple). 



APPLES. 27 

BOSSOM. — Fruit, large and conical ; handsomely and regularly 
formed. Skin, pale greenish yellow, considerably covered with russet, 
and occasionally marked with bright red next the sun. Eye, set in a 
shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, inserted in a rather 
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, crisp, juicy, and sugary, 
and with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 

An excellent culinary apple, though not of the first quaUty ; in use 
during December and January. The flesh is said to assume a fine 
colour when baked. 

BOSTON nXJ a^ET (RoA'bury Russet: Shippen's Russet; PutmarCs 
Russet). — Fruit, medium sized, three inches and a quarter wide, and 
two inches and a half high ; roundish, somewhat flattened, narrowing 
towards the apex, and slightly angular. Skin, covered entirely with 
brownish yellow russet intermixed with green, and sometimes with a 
faint tinge of reddish brown next the sun. Eye, closed, set in a round 
and rather shallow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, long, slender, and inserted in a moderately deep cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish white, juicy, sugary, briskly, and richly flavoured. Cells, 
elUptical ; axile. 

A very valuable dessert apple, of the first quality, in season from 
January to April, and will even keep till June. It partakes much of 
the flavour of the Ribston Pippin, and, as a late winter dessert apple, 
is not to be surpassed. 

The tree is not large, but healthy, very hardy, and an immense 
bearer, and, when grafted on the paradise stock, is well suited for being 
grown either as a dwarf or an espalier. 

This is an old American variety, and one of the few introduced to this country 
which attains perfection in our climate. It is extensively grown in the neighbour- 
hood of Boston, U.S., both for home consumption and exportation, and realises a 
considerable and profitable return to the growers. 

Bough. See Large Yellow Boiujh, 

BOWES'S NONESUCH.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a half wide, and two inches high ; roundish and angular, particu- 
larly towards the crown, which is ridged and knobbed. Skin, smooth 
and shining, and, when quite ripe, of a pale waxen yellow colour on 
the shaded side, and marked with a few broken streaks of crimson ; 
but where exposed to the sun it is washed almost all over with pale 
red, which is covered with broken streaks of dark crimson. Eye, 
slightly closed, with broad leaf-like segments, and considerably sunk. 
Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, stout, and inserted in a deep round 
russety cavity. Flesh, pale yellowish white, very tender and melting, 
mildly and agreeably acid, with a very delicate flavour. 

A pretty little culinary apple ; in use from October to Christmas. 

This was introduced to me by Mr. M*Ewen, gardener to the Duke of Norfolk, at 
Arundel Castle. 

Bowyer's Golden Pippin. See Bowyei-'s Russet, 



28 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

BOWYER'S RUSSET (Boinjer's Golden Pippin).- -Fvuit, small, 
two inches bigh, and about two and a half broad at the base ; roundish 
ovate. Skin, entirety covered with fine yellow-coloured russet. Eye, 
small and closed, set in a small and slightly plaited basin. Stalk, 
short, inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, greenish white tinged with 
yellow, crisp, brisk, and aromatic. 

A dessert apple of the first quality ; in use during September and 
October. 

The tree attains a good size, is an abundant bearer, very healthy, 
and not subject to canker. 

BRABANT BELLEFLEUR {Glory of Flanders; Iron Apple).— 
Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three and a quarter 
high ; roundish ovate, inclining to oblong or conical, ribbed on the 
sides, and narrowing towards the eye. Skin, greenish yellow, changing 
to lemon yellow as it attains maturity, and striped with red next the 
sun. Eye, large and open, with long broad segments, set in a wide 
and angular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, conical. Stalk, 
short, inserted in a deep and wide cavity, which is lined with brown 
russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a sugary, 
aromatic, and pleasantly sub-acid flavour. Cells, closed, elliptical. 

An excellent culinary apple of the finest quality ; in use from Novem- 
ber to April. 

The tree is hardy, and though not strong, is a healthy grower, 
attaining the middle size, and an excellent bearer. 

This variety was forwarded to the gardens of the London Horticultural Society 
by Messrs. Booth, of Hamburgh. 

BRADDICK'S NONPAREIL {Ditton Nonpareil).— Fmit, medium 
sized ; roundish and flattened, inclining to oblate. Skin, smooth, 
greenish yellow in the shade, and brownish red next the sun, russety 
round the eye, and partially covered, on the other portions of the 
surface, with patches of brown russet. Eye, open, with short broad 
segments, set in a narrow, deep, round, saucer-like basin, which is 
slightly plaited. Stamens, median, or basal ; tube, very short ; 
conical. Stalk, very short, not half an inch long, inserted in a round 
and rather shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, rich, sugary, and aroma- 
tic. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

One of the best winter dessert apples ; in use from November to 
April, and by many considered more sweet and tender than the old 
Nonpareil. 

The tree is quite hardy, a slender grower, and never attains to a 
large size, but is a very excellent bearer. It succeeds well on the 
paradise stock, and is well adapted for dwarfs, or for being grown as 
an espalier. 



This excellent variety was raised by John Braddick, Esq., of Thames Ditton, an 
ardent horticulturist, who died at Boughton Mount, near Maidstone, April 14th, 
1828, aged 63. 



APPLES. 29 

BRAMLEY'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half 
wide, and two inches and a half high ; handsome, and at first sight 
resembling a Blenheim Pippin. It is oblate, even in its outline, and 
with five rather distinct knobs at the crown. Skin, very much covered 
with a tinge of pale red, which is much striped with darker red, and 
where shaded the ground colour is yellow. Eye, rather open, with 
erect segments, which are reflexed at the tips and set in a wide, round, 
saucer-like basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very 
short, sometimes a mere knob. Flesh, with a yellowish tinge, tender, 
and with a fine brisk acidity. Cells, round ; aiile, open. 

A very valuable cooking apple ; in use up till January. 

It is a iVottinghamshire apple, and was sent me by Messrs. Merry weather k Son, 
of Southwell. 

Brandy Apple. See Golden Harvey. 

BREEDON PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and 
two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, and somewhat oblate, broader 
at the base than the apex, where it assumes somewhat of a four-sided 
shape. Skin, deep dull yellow tinged with reddish orange ; inclining 
to red on the side exposed to the sun, and marked with a few traces of 
delicate brown russet. Eye, open, with short ovate reflexed segments, 
which are frequently four in number, set in a broad, shallow, and 
plaited basin. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, inserted in a 
round and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, and with a rich, 
vinous, and brisk flavour, resembling that of a pine-apple. 

This is one of the best dessert apples ; and is in use during October 
and November. It bears some resemblance to the Court of Wick, 
but is considerably richer in flavour than that variety. The tree is 
hardy, a slender grower, and does not attain a large size ; it is, how- 
ever, an excellent bearer. It is well adapted for dwarf training, and 
succeeds well on the paradise stock. 

This esteemed variety was raised by the Rev. Dr. Symonds Breedon, at Bero 
Court, near Pangbourne, Berkshire. 

BREITLING (Lnthrinrjcr Rmnhour ; Weisser Somer Bambour ; 
Eambour Blanc iVJ^te). — Fruit, three inches and a half wide, and 
three inches and a quarter high ; sometimes much larger ; round, with 
obtuse ribs on the sides extending to the apex, round which they form 
prominent ridges. Skin, smooth and shining, of a clear greenish 
lemon yellow when ripe, except on the side exposed to the sun, which 
has a faint blush of thin red. Eye, sometimes open, with erect, 
slightly divergent segments, but generally closed, with long segments 
which overlap each other. Stamens, basal ; tube, large, conical. 
Stalk, very short, quite imbedded in the cavity. Flesh, very tender, 
juicy, and pleasantly acid. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A large handsome kitchen apple of the first quality ; in use in the 
end of September and beginning of October. 



80 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

This is a very popular apple in Germany, whence it was introduced 
by Mr. Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, to whom I am indebted for speci- 
mens of it. It ought to be grown in every garden. The name Breit- 
ling is equivalent to the English word Broading. 

BRENCHLEY PIPPIN.— Fruit, two inches and a half wide, and 
two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, inclining to a cylindrical shape ; 
even and regular in its outline. Skin, greenish on the shaded side, 
and covered on that next the sun with brownish orange strewed with 
russet dots, and with a thin russet coat on the shaded side. Eye, 
closed, with flat convergent segments, which are set in a pretty deep 
plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
short and slender, inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, tender, 
yellowish, with a greenish tinge, tender, juicy, sweet, and well 
flavoured. Cells, elliptical ; axile, slit. 

An excellent dessert apple, which keeps well till May. 

It was first brought to my notice by Mr. Harrison Weir, the artist, who informed 
me that it was raised at Brenchley, in Kent, and is there grown to a considerable 
extent. 

BRICKLEY SEEDLING.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half 
broad, and two inches high ; roundish, even and regular in the outline. 
Skin, greenish yellow in the shade, and red marked with broken streaks 
of dark crimson where exposed to the sun, with a few streaks of red 
where the two colours blend, strewed with large russet dots. Eye, 
small and open, set in a smooth and rather shallow basin, with diver- 
gent segments. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very 
short, inserted in a wide cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, rich, sugary, 
and highly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A very desirable winter dessert apple, of first-rate quality ; it is in use 
from January to April. The tree is hardy and an abundant bearer, 
and the fruit has some resemblance to Court-pendu-plat. 

BRIDGEWATER PIPPIN.— Fruit, large, roundish, and somewhat 
flattened, with prominent ribs on the sides, which extends to the basin 
of the eye. Skin, deep yellow, strewed with russety dots, and with a 
blush of red which sometimes assumes a lilac hue near the stalk. Eye, 
large and open, set in a deep and angular basin. Stalk, rather short, 
inserted in a deep, wide, irregular, and angular cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, briskly and pleasantly flavoured. 

A good culinary apple of second-rate quality ; in use from October 
to December. 

This is a very old English variety, being mentioned by Rea, in 1665^ and of 
which he says, " It is beautiful to the eye, and pleasant to the palat.'* 

BRINGEWOOD PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an 
inch and three-quarters high ; almost round or oblate, a good deal like 
a flattened Golden Pippin, and occasionally conical. Skin, of a fine 
rich yellow colour, covered with greyish dots, russety round the eye. 



APPLE3. 31 

and marked with a few russety dots on the side next the sun. Eye, 
small and open, with reflexed segments, and placed in a shallow basin. 
Stamens, basal, occasionally somewhat marginal ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a moderately deep cavity, which 
is lined with greenish grey russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and 
sugary, with a rich and perfumed flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, 
closed. 

An excellent dessert apple, yery much like Yellow Ingestrie, but is 
in use from January to March. 

The tree is hardy, but a weak and slender grower, and never attains 
a great size. It succeeds well on the paradise stock. 

This is one of the varieties raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., ofDownton 
Castle, Herefordshire, and which he. obtained by impregnating the Golden Pippin 
with the pollen of the Golden Harvey. He considered it a good cider apple. 

BRISTOL PEARMAIN.— Fruit, small, about two inches and a 
quarter wide, and the same in height ; oblong, slightly angular on tho 
side, and ridged round the eye. Skin, dull yellowish green, with a 
few palo stripes of crimson, and considerably covered with patches and 
dots of thin grey russet on the shaded side ; but marked with thin dull 
red, striped with deeper and brighter red, on the side exposed to the 
sun, and covered with numerous dark russety dots. Eye, small and 
closed, with erect, acute segments, set in a deep, round, and plaited 
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity, which is lined with 
thin brown russet, strewed with silvery scales. Flesh, yellow, firm, 
not very juicy, but briskly flavoured. 

An apple of little merit ; in use from October to February. 

The onl J place where I ever met with this variety ia in the neighbourhood of 

Odihani, in Hampshire. 

BROAD-END {Winter Broading ; Kentish Broading\ Brooding). — 
Frait, large, three inches and three-quarters broad, and three inches 
high ; roundish, broadest at the base, and considerably flattened at the 
ends, somewhat oblate. Skin, yellowish green in the shade, but 
tinged with red next the sun, interspersed with a few streaks of red, 
and covered in some places with patches of fine russet. Eye, large 
and open, set in a rather deep and angular basin. Stalk, short, 
inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, rich, 
juicy, and with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 

An excellent culinary apple of the first quality ; in use from November 
to Christmas. 

The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, and an excellent 
bearer. 

Broading. See Broad-end, 

BROAD-EYED PIPPIN.— Fruit, large and oblate. Skin, greenish 
yellow in the shade, with faint streaks of red, and with a bright red 
blush, streaked with darker red, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, 



32 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



large and open, like that of Blenheim Pippin, set in a wide and shallow 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch 
long, slender, set in a rather wide and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish 
white, firm, crisp, brisk, and juicy. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

An excellent culinary apple, of the first size and quality; in use 
from September to January, but said by Forsyth to keep till May. 

This is a very old English variety; it is mentioned by Ray, who makes it 
synonymous with Kirton or Holland Pippin. 

BROCKHEAD (Ihockhead Seedling). — Fruit, below medium size, 
two inches and a half wide, and two and a quarter high ; round, and 
slightly angular in outline. Skin, smooth, rich golden yellow, streaked 
with pale broken streaks of crimson on the side next the sun, strewed 
all over with russet dots, and here and there a few traces of russet. 
Eye, closed, with flat, convergent segments, set in a narrow and plaited 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about 
half an inch long, inserted in a pretty deep russety cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, tender, very juicy, sweet, and briskly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; 
axile. 

A pretty cooking or dessert apple ; in use from November till 
Christmas. A Somersetshire apple. 

BROMLEY. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches high ; roundish and flattened, very uneven and 
angular on the sides, and knobbed both at the crown and the base. 
Skin, of a bright lemon yellow very much covered with crimson, and 
streaked with darker crimson, extending almost over the whole surface, 
but paler on the shaded side, very russety over the base. Eye, closed, 
with broad, flat, convergent segments, set in a deep, angular, and 
narrow basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
long and slender, set in a round deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, 
firm, crisp, very juicy, and with a grateful acidity. Cells, obovate ; 
axile. 

This is one of the best cider apples, and as a sauce apple it is un- 
surpassed. It keeps till February, when it is as hard and firm in the 
flesh as it was in October. 

This is grown in the Gloucestershire and Herefordshire orchards, where it is 
greatly esteemed. 

BROOKE S'S. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the same in 
height; conical. Skin, yellow in the shade, but oraDge, thinly 
mottled with red, next the sun, and considerably covered with thin 
brown russet. Eye, open and prominent, with reflexed segments, and 
placed in a very shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a small, 
round, and shallow cavity, which is lined with rough russet. Flesh, 
yellowish, firm, not very juicy, but with a rich, sweet, and highly 
aromatic flavour. 

A dessert apple of the first quality; in use from September to 



APPLES. 33 

February. Tho tree is a slender grower, and never attains a great 
size, but is a good bearer. 

BROUGHTOX.— Fruit, small, conical, and regularly formed. Skin, 
pale greenish yellow in the shade, but covered with fine, delicate, lively 
red, which is marked with a few streaks of deeper red on the side next 
the sun, and strewed with minute russety dots. Eye, small and closed, 
set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted 
in a round and shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, delicate, 
brisk, sugary, and richly fitivoured. 

A valuable dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from October to 
December. 

BROWN RENTING. — Fruit, above medium size, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, and 
slightly ribbed on the sides. Skin, greenish yellow, marked with 
distinct and well-defined figures, and reticulations of russet, like the 
Fenouillet Jaune, on the bhaded side, and over the base ; but green, 
which is almost entirely covered with a coating of smooth, thin, pale 
brown russet, on the side next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in 
a narrow and shallow basin. Stalk, an inch long, slender and woody, 
inserted in a funnel-shaped cavity, which is of a green colour, and 
very slightly marked with russet. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, and tender, 
with a brisk, somewhat sugary, and pleasant aromatic flavour. 

An excellent dessert apple, of first-rate quaUty ; in use from October 
to Christmas, after which it becomes mealy. 

BROWN'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, two inches and three-quarters 
wide, and two and a quarter high ; roundish oblate, very much of the 
shape of Golden Reinette, even and regular in its outline, except in 
the basin of the eye, where it is slightly ribbed. Skin, lemon yellow 
where shaded, but almost entirely covered with light crimson over 
three-fourths of the surface, and this again is covered with broken 
streaks and blotches of deeper and brighter crimson. Eye, closed, 
with flat and irregular segments, set in a pretty deep, angular, and 
plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half 
an inch long, slender, deeply inserted in a round, even, russety cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish white, fine grained, tender, very juicy, having a plea- 
sant acidity, without much flavour or aroma. Cells, roundish obovate ; 
axile, closed. 

A very handsome apple, excellent for culinary purposes, but of little 
use in the dessert except for appearance. In use during winter. 

It was raised by Messrs. Brown, nurserymen, of Stamford, from whom I received 
it in 1874. 

BROWNLEES'S RUSSET.— Large, roundish ovate, and rather 
flattened. Skin, green and russety, with brownish red next the sun. 
Eye, closed, in a narrow, shallow, plaited basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, short conical. Stalk, short, deeply inserted, with a swelling on 

3 



84 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

one side of it. Flesh, greenish white, tender, juicy, sweet, briskly 
flavoured, and aromatic. Cells, pointed ovate ; axile, open. 

An excellent late apple, suitable either for cooking or the dessert. 
In use from January to May. 

This was introduced by Mr. William Brownlees, a nurseryman at Hemel Hemp- 
sted, Herts, about the year 1848. 

Brown Spice. See Burntisland Spice. 

Brummage Pippin. See Birmingham Pippin. 

BUFF-COAT. — Fruit, medium size, but sometimes large, being 
three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and a half high ; 
oblate or roundish, uneven in its outline from having prominent 
blunt angles on the sides, and unevenly ridged round the crown. Skin, 
greenish yellow, becoming quite yellow when ripe, but so overspread 
with light brown russet as to expose the ground colour in large blotches. 
Eye, half open, with erect flat segments, somewhat recurved at the 
points, set in a rather deep, regular, and plaited basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, more than half an inch long, 
rather slender, and inserted in a deep, round cavity. Flesh, greenish, 
fine grained, crisp, juicy, and sweet, with a good flavour. Cells, 
round ; abaxile. 

An excellent culinary or dessert apple, which keeps till May, but 
is very liable to shrivel. 

BULL'S GOLDEN EEINETTE.— Fruit, exactly similar in shape 
to a medium-sized Blenheim Pippin. Skin, more highly coloured 
than that variety, the side next the sun being covered with a streak 
of deep, brilliant crimson ; on the shaded side it is yellow^, with a 
few broken streaks of pale crimson, the whole surface sparingly dotted 
with rather large grey dots. Eye, quite open, set in a plaited saucer- 
like basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an 
inch long ; inserted in a round, even, and deep cavity ; russety over 
the base. Flesh, yellowish, very tender, juicy, sweet, and with a fine 
aroma. Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

A very handsome apple of the first quaUty, suitable for the dessert ; 
and in use in December and January. 

Bunyard's SeedHng. See Alexandra. 

BURCHARDT'S REINETTE.— Fruit, from two and a quarter 
inches to three inches wide, and from one and a half to two inches 
and a quarter high ; roundish oblate, evenly and regularly formed. 
Skin, greenish yellow, much covered with dark brown russet net- 
work, and large patches of the same. Eye, quite open, with short 
reflexed segments, set in a rather deep saucer-like basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, inserted the whole of its length 



APPLES. 85 

in the cavity. Flesh, tender, crisp, juicy, and when highly ripened of 
a rich and sweet flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of excellent quality when grown in a warm soil and 
favourable situation. 

This was raised by Herr von Hartwiss, director of the roval garden at Nikita, 
and was named in honour of the celebrated pomologist, Herr von Burchardt, of 
Landsberg, on the Warta, 

BURNTISLAND SPICE {Burntisland Pippin: Broivn Spice: 
Book's Nest). — Fruit, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and 
a quarter hi}:jh ; roundish ovate, ribbed on the sides, and puckered at 
the eye. Skin, green, much mottled with dingy brown russet in lines 
and patches. Eye, small and closed, set in a puckered basin ; seg- 
ments, short. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
long and slender, deeply inserted in an uneven cavity. Flesh, very 
tender and loose grained, mealy, and without flavour. Cells, ovate, 
wide open. 

A worthless apple, ripe in October. 

Burntisland Pippin. See Burntisland Spice. 

BURN'S SEEDLING. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, flattened 
at the base, and narrowing towards the apex, sometimes inclining to 
conical. Skin, yellow, but with a blush and a few streaks of red next 
the sun, marked with a few patches of russet, and sprinkled with 
russety dots, which are thickest round the eye. Eye, large and open, 
set in a shallow and irregular basin. Stalk, short, thick, and fleshy, 
generally obliquely inserted by the side of a fleshy swelling, and 
surrounded with a patch of rough russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
juicy, and sub-acid. 

An excellent cuUnary apple, of the first quaUty ; in use from October 
to Christmas. 

This variety was raised by Mr. Ilcnry Burn, gardener to the Marquis of Ayles- 
bury, at Savernake Forest, near Marlborough. 

Bur-Knot. See Oslin. 

BURR-KNOT {Bide's WaUcinrj - stick). —Fmii, large, three inches 
wide, and two inches and a half high ; in shape not unlike Cox's Orange 
Pippin, but sometimes with prominent angles on the sides, which extend 
to the crown, round, and even in its outline. Skin, smooth and shining, 
of a clear lemon yellow colour, and with a blush of red on the side next 
the sun, and thickly strewed with a few russet dots. Eye, open, with 
reflexed segments set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, mar- 
ginal ; tube, deep conical. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, juicy, and of an agreeable acid 
flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile, open. 

A good kitchen apple ; in use during October and November. 



36 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

The tree is a close and compact grower, and a profusion of burrs are produced 
on the branches which emit incipient roots. If a branch furnished with these burrs 
is inserted in the ground it will take root and become a tree. The name of " Bide's 
Walking-stick" originated from a person of that name having cut a branch for 
a walking-stick in Cheshire and brought it to his place near Hertford, when having 
inserted it in the ground, it took root and became a tree. 

Butters. See Baldwin. 

BYSON WOOD RUSSET.— Fruit, below medium size; oblato- 
ovate, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, green, entirely covered 
with ashy grey russet, and strewed with greyish white freckles. Eye, 
small, and slightly closed, set in a round and even basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, slender, inserted 
in a rather shallow and angular cavity. Flesh, greenish, firm, crisp, 
and juicy, with a brisk, sugary, and aromatic flavour. Cells, ovate ; 
axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of the first quality ; in use from December to 
February. 

Caldwell. See Eymer, 

Calville Blanche. See Calville Blanche d'Hiver. 

CALVILLE BLANCHE D'ETE {White Summer Calville). —Fmit, 
medium sized, about three inches broad, and two inches high ; roundish 
and flattened at the ends, with prominent ribs on the sides, which 
extend to the eye and form ridges round the apex — the true character 
of the Calvilles. Skin, tender and dehcate ; when ripe, of a very pale 
straw colour, and without the least tinge of red on the side exposed to 
the sun, but sometimes marked with a few traces of delicate russet, but 
no dots. Eye, large, and closed with long, broad segments, and set in 
a pretty deep and very angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, stout, inserted in a wide 
and rather shallow cavity, which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, 
white, tender, and delicate, with a sweet and pleasant flavour. Cells, 
roundish; axile. 

A very good early culinary apple, but not of the finest quality, being 
too soft and tender ; it is ripe during August, and lasts till the middle 
of September. 

The tree is a very strong and vigorous grower, with a large round 
head, and is an excellent bearer. It is distinguished by its very large 
foliage, the leaves being four and a half inches long by three and a 
quarter broad. 

This is an old continental variety, but has been very little noticed by writers on 
Pomology. It is mentioned in the Jardinier Frangais of 1653, and by De La 
Quintinye ; but the first work in which it is either figured or described is Knoop's 
"Pomologie." Duhamel does not notice it, although it is enumerated in the 
catalogue of the Chartreuse, from whose garden he received the materials for 
producing his work on fruits. 

CALYILLE BLANCHE D'HIVER (Bonriet Carre; Calville 



APPLES. 37 

Blanche; White Calville ; White Winter Calville). — Fruit, largo, three 
iuches and a half wide, and three inches and a quarter hifjh ; roundish 
and flattened, with l>road uneven and unecjual ribs, extending the whole 
length of the fruit, and terminating at the apex in prominent unequal 
ridges. Skin, delicate, pale yellow tinged with green, becoming bright 
golden yellow at maturity, washed with deep red on the side next the 
sun, and strewed with brown dots, and a few markings of greyish white 
russet. Eye, small and closed, with stout and pointed segments, set in 
a deep, irregular, five-ribbed basin, which is surrounded with knobs. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep conical. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch 
long, slender, and inserted the whole of its length in a deep and angular 
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, delicate, and 
juicy, with a rich, hvely, and agreeable aromatic flavour. Cells, obovate ; 
abaxile. 

A valuable winter apple, admirably adapted for all culinary pur- 
poses, and excellent also for the dessert. It is in use from January 
to April. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and a good bearer, but 
does not attain more than the middle size. It is rather liable to canker 
in damp situations, and is better suited for a dwarf than a standard ; if 
grown on the paradise stock the appearance of the fruit is very much 
improved. 

Tliis variety is sometimes called Pumme Glace, which is, however, a distinct 
variety, known by the names of Rouge des Chnrtreux and Pomme de Concombre ; 
it is a form of Calville Blanche d'Hiver, the fruit is about the size of an egg, but 
twice as long. 

CALVILLE MALINGRE (Malimjre d'Anifleten-e). — Fruit, very 
large, elongated, ribbed like the Calville Blanche d'Hiver, but not so 
much flattened as that variety. Skin, a httle yellow on the shaded side, 
and of a beautiful deep red next the sun, which is marked with stripes 
of darker red, strewed all over with minute dots. Eye, small, set in a 
broad, deep, and angular basin, which is surrounded with prominent 
knobs. Stalk, slender, deeply inserted in an angular cavity. Flesh, 
white, delicate, very juicy, and charged with an agreeable acid. 

A culinary apple of the first quality ; in use from January to April, 
and keeps well. 

The tree is a very vigorous grower, much more so than the gene- 
rahty of the Calvilles ; it is very hardy and an abundant bearer, and 
is better adapted for being cultivated as a dwarf than an espalier ; but 
it does not succeed well on the paradise stock. 

According to the French pomologists, this variety seems to have some connec- 
tion with this country, but there is no evidence that it was at any period grown to 
any extent in England, or thixt it was ever known to any of our early pomologists. 
It is said by some that the name malingre is applied to this variety from the fruit 
becoming mealy or unsound, but from the observation in the Chartreux Catalogue, 
" est bonne cuite pour les malades," it is more probable that it is so called from 
being useful to invalids. 

CALVILLE ROUGE D'AUTOMNE {Autumn Calville; Autumn 



38 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Bed Calville). — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three 
and a quarter high ; not so much flattened as the other Calvilles. Skin, 
pale red, with a trace of yellow on the shaded side, but of a beautiful 
deep crimson next the sun, and marked with yellowish dots on the 
shaded side. Eye, half open, set in a rather shallow and ribbed basin, 
which is lined with fine down. Stamens, median or basal ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, rather short, inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which 
is lined with russet. Flesh, white, tinged with red under the skin, and 
very much so on the side which is exposed to the sun ; it is tender, 
delicate, and juicy, with a pleasant, vinous, and violet scented flavour. 
Cells, ovate ; axile, open. 

A culinary apple of inferior quality in this country, but highly 
esteemed on the Continent, both as a culinary and a dessert fruit. It 
is in season during October and November. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and attains the largest 
size. It is also an abundant bearer. To have the fruit in perfection 
it ought to be grown on the paradise stock as an open dwarf, in a fine 
sandy loam, and not too closely pruned. 

CALVILLE EOUGE D'ETE [Bed Calville).— Fruit, medium sized, 
two inches and a half wide, and about the same high ; roundish, nar- 
rowing towards the apex, and with prominent ribs on the sides like the 
other Calvilles. Skin, yellowish white, streaked and veined with red 
on the shaded side, but covered with beautiful deep shining crimson 
on the side next the sun, and strewed with numerous white dots. Eye, 
small and prominent, set in a narrow and wrinkled basin. Stalk, from 
an inch to an inch and a half long, inserted in a deep and narrow cavity, 
which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, white tinged with red, crisp, 
and tender, agreeably and pleasantly flavoured. 

A culinary apple of second-rate quality, ripe during July and August. 
The flesh is stained with red, particularly on the side next the sun, and 
partakes somewhat of the flavour of the strawberry. It is valued only 
for its earliness. The tree is of small habit of growth, but an excellent 
bearer. 

There is great confusion subsisting between this variety and the Passe-pomme 
Rouge, which Duhamel has described under the name of Cahille d'Ete. 

CALYILLE ROUGE D'HIA\ER.— Fruit, large, about three inches 
high, and the same in width ; oblong, but not nearly so much ribbed 
on the sides as the other Calvilles already described. Skin, covered 
with a bluish bloom, deep shinirg crimson on the side next the sun, 
but paler red on the shaded side, and strewed with numerous yellowish 
dots. Eye, large and closed, with long segments set in a deep warted 
and wrinkled basin. Stalk, slender, three-quarters of an inch long, 
inserted in a deep cavity, which is lined with thin brown russet. Flesh, 
greenish white stained with red, not very juicy, tender, vinous, and 
with a pleasant perfumed flavour. 

A culinary apple of second-rate quality, ripe during November and 



APPLES. 89 

December. The tree attains about the middle size, is vigorous and 
healthy in its young state, and is a good bearer. It is well adapted for 
growing as dwarfs on the paradise btock, and requires a rich and warm 
soil. 

CALVILLE ROUGE DE MICOUD.— Fruit, below medium size; 
oblate, and ribbed on the sides. Skin, tough, and bitter tasted, red 
all over ; but of a deeper and darker colour on the side next the sun, 
and streaked and spotted with paler red on the shaded side. Eye, 
open, placed in a wide and deep basin. Stalk, long, inserted in a round 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, and delicate, crisp, sweet, and 
perfumed. 

This cui-ious apple has the extraordinary property of producing 
three crops of fruit in one season. The tirst flowers appear at the 
usual time in April, the second in June, and then for a time it ceases 
to produce any more till the month of August, when it again blooms 
during the whole of that month, September, October, and November, 
until it is checked by the severity of the frosts. The first fruit is 
generally ripe during August ; the second in October, which are about 
the size of a pigeon's egg, and quite as good as the tirst. And so on it 
continues until retarded by the frosts ; but those last produced are rarely 
tit for use. 

This variety was first brought into notice by M. Thoain, of Paris, who says the 
tree oripinaicd on the farm ot the Baroness de Micoud, near La Charitc sur Loire, 
in the deparimeut of Nievre. 

Calville Rouge Precoce. See Early Red Calville. 

Cambridge Pippin. See Bedfordshire Foundling. 

CAMBUSNETHAN VlFFm {]Vatch Apple ; Winter Red-streak).^ 
Fruit, two inches and a quarter to two inches and a half wide, and two 
inches and a half high ; oblate or roundish oblate, even in its out- 
line, and slightly ribbed round the eye. Skin, pale lemon- yellow, with 
a few broken streaks of pale crimson on the side next the sun, and 
roughly russety over the base and round the stalk. Eye, wide open, 
with short divergent segments, which are reflexed, set in a shallow 
saucer-like basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, nearly 
half an inch long, inserted in a narrow shallow cavity. Flesh, tender 
and juicy, with a mild acidity. Cells, roundish obovate or obovate, open. 

A good second-rate dessert apple in the south, but highly esteemed 
in Scotland, where it is called *'Cam'nethan Pippin," from an ancient 
monastery in Stirlingshire, where it is supposed to have originated. It 
is in use from October to January. 

Camuesar. See Rcinette Blanche d'Espagne. 

Canada Reinette. See Reinette de Canada. 

Canadian Reinette. See Reinette de Canada. 



40 THE FRUIT MANUA.L. 

CAPTAIN KERNEL.— Fruit, two inches and a half wide, and two 
inches and a quarter high ; roundish, inclining to oblate, even in its 
outline. Skin, smooth and shining, yellow where shaded, and very 
much streaked and coloured with bright red where exposed to the sun,, 
and here and there marked with a patch of thin russet. Eye, closed^ 
with flat convergent segments, set in a round and rather shallow basin. 
Stamens, basal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, slender, from a 
quarter to half an inch long, inserted in a narrow greenish cavity. 
Flesh, tender, juicy, mildly acid. Cells, obovate, open. 

This is one of the best Gloucestershire cider apples. 

CARAWAY RUSSET. — Fruit, below medium size ; two inches and 
a half wide, and about two inches high ; oblate, even and regular in 
its outline. Skin, covered with a very thin coat of pale brown russet,, 
which is dotted with darker russet ; and on the sun side the colour is 
inclining to orange. Eye, wide open, with long broad reflexed segments, 
set in a pretty deep, wide, and saucer- like basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, and rather slender, inserted, 
in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, rich, juicy, and sweet,, 
with a very fine aroma. Cells, very small, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A dessert apple of great excellence, which keeps till February. 

Carel's Seedling. See Pinner Seedling. 

CARLISLE CODLIN. — Fruit, above medium size ; ovate, flat at- 
the base, irregular and angular on the sides. Skin, smooth and 
unctuous, pale yellow, and strewed with a few russety specks. Eye,, 
closed, set in a narrow, rather deep, and plaited basin. Stalk, very 
short, imbedded in the cavity, which is lined with russet, a few lines. 
of which extend over the base. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, and juicy, 
with a fine, brisk, and sugary flavour. 

A culinary apple of the first quality ; in use from August to- 
December. 

The tree is very hardy, a free grower, and an abundant bearer. As 
it does not attain a great size, it may be grown more closely together 
than most other sorts. It is a dwarf variety of the old English. 
Codlin. 

It is one of the most useful as well as one of the best culinary apples we have, beinj^ 
fit for use when no larger than a walnut, and after attaining their growth continuing 
in perfection as late as Christmas. If blanched in warm water, wlien used smalJ, 
the outer rind slips off, and they may be baked whole ; their colour id then a trans- 
parent green ; and their flavour is exquisite, resembling that of a green apricot. 
When it is about the size of a large nutmeg, it may be made into apple marmalade^ 
or a dried sweetmeat, which rivals the finest Portugal plum. 

CAROLINE. — Fruit, medium sized ; roundish. Skin, fine rich deep 
yellow, streaked with broad patches of red. Eye, small, set in a narrow 
and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity, which is- 
lined with russet. Flesh, firm, brisk, juicy, and highly flavoured. 



APPLES. 41 

A culinary apple of fi rst-rate quality ; in use from November to 
February. 

This variety was named in honour of Caroline, Lady Suffield, the wife of the 
second Lord Suffield, of Blickling and Gunton Hall, Norfolk. She was Lady 
Caroline Ilobart, daughter of the second Earl of Buckinghamshire. 

CASTLE MAJOR. — Fruit, lari,'e, three inches to three and a quarter 
wide, and the same in height ; conical, and prominently ribbed, the 
ribs extending from the base to the apex, where they terminate in the 
form of small knobs in the basin of the eye. Skin, deep yellow over 
the whole surface, except on the side next the sun. where there is a 
blush of reddish orange. Eye, closed, or nearly so, with erect con- 
vergent segments, which are slightly divergent, sot in a narrow knobbed 
ca\ity. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, quite imbedded 
in the deep angular cavity, which is slightly russety. Flesh, white, 
tender, juicy, and with a mild acidity. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

An excellent cooking apple ; in use during October and November. 
It is a favourite among the Kentish orcbardists, and is frequently met 
with in the London markets. 

CATSHEAD. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter broad, and 
the same in height ; oblong, nearly as broad at the apex as at the base, 
with prominent ribs on the sides, which extend into the basin of the eye, 
and terminate in several knobs round the crown. Skin, smooth and unc- 
tuous, pale green, but with a brownish tinge next the sun, and strewed 
with minute russety dots. Eye, large and open, set in a large, angular, 
and rather deep basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical, inclining to 
funnel-shape. Stalk, short and slender for the size of the fruit, inserted 
in a shallow and angular cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, and sweet, with a 
pleasant, acid, and slightly perfumed flavour. Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

One of our oldest and best culinary apples ; it is in use from 
October to January. The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and 
attains the largest size, and though not an abimdant bearer during the 
early period of its growth, it is much more productive as it becomes aged. 

In the Horticultural Society's Catalogue of Fruits, and also in Lindley's Guide 
to the Orchard, this is made synonymous with the Costard of Hay, which is 
undoubtedly an error, the Costard being distinct. 

The Catshcad is one of our oldest varieties, and was always highly esteemed for 
its great size. Phillips, in his poem on Cyder, says — 

" Why should we sing the Thrift, 

Codling or I'omroy, or of pimpled ooat 
The Russet, or the Cafs neaa'a weighty orb. 
Enormous in its growth, for various use 
Tho' these are meet, tho' after full repast, 
Are oft requir'd, and crown the rich dessert." 
In Ellis's "Modem Husbandman," he says the Catshead is "a very useful apple 
to the farmer, because one of them pared and wrapped up in dough serves with 
little trouble for making an apple dumpling, so much in request with the Kentish 
farmer, for l)eing part of a ready meal, that in the cheapest manner satiates the 
keen appetite of the hungry ploughman, both at home and in the field, and, there- 
fore, has now got into such reputation in Hertfordshire, and some other counties, 
that it is hecome the most common food with a piece of bacon or pickle-pork for 
families." 



42 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



0t 



C>. Jfe?*^^ CELLINI. — Fruit, rather above medium size ; roundish, and flat- 
""^tened at both ends. Skin, rich deep yellow, with spots and patches of 
lively red on the shaded side ; and bright red streaked and mottled 
with dark crimson next the sun, with here and there a tinge of yellow 
breaking through. Eye, large and open, with short, acute, and re- 
flexed segments, and set in a shallow and slightly plaited basin. Stalk, 
very short, inserted in a funnel-shaped cavity. Stamens, median, or 
basal ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Flesh, white, tender, very juicy, 
brisk, and pleasantly flavoured, with a somewhat balsamic aroma. Cells, 
roundish or obovate ; axile, open. 

A culinary apple of the first quality ; in use during October and 
November. It is a fine, showy, and handsome apple, bearing a strong 
resemblance to the Nonesuch, from which in all probabihty it was 
raised. It originated with Mr. Leonard Phillips, of Vauxhall. 

Chalmers' Large. See Butch Codlin. 

CHALLENGE PIPPIN.— Fruit, from two and a quarter to two and 
a half inches wide, and two to two and a quarter inches high ; either 
cylindrical or ovate in shape ; even and regular in its outline. Skin, 
smooth and shining, of a bright grass-green ground colour, and entirely 
covered with bright dark crimson streaks on the side next the sun, and 
paler on the shaded side. Eye, open, with divergent segments, set in 
a pretty deep plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a round russety cavity. 
Flesh, greenish, tender, juicy, and pleasantly acid, with a brisk flavour. 
Cells, roundish ; axile, open. 

An excellent culinary apple, grown in Cornwall, and sent to me by 
J. Vivian, Esq., of Hayle. It keeps well till Christmas. 

Charlamowiski. See Duchess of Oldenhimj. 

CHARLEMAGNE. — Fruit, two inches and a quarter wide, and 
under two inches high ; roundish oblate, even and regular in its out- 
line, flattened on the top, and with five prominent round knobs round 
the eye. Skin, of an uniform pale yellow, with a faint blush of rose, 
dotted with deeper red on the side next the sun. Eye, large and 
closed, with broad segments, which are reflexed at the tips, three of 
which are broader, and cover the other two. Stamens, median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, woody, slender, 
and deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, very soft and tender, rather 
sweet, and without much flavour. Cells, elliptical ; axile. 

An early apple ; ripe in the second or third week in August, and 
soon becomes mealy. 

CHAXHILL RED. — Fruit, two inches and three-quarters wide, and 
a little over two inches high ; roundish oblate, even and regularly 
formed. Skin, completely covered with deep crimson, streaked with 



APPLES. 48 

deeper and brighter colour, except where it is shaded, and there it is 
greenish yellow, thinly washed and streaked with red ; green and 
russety round the stalk. Eye, small, with connivent segments, set 
in a round, even, and shallow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and stout, quite imbedded in the narrow 
cavity. Flesh, tender, with a mild sub-acid flavour. Cells, roundish 
obovate ; axile, open. 

A Gloucestershire apple, which was awarded a first-class certificate at Gloucester 
about the year IS 73 fur its excellence for cider. 

CHERRY APPLE {Scarlet Siberian Crab),— Fmii, very small, 
about three-quarters of an inch broad, and the same in height ; 
oblato -oblong. Skin, thin and shining, of a beautiful lemon colour on 
the shaded side, but entirely covered with dark blood-red on the side 
exposed to the sun, and which extends towards the shaded side of a 
fine crimson. Stalk, very slender, an inch and a half long, inserted 
in a small round cavity. Eye, small, with divergent deciduous seg- 
ments, placed in a shallow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. 
Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a very pleasant and hvely 
sub-acid flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A beautiful little apple, more resembling a cherry in its general 
appearance than an apple. It is ripe in October. 

The tree, when full grown, is from fifteen to twenty feet high, and 
produces an abundance of its beautiful fruit. It is perfectly hardy, 
and may be grown on almost any description of soil. It forms a 
beautiful object when grown as an ornamental tree on a lawn or 
shrubbery. 

CHERRY NORMAN. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch 
and a half high ; roundish oblate, narrowing a little towards the crown, 
even and regular in its outline. Skin, smooth, golden yellow, and 
with a bright rose cheek on the side next the sun, which is also some- 
times marked with patches of pale brown russet. Eye, closed, with 
erect convergent segments which are reflexed at the tips, and set in a 
narrow, shallow, plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short 
conical. Stalk, from a quarter to half an inch long, set in a small and 
shallow cavity, generally with a fleshy swelling on one side. Flesh, 
quite white, tender and soft, juicy, and with an astringent as well as a 
sweet taste. Cells, very regular, obovate ; axile, open. 

This pretty little apple, which is so brilliant in colour as to be a 
rival to the Lady Apple, is a Herefordshire cider variety. 

CHERRY PEARMAIN. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and the same in height ; roundish, but occasionally somewhat 
conical, even in its outline, but sometimes bluntly angular. Skin, 
entirely covered with brilliant crimson and broken streaks of darker 
colour, except on the shaded side, where it is rich yellow, flushed and 
streaked with crimson ; the whole of the surface is strewed with 
distinct russet dots. Eye, small, and closed, with connivent segments 



44 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

set in a pretty even basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, short, inserted all its length in a russet-Hued cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, stained with red at the eye, and with a red line extending all 
round the core, tender, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, roundish or 
roundish obovate ; axile, open. 
A Herefordshire cider apple. 

CHRISTIE^S PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and two inches high ; oblate and roundish, without angles, 
and handsomely shaped. Skin, yellow, tinged with green on the 
shaded side ; occasionally streaked and mottled with red next the sun, 
and speckled all over with large russety dots. Eye, open, with short 
erect segments, set in a round, even, and rather shallow basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep conical. Stalk, short and slender, 
not protruding beyond the margin, inserted in a deep cavity, which is 
lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, brisk, juic}', sugary, 
and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of the first quality ; in use from December to 
February. The tree is an abundant bearer, but constitutionally weak, 
a delicate grower, and subject to canker and mildew. On the paradise 
stock it forms a beautiful, compact, and handsome little pyramid. 
It was raised by a Mr. Christie, at Kingston-on-Thames. 

Christ's Golden Reinette, See Dutch Migjionne. 

Chucket Egg. See Teuchat's Egg. 

Claremont. See Winter Greening. 

CLARKE'S PIPPIN. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and an inch and three-quarters high ; oblate or roundish, even and 
symmetrical in its outline. Skin, with a bright green ground, which 
becomes paler and yellowish as it ripens, especially on the shaded 
side, and the whole surface is covered with veins and mottles of rough 
brown russet, interspersed with grey russet dots. Eye, set in a round 
even saucer-like basin with broad convergent segments whice close the 
eye. Stamens, quite basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short and slender, 
inserted the whole of its length in a round deep cavity. Flesh, 
greenish, firm, crisp, very juicy, and brisk, with a fine flavour. Cells, 
obovate, very full of seeds ; axile, closed. 

A Herefordshire dessert apple. It keeps till Christmas. 

CLAYGATE PEARMAIN.— Fruit, medium sized; Pearmain-shaped. 
Skin, dull yellow mixed with green, and a thin coating of russet and 
numerous dots on the shaded side, but marked with broken stripes of 
dark red on the side exposed to the sun. After being kept the ground 
colour becomes golden yellow, and the streaks bright crimson. Eye, 
large and open, with long segments set in a deep basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, inserted in 



APPLES. 45 

a smooth and rather deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, rich, 
and sugary, partaking of the flavour of the Ribstou Pippin. Cells, 
obovate or elliptical ; axile. 

A valuable and highly esteemed dessert apple of the first quality ; it 
comes into use in November, and will continue till March. 

The tree, though not a strong or vigorous grower, is hardy and 
healthy, attains the middle size, and is an abundant bearer. It suc- 
ceeds well grafted on the paradise stock, and grown as an espalier or 
an open dwarf. Its shoots are slender and drooping. 

This excellent variety was discovered by John Draddick, E«q., growing in a 
hedge near his residence at Claygate, a hamlei in the parish of Thames Ditton, in 
Surrey. See Braddich's Nonpareil. 

Clifton Nonesuch. See Fearn*s Pippin. 

Clissold's Seedling. See Lodgemore Nonpareil. 

CLUSTER GOLDEN PIPPIN (Cluster Pippin; Twin-cluster 
Pipjnn : lliickset). — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and two inches high ; round, and slightly flattened at the top, very 
frequently two united, forming one fruit with two distinct eyes. Skin, 
smooth, greenish yellow, with a tinge of orange on the exposed side 
when ripe, and covered with markings and network of thin grey russet, 
with large patches round the stalk and the eye. Eye, large and open, 
nearly level with the surface. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, short. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, brisk, and sweet. 
Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A good second-rate apple, remarkable more for its peculiarity of 
being occasionally produced in united pairs than for its excellence. It 
is in use from November till March. 

Cluster Pippin. See Cluster Golden Pippin. 

CLYDE TRANSPARENT.— Fruit, rather below medium size ; 
roundish and irregularly angular in its outline. Skin, with a clear 
bright red which completely covers the side next the sun, mixed here 
and there with a short broken streak of darker crimson ; on the shaded 
side it is clear straw yellow. Eye, closed, inserted in a shallow and 
plaited basin. Stalk, very short, included in a deep smooth funnel- 
shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, sweet, and juicy. 

Coates's. See Yorkshire Greening. 

Coeur de Pigeon. See Pigeon. 

Cobbett's Fall Pippin. See Fall Pippin. 

COBHAM (Popes). — Fruit, large ; ovate, handsomely and regularly 
formed. Skin, clear yellow, tinged with greenish patches, and strewed 
with dark dots ; on the side next the sun it is marked with a few faint 
streaks of crimson. Eye, large and open, like that of the Blenheim 
Pippin, and set in a wide and plaited basin. Stalk, short, deeply 



46 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with rough russet. Flesh, 
yellowish, tender, crisp, sugary, and juicy, with a rich and excellent 
flavour. 

A very valuable apple, either for the dessert or culinary purposes ; 
it is in use from November to March. This variety has all the 
properties of the Blenheim Pippin, and is much superior to it, keeps 
longer, and has the great advantage of being an early and abundantbearer. 

I met with this excellent apple in the neighbourhood of Sittingbonrne, in Kent, 
about the year 1842. The account I received of it was, that the original tree grew 
in the garden of a cottager of the name of Pope, at Cellar Hill, in the parish of 
Linstead, near Sittingbourne. It was highly prized by its owner, to whom the 
crop afforded a little income, and many were the unsuccessful applications of his 
neighbours for grafts of what became generally known as Pope's Apple. The 
proprietor of Pope's cottage built a row of other dwellings adjoining, in the gardens 
of which there were no fruit trees, and, for the sake of uniformity, he cut down 
Pope's apple-tree, notwithstanding the offer of twenty shillings a year more rent to 
spare it. The tree, being condemned, was cut down in 1846, at which period it 
was between fifty and sixty years old. The name of Cobham was given to it by 
Kirke, the nurseryman at Brompton. 

COCCAGEE. — Fruit, medium sized ; ovate. Skin, fine yellow, 
smooth, and marked with green specks. Eye, small and closed. 
Stalk, short. Flesh, yellowish white, soft, sharply acid, and austere. 

One of the oldest and best cider apples ; in use from October to 
December. Although it is perhaps the most harsh and austere apple 
known, and generally considered only fit for cider, still it is one of the 
best for all culinary purposes, especially for baking, as it possesses a 
particularly rich flavour when cooked. 

COCKLE'S PIPPIN (Nutmeg Pippin).— Fruit, medium sized ; 
conical or ovate, and slightly angular on the sides. Skin, gi*eenish 
yellow, changing as it ripens to deeper yellow, dotted with small grey 
dots, and covered all over the base with delicate pale brown russet. 
Eye, small, and slightly closed, set in an irregular and somewhat 
angular basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, an inch long, rather slender, obliquely inserted in a round and 
deep cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, tender, 
crisp, juicy, and sugary, with a pleasant aromatic flavour. Cells, 
elliptical ; axile, open. 

An excellent dessert apple, of the finest quality ; in use from 
January to April. 

This was raised in Sussex by a person of the name of Cockle, and it is extensively 
grown in this as well as the adjoining county of Surrey. It is mentioned by Forsyth, 
in a MS. memorandum book in my possession, as a Sussex apple. 

COCKPIT. — Fruit, about medium size ; obtuse ovate, and some- 
what angular on the sides. Skin, green, changing as it ripens to 
greenish yellow, with a faint orange tinge next the sun ; covered all 
over with small russety dots and some lines of russet. Eye, closed, 
with converging segments, placed in a rather shallow puckered basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about half an 



APPLES. 47 

inch long, inscrtcvl in an abrupt cavity, which is lined with russet. 
Flesh, yellowish white, bonder, juicy, and with a pleasant, brisk acidity, 
Cells, obovate ; axile, sht. 

A culinary apple of good quality ; ripe during November and De- 
cember. 

In Yorkshire this is a favourite apple. 

CODLIN. — The variety to which the generic name of Codlin was 
given is the English Codlin. See English Codlin. 

COE'S GOLDEN DROP.— Fruit, small and conical ; even and 
regular. Skin, yellow, with a blush of crimson, and a few crimson 
spots next the sun, and marked with small patches of thin, deHcate 
russet. Eye, small and open, even with the surface, and surrounded 
with a few shallow plaits. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a small and 
shallow depression, which, together with the base, is entirely covered 
with russet. Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, crisp, and very juicy, brisk, 
sugary, and viuous. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A delicious little dessert apple of the first quality ; in use from 
November to May. The tree is hardy, a free, upright grower, and a 
good bearer. It does well on the paradise stock for dwarf and espaliers. 

This excellent variety was introduced to notice by Gervase Coe. of Bury St. 
Edmunds, who raised the Golden Drop Plum. It has been said that it is a very 
old variety, which has existed for many years in some Essex orchards, but was 
propagated by Coe, and represented by him to be a seedling of his own. 

COLE. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter broad, and two 
and a half high ; roundish, considerably flattened, almost oblate, and 
angular on the sides. Skin, yellowish, almost entirely covered with 
deep crimson, and slightly marked with russet. Eye, large and closed, 
set in a wide and open basin. Stalk, long, covered with down, and 
inserted in a close, narrow cavity, with a fleshy prominence on one 
side of it. Flesh, white, firm, juicy, and sweet, with a rich, brisk, and 
pleasant flavour. 

A first-rate early kitchen apple, and second-rate for the dessert. It 
is in use during August and September, and will even keep as long as 
Christmas if well preserved. 

The tree is hardy, vigorous, and a good bearer ; and on account 
of the size of the fruit should be grown rather as a dwarf than a 
standard. 

Colonel Yaughan's. See Kentish Pippin, 

COLLEGE APPLE. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches high, 
and two and a half inches wide at the base ; conical or Pearmain- 
shaped, even and regular in its outline, and not unlike Adams's Pear- 
main. Skin, smooth and shining, streaked all over with crimson 
stripes on a yellow ground, and with patches of brown russet on the 
base. Eye, small, set in a narrow shallow basin, which is surrounded 



48 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

with ridges ; segments, erect convergent, with divergent tips. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, deep, funnel-shaped. Stalk, a fleshy knob, about a 
quarter of an inch long, inserted in a very narrow and shallow cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish, soft, and briskly acid. Cells, four in the form of a 
cross, roundish obovate ; axile. 

A culinary apple ; in use till December. 

This is a Herefordshire apple, and takes its name from being grown on the estate 
belonging to the College of Vicars in that city. The fruit of this variety always 
fetches as high a price in Manchester market as that of Blenheim Pippin. 

Combermere Apple. See Mere de Menage. 

COMEY NORMAN {Murdy).—Fvmi, small, two inches high, and the 
same in width at the base ; conical, even and regular in its outline, though 
it has sometimes one or two prominent angles on the side ; it is wide at 
the base, and very narrow at the apex. Skin, greenish yellow on the 
shaded side, but on the side next the sun it has a thin red cheek, which 
is speckled with deep crimson ; russety round the stalk, and sprinkled 
over the surface with minute dots. Eye, prominent, closed, and set in 
a narrow plaited basin ; segments, broad and leaf-like, erect conver- 
gent, and with divergent tips. Stamens, median, but when the tube is 
very long they are marginal ; tube, conical, sometimes very wide for 
the depth, and sometimes very deep. Stalk, from a quarter of an inch 
to an inch long, slender, and inserted in a close, deep, irregular cavity. 
Flesh, very tender, juicy, and rather of a bitter-sweet flavour. Cells, 
roundish obovate ; axile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. It is very largely grown in South Wales, and its 
name is derived from the Welsh wordCwym, a valley. 

Concombre Ancien. See Reinette Blanche d'Espagne. 

Concombre des Chartreuses. See St. Julien. 

COOK'S KERNEL — Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and 
two and a quarter high ; roundish, inclining to obtuse ovate, even in 
its outline. Skin, smooth and shining, streaked all over with bright 
crimson, on a golden yellow ground, and dotted with large russet dots, 
which are thickly sprinkled over the whole surface. Eye, set in a 
shallow, smooth, saucer-like basin, with convergent segments, the tips 
of which are divergent. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, sometimes a mere knob, or half an inch long, and slender, set 
in a wide, round, funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish, rather dry, 
soft, and with a brisk, rough acidity. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A Herefordshire cider apple, which is a favourite in the midland districts of the 
county. 

COOLE'S SEEDLING". — Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and two inches high ; roundish, inclining to ovate, even and regular in 
outline. Skin, lemon yellow, with a few streaks and mottles of crimson 
on the side exposed to the sun, and here and there some traces of 



APPLES. 49 

rosset. Eve, open, with broad divergent segments, set in a wide, 
plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, and 
sometimes a fleshy swelling on one side of it, inserted in a shallow 
cavity. Flesh, firm and crisp, juicy and sweet Cells, obovate ; axile, 
closed. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from October to December. 

This was raised at Cheltenham by a lady named Miss Coolc. and it was awarded 
a Firbt-class Certificate by the lioyal llort'icultural Society in 1868. 

Copmanthorpe Crab. See Dutch Mignonne. 

CORN APPLE. — Fruit, small, two inches and an eighth wide, 
and two inches and five-eighths high ; conical, with prominent ribs on 
the sides, terminating at the crown in sharp ridges, and in broad 
undulations at the base. Skin, almost entirely covered with blood 
crimson, streaked with darker crimson, and intermingled with yellow 
streaks of the ground colour ; on the shaded side it is paler, and on 
the sun side it is sometimes shining as if varnished. Eye, with erect 
convergent segments, divergent at the points, set in a deep, narrow, 
furrowed basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical, sometimes ap- 
proaching to funnel-shape. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, 
deeply inserted in an undulating-shaped cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, 
and sweet, with a rough flavour. Cells, roundish ; abaxile. 

This is a Herefordshire cider apple, extensively grown in the northern part of the 
county, and yields cider which is considered equal ia quality to that of the Fox. 
whelp. 

CORNISH AROMATIC— Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish, distinctly 
libbed on the sides, and narrowing towards the eye, where it terminates, 
in more or less prominent ridges. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, 
and covered with large patches of pale brown russet, which extend all 
over the base, and sprinkled with green and russety dots ; but of a 
beautiful bright red, which is streaked with deeper red, and strewed 
with patches and dots of russet, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, 
small and closed, with long flat segments, which are reflexed at the 
tips and set in an irregular ribbed basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep 
and narrow cavity, which is Hned N\ith russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, 
crisp, juicy, rich, and highly aromatic. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A valuable dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from October to 
Christmas. The tree is a free grower and an excellent bearer. 

CORNISH GILLIFLOWER.— Fruit, large ; ovate, angular on the 
sides, and ribbed round the eye, somewhat like a Quoining. Skin, 
dull green on the shaded side, and brownish red streaked with brighter 
red on the side next the sun ; some parts of the surface marked with 
thin russet. Eye, large and closed, set in a narrow and angular basin. 
Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, 

4 



60 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

three quarters of an inch long, inserted in a rather shallow cavity. 
Flesh, 3^ellowish, firm, rich, and aromatic. Cells, roundish obovate ; 
axile or abaxile. 

This is one of our best dessert apples, remarkable for its rich and 
aromatic flavour ; it is in use from December to May. The tree ia 
hardy and a free grower, attaining the middle size, but not an abun- 
dant bearer ; it produces its fruit at the extremities of the last year's 
wood, and great care should, therefore, be taken to preserve the bearing 
shoots. It succeeds well grafted on the paradise stock, and grown as 
an espalier or an open dwarf. 

This valuable apple was brought into notice by Sir Christopher Hawkins, who- 
sent it to the London Horticultural Society in 1813. It was discovered about the 
beginning of the present century, growing in a cottager's garden near Truro. 

The name July-flower is very often applied to this and some other 
varieties of apples, and also to flowers ; but it is only a corruption of 
the more correct name, Gilliflower, which is derived from the French 
Girojie, signifying a clove, and hence the flower, which has the scent of 
that spice, is called Girojiier, which has been transformed to Gilli' 
flower. In Chaucer's " Romaunt of the Rose " he writes it Gylofre: 

" There was eke wexyng many a ppice, 
As Clowe Gylofre and liquorice." 

Turner writes it Gelower and Gehjfloure. The proper name, therefore^ 
is Gilliflower, and not July-flower. 

CORNISH MOTHER {Mother Apple in Cornwall).— Fruit, below 
medium size, nearly two inches wide, and two and a quarter high ; 
roundish, inclining to cylindrical, distinctly angular. Skin, smooth^, 
almost entirely covered with crimson, which has broad broken streaks 
of a darker colour dotted all over with russet dots ; on the shaded side 
it is of a paler colour, and is streaked with crimson and yellow. Eye,, 
closed, with erect convergent segments, set in a pretty deep and close 
basin, which is angular and plaited. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical,, 
sometimes so deep as to extend to the core. Stalk, long and slender, 
inserted in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, very tender 
and juicy, sweet, with a pleasant flavour and agreeable aroma. Cells,. 
roundish ; axile. 

A very good tender-fleshed dessert apple ; in use up to November. 

This was sent me from Cornwall by Mr. Vivian, of Hayle, under the name of 
Mother Apple, but as there are so many apples which are known by this name iti* 
necessary to give them some specific distinction, and this I have named theCoruibh. 
Mother. 

CORRAS APPLE. — Fruit small, two inches in diameter, round 
or oblato-cylindrical, sometimes roundish, even and regular in its out- 
line. Skin, entirely covered with yellowish brown russet, except on the 
sunny side, where it has a bright deep red cheek, glossy as if it were 
varnished. Eye, with convergent segments, closed or half open, set in 
a shallow depression. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. 



APPLES. 61 

Stalk, short, generally not extending beyond the base, slender. Flesh, 
yellow, tender, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. Cells, sometimes 
only four, obovate ; axile. 

A richly-flavoured dessert apple, the great value of which consists in 
its late keeping. 

I received this, as well as most of the Herefordshire apples, from my friend 
Dr. Henry Bull, of Hereford. 

CORSE HILL {Corset Hill; Cosset Hill).— Fruit, below medium 
size, two inches and a quarter wide, and over two inches high ; short 
Pearmain- shaped, smooth and even in its outline, narrowing abruptly 
from the middle to the crown, which gives the upper part of the fruit 
a snouted figure. Skin, thick and membranous, shining, pale lemon on 
the shaded side, but with a fine bright red cheek on the side next the 
sun, which frequently extends over two-thirds of the surface of the 
fruit, and the whole is thickly strewed with minute russety points. 
Eye, rather large, and closed, with long and broad leaf- like segments, 
placed in a round, even, and saucer-like, shghtly plaited basin. Stalk, 
a mere fleshy knob, but occasionally, and very rarely, a quarter of an 
inch long and woody, inserted in a very shallow cavity, lined with pale 
brown russet. Flesh, white, tender, not very juicy, brisk, and shghtly 
sweet. 

A culinary apple of second-rate quality, which takes well, and is in 
use during December and January. 

It is much grown in the Gloucestershire orchards, and received its name from 
having been raised at Corse Hill, near Gloucester, where the seedling tree is still 
existing. I received it from T. Wintle, Esq., of Gloucester. 

Corset Hill. See Corse Hill. 

Cosset HilL See Corse Hill. 

COSTARD (Coulthard ; Prussian Pippin). — The large oblong five- 
ribbed and five-sided apple, with a green skin and sometimes a brownish 
tinge on the side next the sun, an open eye and short stalk, is no 
doubt synonymous with the Catshead ; and this accounts for George 
Lindley saying they are the same variety. But there are two other 
varieties of Costard which are undoubtedly distinct, and these are the 
Herefordshire or Dadnor Costard and the Gloucestershire Costard, 
which will be found described under these names. 

The Costard is one of our oldest Enghsh apples. It is mentioned 
under the name of "Poma Costard " in the fruiterers' bills of Edward 
the First, in 1292, at which time it was sold for a shilling a hundred. 
The true Costard is now rarely to be met with, but at an early period it 
must have been very extensively grown, for the retailers of it were 
called Costardmongers, an appellation now transformed into Coster- 
mongers. It is mentioned by William Lawson, in 1597, who, in his 
quaint style, says, " Of your apple-trees you shall flnde diflurence in 
growth. A good pipping will grow large, and a Costard-tree : stead 
them on the north side of your other apples, thus being placed, the 



52 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

least will give sunne to the rest, and the greatest will shroud their 
fellowes." 

Modern authors make the Costard synonymous with the Catshead, 
chiefly, I think, on the authority of Mr. George Lindley, who has it so 
in the " Guide to the Orchard " ; but this is evidently an error. All 
the early authors who mention both varieties regard them as distinct. 
Parkinson describes two varieties of Costard — the *' Gray " and the 
*' Greene." Of the former he says, "It is a good great apple, somewhat 
whitish on the outside, and abideth the winter. The Green Costard is 
like the other, but greener on the outside continually." Kay describes 
.both the Catshead and Costard as distinct, and Leonard Meager 
-enumerates three varieties of Costard in his list — the white, grey, 
.and red. 

Some etymologists, and Dr. Johnson among the number, consider 
ibis name to be derived from Cost, a head ; but what similarity there is 
beween this apple and a head, more than in any other variety, must 
puzzle any one to discover. Is it not more probable that it is derived 
from Costatus [Anglice, costate, or ribbed), on account of the promi- 
nent ribs or angles on its sides ? I think this a much more likely 
derivation. 

COUL BLUSH. — Fruit, medium sized ; roundish, and angular on 
the sides. A good deal resembling the Hawthornden. Skin, pale 
yellow, marked with dull red next the sun, and streaked and dotted 
with deeper red. Stalk, slender. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, brisk, 
and well-flavoured. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use from October to February. It 
is said to be of finer flavour than the Hawthornden, and to be even 
a good dessert apple. 

The tree is hardy, a strong, vigorous, and upright grower, and 
an abundant bearer. It is well suited for all northern and exposed 
situations. 

This is one of the vaxietics raised by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart, of Coul, 
llosshire. 

Coulthard. See Costard. 

Counsellor. See Greenup's Pippin. 

COUET OF WICK {Frys Pippin; Golden Drop; Knightwick 
Pippin ; Phillips's lieinette ; Wood's Huntingdon ; Weeks s Pippin ; 
Yellow Pippin). — Fruit, below medium size ; roundish ovate, regular 
and handsome. Skin, when fully ripe, of a fine clear yellow, with 
bright orange, which sometimes breaks out in a faint red next the sun, 
and covered all over with russety freckles. Eye, large and open, with 
long, acuminate, and reflexed segments, set in a wide, shallow, and 
even basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
short and slender, inserted in a smooth and even cavity, which is lined 
with thin russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, crisp, very juicy, rich, and 
Jhighly flavoured. Cells, roundish elliptical ; axile. 



APPLES. 58 

One of the best and most valuable dessert apples, both as regards 
the hardiness of the tree and the rich and delicious flavour of the fruit, 
which is not inferior to that of the Golden Pippin. It is in use from 
October to March. 

The tree attains the middle size, is healthy, hardy, and an abundant 
bearer. There is scarcely any description of soil or exposure where it 
does not succeed, nor is it subject to the attacks of blight and canker. 
It grows well on the paradise stock, producing fruit much larger than 
on the crab, but not of so long duration. There are some soils, such 
as the Hastings Sand, which produce the fruit of Court of Wick of a 
fine clear orange with a somewhat crimson cheek on the side next 
the sun. 

This variety is said to have oripnatetl at Court of Wick, near Yatton, in Somer- 
setshire, and to have been raised from seed of the Golden Pippin. In his Survey 
of Somersetshire^ Billingsly says, " The favourite ai)ple, both as a table and cider 
fruit, is the Court of Wick Pippin, taking its name from the spot where it was first 
produced. It originated from the pip or seed of the Golden Pippin, and mny be 
considered as a beautiful variety of that fruit. In shape, colour, and flavour it has 
not its superior.*' It was called Wood's Huntingdon from being propagated by Mr. 
Wood, nurseryman, of Huntingdon, and sent out by him under that name aboai 
the year 1790. 

Court-pendu-doree. See Golden Beinette, 

COURT-PENDU-PLAT (Courtpendu; Court-pendu plat roiigedtre ; 
Court -pendu rond gros ; Court-pendu rond tres gros ; Court-pendU 
rond roiigedtre; Court-pendu rosat ; Court-pendu musque ; Court- 
pendii-rouge musque ; Court-pnuiu rouge ; Courpendu vermeil ; Go- 
rianda rose; Kurtzstiel ; Court-pendu rouge; Court-pendu rosaar ; 
lieinette Court-pendu rouge; Princesse Noble Zoete ; Garnons ; 
Wollaton Pippin ; Wise Apple). — Fruit, medium sized ; oblate, regu- 
larly and handsomely shaped. Skin, bright green at first on the 
shaded side, but changing as it ripens to clear yellow, marked with 
traces of russet, and russety dots ; but entirely covered with rich deep 
red next the sun. Eye, large and open, with short segments, which are 
reflexed at the tips, set in a wide, rather deep basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and deeply inserted. Flesh, yellow, 
firm, crisp, very juicy, richly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile. slit. 

A valuable dessert apple of the first quahty ; in use from December 
to May. The tree is of small growth, very hardy, and an abundant 
bearer. Grafted on the paradise stock it makes excellent bushes and 
espaliers. The blossom of this variety expands later than that of any 
other variety, and on that account is less liable to be injured by spring 
frosts ; and hence it has been called the Wise Apple. 

This is not the Capendu of Duharael, as quoted by Lindley and Downing ;. 
neither is it the Court-Pendu of Forsyth and De La Quintinye, that variety being the 
Fenouillet Rouge of Duhamel. The Courpendu of Miller is also a different apple 
from any of those just mentioned, and is distinguished by having a long and 
slender stalk, " so that the fruit is always hanging downwards." The name of this 
variety is derived from Corps pendu, translated by some Hanging Body, whereas. 



54 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

that of the variety above described is from Court pendu, signifying suspended 
short, the stalk being so short that the fruit sits, as it were, upon the branch. The 
name Capendu, or Capendua, is mentioned by the earliest authors, but applied to 
ditferent varieties of apples. It is met with in Ruellius, Tragus, Curtius, and 
Dalechamp, the latter considering it the Cestiana of Pliny. Curtius applies the 
name to a yellow apple, and so also does Ruellius ; but Tragus considers it one of 
the varieties of Passe-pomme. He says, " Capendua magna sunt alba et dulcia, in 
quorum utero seniina per maturitatem sonant, Ruellio Passipoma apellantur." 
They are also mentioned by J. Bauhin, " Celeberrimum hoc pomi genus est totius 
Europaj, sic dicta, quod ex curto admodum pendeant pediculo." 

It is called Garnons from the residence of the Cotterell family, near Hereford, 
where it had been grown without a name, and bence became known as the Garnons 
apple. For the same reason it is called Wollaton Pippin from the residence of 
Lord Middleton in Nottinghamshire. 

COWAN'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and two and a quarter high ; round, and sometimes oval, when it has a 
large fleshy swelling at the base ; somewhat angular, and terminating 
in prominent ridges round the eye. Skin, rich yellow, almost covered 
with broken streaks of crimson, and with a crimson cheek where exposed 
to the sun ; there is a little thin russet about the crown. Eye, small, 
and closed, with erect convergent segments set in a pretty deep angular 
and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
very short, with a large swelling on one side. Flesh, tender, juicy, 
sweet, aud with a pleasant flavour. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A very pretty dessert apple ; in use in October. 

COWAENE QUOINING.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and two inches and a quarter high ; ovate or conical, with obtuse ribs on 
the sides, which extend to the eye and there form distinct ridges. Skin, 
smooth, shining, and almost entirely covered with deep bright crimson, 
which is darker on the side next the sun, but paler and streaked in the 
shade, where the yellow ground colour is exposed ; the whole surface 
is sprinkled with rather large russet dots. 'Eye, small, set in a narrow 
basin, which is surrounded with ridges, the segments convergent and 
nearly erect. Stamens, basal; tube, short, conical. Stalk, short and 
slender, inserted in a rather deep, round, and narrow cavity. Flesh, 
tender, juicy, sw^eet, and of good flavour, pervaded with veins and stains 
of red. Cells, large and symmetrical, obovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of Herefordshire ; in use from January to March. 

COWARNE RED. — Fruit, small, about two inches wide, and one and 
a half high ; oblate, even and regular in outline. Skin, streaked with 
yellow and red on the shaded side and round the base, but of a bright 
red over a great part, and where fully exposed to the sun of an intense, 
deep, purplish crimson ; there are numerous short streaks, which mark 
the shady part of the fruit. Eye, small, with very short converging 
segments, the tips of which are divergent. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, over half an inch long, very stifl" and straight. 
Flesh, dry, woolly, and acid. Cells, open, obovate; axile. 



APPLES. 65 

Specific gravity of its juice, 1071. 

A cider apple, which takes its name from the parish of Cowarne, near Broom- 
jard, in Herefordshire, where it was raised about the beginning of the last century. 

COX'S ORANGE PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized ; roundish ovate, 
•even and regular in its outline. Skin, greenish yellow, and streaked 
with red in the shade, but dark red where exposed to the sun, and 
this extends over three-fourths of the whole surface. Over the coloured 
part are patches and traces of ash grey russet forming a smooth and 
firm crust. Eye, small and open, or closed, filled with stamens and 
with short erect segments, set in a somewhat shallow saucer-like basin, 
which is plaited and entii'ely lined with russet. Stamens, median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, somewhat fleshy, set in a 
moderately deep cavity, which has a slight swelling on one side, and is 
covered with russet extending over the base. Flesh, yellowish, very 
tender in the grain, crisp, juicy, and sweet, with a fine perfume and 
rich flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

One of the best dessert apples ; in use from October to February. 
The tree is admirably adapted for dwarfs or pyramids, succeeds well 
on the paradise stock, and is a free bearer. 

This excellent variety was raised at Colnbrook Lawn, near Slough, Bucks, by a 
Mr. Cox, who was formerly a brewer at Berniondsey, and who retired to Colnbrook 
Lawn, where he devoted the remaining: years of his life to gardening pursuits. The 
apple originated in 1 830, and is said to have been from a pip of Ribston Pippin. 

COX'S POMONA. — Fruit, above the medium size, three inches wide, 
«nd two and a half high, sometimes large ; roundish, somewhat flattened, 
angular on the sides, and with ridges round the eye. Skin, yellow, and 
very much streaked with bright crimson, and where fully exposed to tho 
«un entirely crimson, marked with stripes and patches of dark crim- 
son ; russety in the cavity of the stalk and over the base. Eye, 
slightly open, with erect segments, set in a deep and angular basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short, conical. Stalk, an inch long, slender, 
deeply mserted. Flesh, white, tender, very juicy, and pleasantly acid. 
•Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A first-rate and very handsome culinary apple ; ripe in October. 

This was raised by Mr. Cox, of Colnbrook Lawn, who also raised Cox's Orange 
Pippin, 

CRAY PIPPIN. — Fruit, below medium size ; conical, and angular 
on the sides. Skin, pale yellow, with a tinge of red next the sun. 
Eye, small and closed, set in an even basin. Stalk, short, and deeply 
inserted. Flesh, yellow, crisp, sweet, and highly flavoured. 

An excellent dessert apple ; ripe in October. 

CRIMSON QUOINING {Scarlet Queening; Summer Queening; 
Red Queening; Herefordshire Queening). — Fruit, medium sized, two 
inches and a half wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; 
conical and angular, sometimes distinctly five-sided, widest in the 



66 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

middle, and narrowing to the base and the apex. Skin, dull red, 
streaked with darker red where exposed to the sun, and greenish 
yellow, with a few faint streaks of pale red, on the shaded side. Eye, 
open, with long, reflexed, divergent segments, set in a narrow and 
prominently ribbed basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, over half an mch long, inserted in a deep and angular 
cavity. Flesh, white, with a greenish tinge, tender, juicy, and with a 
pleasant, brisk flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile. 

A second-rate apple, suitable either for the dessert or kitchen use ; 
in season from December till March. 

Croft en Eeich. See Galloway Pippin. 

CROFT PEARMAIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and the same in height ; round, with blunt angles on the 
sides, and rather irregular in its outline. Skin, lemon yellow, closely 
freckled all over with specks of cinnamon-coloured russet, and large 
russet dots. Eye, large, and prominently set on the surface, with a 
small knob at the base of each segment ; segments connivent, over- 
lapping each other, broad and leaf-hke. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
wide and conical, rather irregular. Stalk, half an inch long, deeply 
inserted. Flesh, white, very tender and translucent, juicy, and with a 
brisk flavour. Cells, elliptical ; axile, closed. 

A good kitchen apple ; in use up till Christmas. 

This is much grown in the neighbourhood of Kingto:i, Herefordshire. 

CROFTON SCARLET.— Fruit, medium sized; oblate, slightly 
angular on the sides. Skin, covered with yellowish russet, except on 
the side next the sun, where it is bright red, with a mixture of russet. 
Eye, set in a wide and shallow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a 
moderately deep cavity. Flesh, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, and richly 
flavoured. 

A most delicious dessert apple, of first-rate quality ; in use from 
October to December, and does not become mealy. 

The Scarlet Crofton is of Irish origin. 

CULLEN. — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three 
inches high ; ovate, obtusely angular, terminating in ridges round the 
eye and small furrows into the basin of it. Skin, with a dull yellowish 
green tinge, striped with broken streaks of red on the shaded side, a 
dull brownish blush on the side next the sun, which is also marked 
with short, broken streaks of crimson. Eye, closed, with convergent 
segments, set in a deep and furrowed basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, over half an inch long, stout, deeply set in a greenish 
russet-lined cavity ; sometimes it is about an inch long, slender, and 
obliquely inserted by the side of a fleshy prominence. Flesh, tender, 
very juicy, mildly acid. Cells, obovate ; axile or abaxile. 

A very excellent culinary apple ; in use up till Christmas, and a 
great favourite among the Kentish orchardists about Maidstone. 



APPLES. 57 

Camberland Favonrite. See Greenup's Pippin. 

CURL TAIL. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and the 
same in height, indusive of the prominent swelling at the stalk; round 
and flattened, somewhat obtusely angular, and with furrows at the 
crown. It has an extraordinary enlargement at the stalk, which curls 
round like a parrot's beak, which is russety. Skin, straw-coloured, 
without any traces of red or russet. Eye, closed, with convergent 
segments, set in a rather deep and furrowed basin. Stamens, marginal 
or median ; tube, deep and wide, conical. Stalk, nearly obsolete, being 
the point of the fleshy swelling. Flesh, white, very tender, sweet, and 
agreeably flavoured. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

An extraordinary-looking apple, which possesses little merit, and is 
only fit for cooking. It is in use up till Christmas. 

D'ARCY SPICE (B addon- Pippin ; Essex Sjnce ; Sprimj Pdbston).— 
Fruit, medium sized ; roundish or rather oblate, with prominent ribs 
on the sides, which terminate in four, and sometimes five, considerable 
ridges at the crown, very much in the character of the London Pippin. 
It is sometimes of an ovate shape, caused by the stalk being prominent 
instead of depressed, in which case the ribs on the sides, and ridges 
round the eye, are less apparent. Skin, deep lively green, changing as 
it ripens to yellowish green, on the shaded side ; but covered on the side 
next the sun with dull red, which changes to orange where it blends with 
the yellow ground ; the whole considerably marked with thin brown 
russet, and russety dots. Eye, rather large and half open, with short, 
broad convergent segments, which are reflexed at the tips, and set 
in a deep angular and plaited basin. Stamens, basal; tube, wide 
conical. Stalk, very short, not more than a quarter of an inch long, 
and inserted the whole of its length in a shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish 
white, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, and with a particularly rich and vinous 
flavour, partaking somewhat of the Nonpareil and Ribston, but par- 
ticularly the latter. Cells, open, roundish obovate ; axile. 

This is a first-rate dessert apple ; in use in November, and possessing 
the desirable property of keeping till April or May. 

This vahial)le apple was discovered in the garden of The Hall, Tolesbnnt 
3^'Arcy, near Colchester, and many Qid Irees are still existing in that neighbour- 
iiood. It was always known by the name of D'Arcy Spice, or simply Spice Apple, 
till 1848, when Mr. John Harris, a nurseryman at Broomfield, near Chelmsford, 
propagated it from grafts taken from one of these old trees, and sold it under the 
name of Baddow Pippin. A few years later Mr. Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, put 
it in his catalogue as Spring Ribston. 

DARLING PIPPIN.— Fruit, of medium size ; oblato-conical. Skin, 
bright lemon yellow, thickly set with small embedded pearly specks. 
Eye, small, and placed in a shallow basin, surrounded with prominent 
plaits. Stalk, short and slender, not deeply inserted. Flesh, yellow- 
ish, firm, crisp, juicy, and sugary, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 

A dessert apple of good quality ; in use from November to January. 

This is one of our old English varieties. It is mentioned by Rea in 1665, who 



58 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

calls it " a larjie gold yellow apple, of an excellent, quick, something sharp taste, 
and bears well." It is also noticed by Ray as " Pomum dclicatulum Cestrise." 

David T. Fish. See Warner's King. 

DEANS' CODLIN. — Fruit, very large, three inches and a quarter 
wide, and three inches and three-quarters high ; conical or oblong, 
with prominent ribs on the sides, which extend to the apex, and form 
corresponding ridges round the eye. Skin, clear, deep yellow, dotted 
with large russet dots. Eye, closed, with somewhat erect segments, 
set in a deep and furrowed basin. Stamens, median, inclining to 
marginal ; tube, deep, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an 
inch long, rather slender for the size of the fruit, inserted in a deep 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, 
wide open, Codlin-like, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A first-rate kitchen apple ; in use from November till February. 
This was introduced by Mr. "VV. Deans, a nurser3'man at Jedburgh, 
N.B. 

Delaware. See Trumjymjton. 

DE NEIGE (Fameiise ; La Fameuse). — Fruit, about the medium 
size, two inches and a half broad, and two inches high ; roundish, 
sometimes oblate. Skin, tender, smooth, and shining, of a beautiful 
pale waxen yellow colour, tinged with pale red, on the shaded side, but 
covered with deeper red on the side next the sun. Eye, small, half- 
open, with short segments, reflexed at the tips, and set in a narrow, 
shallow, and puckered basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, conical. 
Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a round and pretty deep cavity. 
Flesh, pure white, remarkably tender and delicate, sweet, and pleasantly 
flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A very beautiful and handsome apple, but not of great merit. It is 
suitable for dessert use, and is in perfection from November to 
January. 

The tree is of a small habit of growth, hardy, and bears well ; but 
in some soils it is liable to canker. 

This variety is supposed to be of Canadian origin, and was introduced to this 
country by a Mr. Barclay, of Brompton, near London. It is grown very extensively 
in Canada, and is very higbly appreciated. The name of Pomme de Neige has 
been applied to several very distinct varieties, and it can be traced back as far as 
the beginning of the seventeenth century; but the variety to which it was then 
applied, and which appears to have been a sort of early White Codlin, has long 
since disappeared, and any attempt to identify it must be mere conjecture. 

Deux Ans of Kent. See Graham. 

DEVONSHIRE BUCKLAND {Dredge's WJdte Lily; Pile's Vic- 
toria ; White Lily ; Lily Bucldand). — Fruit, above medium size ; 
roundish, and flattened, angular on the sides. Skin, waxen yellow, 
strewed with minute russet dots. Eye, open, with erect segments, 
reflexed at the tips. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, deeply 



APPLES. 59 

inserted. Flesh, yellow, crisp, very juicy, brisk, sweet, and perfumed. 
Cells, round ; axile. 

A very good and useful apple, either for culinary or dessert use ; 
in season from October to February. 

DEVONSHIRE QUARRENDEX {Quarnwjton ; Fed Quarriwfdim ; 
Sack A]tjjle). — Fruit, rather below medium size ; oblate, and sometimes 
a little angular in its outline. Skin, smooth and shioing, entirely 
covered with deep purplish red, except where it is shaded by a leaf or 
twig, and then it is of a delicate pale green, presenting a clear and 
well-defined outline of the object which shades it. Eye, quite closed, 
with very long tomentose segments, and placed in an undulating and 
shallow basin, which is sometimes knobbed, and generally lined with 
thick wool. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
about three-quarters of an inch long, fleshy at the insertion, deeply 
set in a round and funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, white, frequently 
stained with red, crisp, brisk, and very juicy, with a rich vinous and 
refreshing flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

A ver}' valuable and first-rate dessert apple. It ripens on the tree 
the first week in August, and lasts till the end of September. It is 
one of the earliest summer dessert apples, and at that season is parti- 
cularly rchshed for its fine, cooling, and refreshing vinous juice. 

The tree attains a considerable size ; it is particularly hardy, and a 
most prolific bearer. It succeeds well in almost every soil and situa- 
tion, and is admirably adapted for orchard planting. In almost every 
latitude of Great Britain, from Devonshire to the Moray Frith, I have 
observed it in perfect health and luxuriance, producing an abundance 
of well-ripened fruit, which, though not so large, nor so early in the 
northern parts, still possessing the same richness of flavour as in the 
south. 

This is supposed to be a very old variety. The earliest record I can find of 
Devonshire Qiiarrenden is in *' The Compleat Planter and Cyderist," published in 
1690. In 1693 it is mentioned by Ray ; and except by Mortimer, it is not noticed 
by any subsecjuent writer till within a very recent period. It seems to have been 
unknown to Switzer, Langley, and Miller ; nor do 1 find thai it was grown in any 
of the London nurseries before the beginning of the present century. The only 
early catalogue in which I find it is that of Miller & Sweet, of Bristol, in 1790. 

DEVONSHIRE QUEEN.— Fruit, medium sized; roundish ovate, 
with prominent angles on the sides, which extend to the eye, where 
they form prominent ridges. Skin, entirely covered with deep, rich 
crimson, which is marked and streaked with a deeper shade of the 
same colour ; but where shaded there is a sUght patch of yellow. The 
whole surface is shining as if varnished. Eye, closed and deeply sunk. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch 
long, slender, deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, white in the centre ; 
but under the skin it is deeply tinged with red, and this extends some- 
times to the core ; soft and tender, with a strong aromatic and 
pleasantly acid flavour. Cells, roundish ovate ; abaxile. 



60 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

A very beautiful apple of good quality, ripe in the beginning of 
October, and which must be eaten as soon as ripe. 

Ditton Nonpareil. See Braddick's Nonpareil. 

DOCTOR HARE'S. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters in diameter ; roundish, inclining to ovate, even in its outline. 
Skin, deep bright grass green where shaded, but where exposed to the 
sun it is brownish red, which is marked with broken streaks of bright 
red, and here and there over the surface are patches of rough scaly 
russet. Eye, set in a narrow, round, and plaited basin, with connivent 
segments. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical, rather wide. Flesh, with a 
greenish tinge, firm, crisp, with a brisk acidity and agreeable flavour. 
Cells, closed, obovate ; axile, closed. 

An excellent cooking apple, which is a long keeper, even up till May. 

This is a Herefordshire apple. 

DOCTOR HARVEY {Harvey Apple).— Frmi, large, three inches 
wide, and about the same in height ; ovate and somewhat angular. 
Skin, greenish yellow, dotted with green and white specks, but becoming 
quite yellow at maturity ; round the crown it is marked with lines of 
russet. Eye, small, with short connivent segments, very slightly 
depressed, and surrounded with several prominent knobbed plaits. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and 
slender, inserted in a deep, uneven cavity. Flesh, firm, white, crisp, 
juicy, pleasantly acid, and perfumed. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, well known in Norfolk. It is 
in use from October till January. The tree is a large grower, hardy, 
and a great bearer. 

Lindley says, *' When baked in an oven which is not too hot, these 
apples are most excellent ; they become sugary, and will keep a week 
or ten days, furnishing for the dessert a highly flavoured sweetmeat." 

This is one of the oldest English apples. It is first mentioned by Parkinson as 
"a faire greate goodly apple ; and very well rellished." llalph Austen calls it "a 
very choice fruit, and the trees beare well." According to liay it is named in 
honour of Dr. Gabriel Harvey, of Cambridge : " Pomum Harveianum ab inventore 
Gabriele Harveio Doctore nomen sortitum Cantabrigise suas delicioc." 

1 learn from Houghton's Husbandry and Trade Improved that Dr. Harvey was 
master of Trinity Hall, and that about the year 1630 he left, by will, an estate to 
mend the road from Cambridge towards London, six miles to Fulmer (Foulmire). 

DOCTOR HOGG. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a half high ; ovate or conical, prominently ribbed, 
and with bold ridges round the eye. Skin, when ripe, rich golden 
yellow with a pale red cheek, which is faintly striped with crimson on 
the side next the sun, here and there are small patches of russet. 
Eye, large and slightly open, with long erect connivent segments, set 
in a deep, ribbed, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical 
or funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch or more long, deeply inserted in a 
wide, irregular cavity. Flesh, white, very tender and juicy, sweet and 
briskly flavoured. CeUs, obovate ; abaxile. 



APPLES. 61 

An excellent culinary apple, and also good for dessert use ; it is in 
season from November till February. 

This was raised by Mr. Sidney Ford, gardener to \V. E. Hubbard, Esq., of 
Leonard's Lee, near Horsham, and was awarded a First-class Certificate by the 
Royal Horticultural Society, December 17th, 1878, on the recommendation of Sir 
C. W. Strickland, Bart., to' whom it was referred to test its cookinp: properties. 
His report was — " Doctor Hogg is very like the White Calville, probably a seed- 
ling from it. It melts j)erfectly, does not fall at all, is juicy, slightly acid, very rich 
and sugary, with a delicate aroma. It is a first-rate baking apple." 

DOG'S SNOUT. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters long, and the same broad ; oblong, narrowing towards the 
crown, with prominent angles on the sides, which terminate at the 
apex in bold ridges ; the base of the fruit is flattened, and the crown 
narrow. Skin, smooth and greasy to the feel, of a pale yellowish 
green, except on the side next the sun, where there is a faint blush of 
pale crimson marked with several broken stripes of dark bright crimson, 
the whole surface strewed with distinct russety dots. Eye, small and 
closed, placed in a shallow, puckered, and angular basin. Stalk, over 
an inch long, very slender, inserted in a deep and narrow basin, with a 
swelling of the flesh on one side of it, and from which issue ramifications 
of russet which extend over the base of the fruit. Flesh, greenish 
white, tender, and marrow-like, agreeably acid, and pleasantly flavoured. 

A culinary apple ; in use during December and January, but only of 
second-rate quahty. 

I received this some years ago from Mr. W. Barratt, of Wakefield, It is some- 
what Hke the Keswick Codlin, but with a much longer stalk. 

DOMINO. — Fruit, large, nearly three inches and a quarter wide, 
and about three and a half high ; somewhat cylindrical or blunt coni- 
cal in shape, with five prominent ribs, one larger tban the others, 
which makes the fruit larger on one side of the axis, and consequently 
if measured through that diameter it is as wide as it is high. Skin, of 
an uniform gi'eenish yellow when ripe, and pale grass green before it 
ripens, covered with distinct russet dots, and no colour. Eye, closed, 
set in a deep angular and irregular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
long, conical, inclining to funnel-shape. Stalk, half an inch long, 
inserted by the side of a fleshy protuberance, which is generally well 
developed. Flesh, yellowish white, soft, and juicy, with a mild acidity. 
Cells, elliptical, abaxile, Codlin-like. 

This is a very useful apple, grown in the orchards of Nottinghamshire, about 
Southwell. It belongs to the same class as Lord Suflfield, Golden Spire, and such 
early bearing and prolific culinary apples. It ripens in September, and, like Lord 
Sufiield, is soon pa^t. It generally decays about the beginning of October. 

DOWNTON NONPAREIL.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and an inch and three-quarters high ; oblate, even and regular in 
its outline. Skin, greenish yellow, covered with patches of russet, 
espcciall}' over the crown and in the basin of the eye. Eye, small, 
with erect convergent segments, set in a wide and shallow depression. 



62 THE PRUIT MANUAL. 

Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, 
set in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, sweet, and 
briskly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of the first quality ; in use from December to 
April. 

This is one of the seedlings raised by Mr. T. A. Knight, President of the Horti- 
cultural Society of London. 

DOWNTON PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, somewhat cylindrical, and 
flattened at the ends, bearing a resemblance to the Golden Pippin. 
Skin, smooth, of a fine lemon yellow colour, and with a slight tinge of 
red next the sun, marked with a few traces of delicate russet, and 
strewed with numerous pale brown dots. Eye, large, and quite open, 
with long, flat, pointed segments, set in a wide, flat, and shallow 
basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, slender, half an inch long, and inserted in a shallow cavity, 
which is lined with a delicate russet. Flesh, yellowish white, delicate, 
firm, crisp, and juicy, with a rich, brisk, vinous, and somewhat aro- 
matic flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, resembling the Golden Pippin 
both in size, shape, and colour, as well as flavour. It is in use from. 
November to January. 

The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, a most abundant 
bearer, and attains about the middle size. It may be grown as an 
open dwarf, and is well suited for espaliers. The fruit is also valuable 
for the cider it produces, the specific gravity of the juice being 1080. 

This excellent variety was raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., of Downton 
Castle, from the seed of the Isle of Wight Orange Pippin, impregnated with the 
pollen of the Golden Pippin, and the original tree is still in existence at Wormsley 
Grange, Herefordshire. My friend the Hev. C. H. Bulmer, Rector of Credenhill, 
near Hereford, informs me that mice have a great fondness for this apple, and will 
eat it with avidity. 

DRAP D'OR (Bay Apple; Early Summer Pippin). — Fruit, rather 
large ; roundish, narrowing towards the eye, where it is ribbed. Skin> 
smooth and shining, of a fine pale yellow colour intermixed with a, 
greenish tinge, which is disposed in faint stripes, extending from the 
base to the apex on the shaded side, but of a clearer and deeper yellow 
on the side next the sun, the whole marked with patches of delicate,, 
dark brown russet, and strewed with numerous russety dots ; some- 
times there is a faint tinge of red on the side next the sun. Eye, 
small and closed, with acuminate segments, which are covered with 
white tomentum, and set in a wide, deep, irregular, and plaited basin. 
Stalk, very short, and somewhat fleshy, inserted in a wide, rather 
shallow, and smooth cavity. Flesh, yellowish, white, tender, crisp, 
and juicy, with a brisk, vinous, and sugary flavour. 

A pretty good apple of second-rate quality, more suitable for culinary- 
purposes than the dessert. It is in use from October to Christmas. 

The tree is a healthy and free grower, attaining about the middle 



APPLES. 63 

size, and is a free and early bearer, being generally well set with fruit 
buds. It requires a rich soil and warm situation. 

There is another apple totally different from this to which the name 
of Drap d'Or is applied. See Fenouillet Jaune. 

Dredge's Beauty of Wilts. See Harvey's Pippin. 

DREDGE'S FA^IE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; round, inclining to 
ovate, obtusely angular. Skin, smooth, dark green all over, but with 
a few broken streaks of crimson on the side next the sun ; as it 
ripens it assumes a yellowish tinge. Eye, partially open, with erect 
convergent segments, which incline to divergent, set in a narrow and 
shallow saucer-like basiu. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, about three-quarters of an inch long, slender, inserted in a 
pretty deep cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, very juicy, sweet, 
and with a fine aroma. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

This is a valuable and very excellent apple, suitable either for dessert 
use or culinary purposes. It is in use from December to March. In 
a letter to Mr. Forsyth, Mr. Dredge says, " This is the best apple yet 
known ; in eating from Easter till Midsummer — most excellent." 

The tree is hardy, a vigorous grower, an early and abundant bearer, 
but according to Rogers, hable to be attacked by the woolly aphis; 
still, I have never found it more susceptible of that disease than most 
other varieties. 

DREDGE'S QUEEN CHARLOTTE.— Fruit, medium sized, twa 
inches and three-quarters wide, and about the same in height ; roundish, 
inclining to ovate, with prominent ribs, which terminate in knobs round 
the eye ; it is generally higher on one side of the eye than the other. 
Skin, when quite ripe, greenish yellow on the shaded side, but on tho 
side next the sun it is entirely covered with brilliant crimson ; the 
surface has patches of russet and large russet dots, like freckles. Eye, 
closed, with broad convergent segments, deeply set in an uneven basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, long, stout, and 
curved, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, sweet, and of 
good flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile. 

A showy, long-keeping, handsome apple, which lasts \VelI till March. 

I am indehted to Mr George Bunyard, nurseryman, of Maidstone, for a know- 
ledge of this old and useful apple. 

There are several other varieties mentioned by Forsyth as seedlings of Dred<»e's, 
which I hnvc not met with, as Dredge's Russet and Dredge's Seedling. I had ia 
my collection Dredge's Emperor and Lord Nelson, both of which are grown in the 
"West of England, but I have not had an opportunity of seeing the fruit. It is 
however, a question whether these are really bcedlings of Dredge's or not ; there 
are several varii-ties to which he affixed his name which have been ascertained to 
be identical with others that existed before his time, such as Dredge's White Lily 
which is synonymous with Devonshire Buckland, and Dredge's Beauty of Wilts* 
which is the same as Harvey's Pippin. ' 



64 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Dredge's White Lily. See DevonsJdre Buckland. 
Due d'Arsell. See NonpareU. 

DUCHESS'S FAVOURITE {Duchess of Gloucester; Scarlet In- 
comparable). — Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a 
half wide, and two inches and an eighth high ; roundish, bluntly 
angular, and undulating round the crown. Skin, covered with brilliant 
red, which extends over the whole surface except where shaded, and 
there it is yellow ; the base is covered with ramifications of russet. 
Eye, open, with short erect segments, which are reflexed at the tips, 
and set in a wide plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, inserted in a moderately 
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and highly, 
flavoured ; it is frequently stained with red, like the flesh of Sops-in- 
wine. Cells, open, roundish obovate ; axile. 

A beautiful and very excellent dessert apple ; in use from November 
to Christmas. It is now much grown in the Kentish orchards for the 
London markets. 

This was raised by Mr. Cree, a nurseryman at Addlestone, who named it in 
reference to the favour with which it was received by the Duchess of York. 

Duchess of Gloucester. See Duchess's Favourite, 

DUCHESS OF OLDENBUPiG {Borowitsky ; Charlamouiski).— 
Fruit, large, about three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and 
a half high ; round, and sometimes prominently ribbed on the sides 
and round the eye. Skin, smooth, greenish yellow on the shaded side, 
and streaked with broken patches of fine bright red on the side next 
the sun, sometimes assuming a beautiful dark crimson cheek; it is 
covered all over with numerous russetj^ dots, particularly round the 
eye, where thej^ are large, dark, and rough. Eye, large and closed, 
with long broad connivent segments, placed in a deep and angular 
basin. Stamens, basal; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, long and slender, 
deeply inserted in a narrow and angular cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, 
firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a pleasant, brisk, and refreshing 
flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

An excellent early culinary or dessert apple of the first quality ; 
ripe in the middle of August, and continues in use till the end of 
September. The tree is hardy, a free grower, and an excellent bearer. 

This variety is of Kussian origin. 

Duck's Bill. See Winter Pearmain. 

DUKE OF BEDFORD.— Fruit, large ; three inches and a quarter 
wide, and the same high ; roundish, with prominent obtuse angles ; 
quite uneven in shape, and with distinct ridges round the crown. 
Skin, bright dark green, with grey russet dots on the shaded side, and 
with a dull red check on the side which is next the sun, and which is 
marked with broken streaks. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, convergent 
segments, set in a wide, deep, and uneven basin. Stamens, basal ; 



APPLES. 65 

tube, conical. Stalk, very short, with a large fleshy swelling on one 
side. Flesh, greenish, very firm and tender, very juicy, and with an 
agreeable acidity. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A first-rate kitchen apple ; in fine condition at Christmas, and will 
keep till February. 

DUKE OF DEVONSHIRE.— Fruit, medium sized, roundish ovate. 
Skin, of uniform lemon yellow colour, with a dull red cheek ; the surface 
veined with russet. Eye, large and open, set in a wide and deep basin. 
Stalk, very short. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, rich, and sweet, with 
a fine aroma. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from February till May. 

DUKE OF GLOUCESTER.— Fruit, medium size; three inches 
wide, and two and a half high ; round, with obtuse angles, which extend 
to the crown, forming blunt ridges. Skin, of an uniform yellowish 
green, strewed with russet dots. Eye, open or half open, with erect 
segments, which are roflexed at the tips and set in a round even basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted 
in a deep wide cavity. Flesh, tender, crisp, juicy, briskly-acid. Cells, 
ovate ; axile. 

A culinary apple ; in use in December. 

DUMELOW'S SEEDLING (Dumelow's Crab; Normanton Wmder; 
Wellhiffton). — Fruit, large, roundish, and flattened. Skin, pale yellow, 
strewed with large russet points, with a tinge of pale red on the side 
next the sun, which is sometimes almost entirely covered with a bright 
red cheek. Eye, large and open, with broad, reflexed segments, set 
in an irregular, uneven, and pretty deep basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, 
conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, deeply inserted 
in a narrow and funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with russet. 
Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, brisk, and very juicy, with a slight 
aromatic flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile or abaxile. 

One of the most valuable culinary apples ; it is in use from 
November to March. The tree is one of the strongest and most 
vigorous growers, very hardy, and an excellent bearer. The young 
shoots, which are long and stout, are thickly covered with large greyish 
white dots, which readily distinguish this variety from almost every 
other. 

This excellent apple was raised by a person of the name of Dumeller (pro- 
nouiioeil Dumelo'r). a farmer at Shakerstone, a village in Leicestershire, six miles 
from Ashhy-de-la-Zouch, and is extensively cultivated in that and the adjoining 
counties under the name of Dumelow's Crab. It was first introduced to the 
neighbourhood of London by Mr. Richard Williams, of the Turnhara Green 
Nursery, who received it from Gopsal Hall, the seat of Earl Howe, and presented 
specimens of the fruit to the Horticultural Society in 1820. It was with him that 
the name of Wellington Apple originated, and by which it is now generally known 
in the London markets. 

DUNDEE. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, by two 

5 



6Q 



THE FLUIT MANUAL. 



inches high; oblate, very much like a Scarlet Nonpareil in shape. 
Skin, entirely covered with russet. Eye, closed, with broad erect 
segments, which are spreading at the tips, and set in a shallow plaited 
basin. Stamens, median; tube, funnel-shaped. Flesh, gi-eenish, 
firm, crisp, very juicy, with a pleasant, but not a high flavour. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, closed. 

A second-rate dessert apple ; in use during December and January, 
but, like all russets, very liable to shrivel. 

Dundee. See Golden Reinette, 

DUNGAY. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quarters 
wide by two and a half high ; roundish ovate, even and symmetrical 
in its outline. Skin, bright deep crimson where exposed to the sun, 
extending over two-thirds of the surface, but lemon-yellow marked with 
broken pale streaks of red where shaded. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, 
convergent segments, set in a wide plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, slender, generally obliquely 
inserted by the side of a fleshy swelling in a greenish russet-lined 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and of good flavour. Cells, 
roundish obovate ; axile. 

An excellent cooking apple, in use up till Christmas. 

I received this from Mr. L. Killick, of Langley, near Maidstone. 

DUTCH CODLIN {Chalmers' Large; Glory of the West).— Fmit, 
very large, irregularly conical or oblong, with a contraction or waist 
near the eye, and prominent ribs extending from the base to the eye. 
Skin, pale greenish yellow, slightly tinged with orange, or pale red 
next the sun. Stalk, an inch long, set in an angular cavity, and thick. 
Eye, small, and closed, with erect segments, set in a deep angular 
basin. Stamens, marginal; tube, conical. Flesh, white, firm, 
pleasantly sub-acid. 

A good bearer, and one of the best kitchen apples. August to 
September. 

DUTCH MIGNONNE {Christ's Golden lieinette ; Copmanthorpe 
Crab; Reinette de Canx ; Stettin Pippin), — Fruit, rather large; 
roundish, and handsome, narrowing a little towards the eye, where it 
is sometimes slightly ribbed. Skin, dull greenish yellow, marked all 
over with broken streaks of pale red and crimson, with traces of russet, 
and numerous russety dots, which are thickest round the eye. Eye, 
small and closed, with short and pointed segments, placed in a deep 
and narrow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch 
long, inserted in a round and deep cavity, which, with a portion of the 
base, is lined with rough russet. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, very juicy, 
rich, sweet, and aromatic. Cells, open, obovate ; axile. 

A very valuable and dehcious dessert apple ; in use from December 
to April. 

The tree is hardy, a vigorous grower, and a very abundant bearer. 



APPLES. 67 

It attains about the middle size when fully grown. The shoots are 
thickly set with fruit spurs. It is well adapted for dwarf or espalier 
training, and for these purposes succeeds well on the paradise stock. 

DYMOCK RED. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half 
wide, by two inches high ; roundish or oblate, even. Skin, entirely 
covered with dark mahogany red, with streaks of bright pale crimson 
on the side next the sun, and somewhat paler, though of the same 
colour, on the shaded side ; the whole surface is strewed witli distinct 
russet dots and mottled with patches and ramifications of cinnamon- 
coloured russet. Eye, set in a shallow, roughly plaited basin, with 
segments that are either divergent or connivent ; when the former, they 
reflex like those of Court-pendu-plat, and when the latter, they touch 
each other by their edges and close the eye. Stamens, basal ; tube, 
funnel- shaped. Stalk, very short, often a mere knob, placed in a very 
narrow and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, soft, and tender, slightly 
sweet, and with a pleasant acidity ; occasionally it is tinged with red. 
Cells, ovate ; axile, closed. 

Earl of Yarmouth's Pearmain. See Oxnead Fearmain. 

EARLY ALMOND (White CVZ/iVt).— Fruit, very large, three inches 
and a half in diameter, and three inches high ; conical, with very 
prominent angles on the sides, which extend to the apex, where 
they form bold and acute ridges, terminating in the basin of the 
eye. Skin, of an uniform greenish yellow, which changes to a fine 
lemon yellow when fully ripe, and here and there a large patch of green 
between the ribs near the stalk. Eye, half open, with long acuminate 
bright green and woolly segments, set in a rather deep and angular 
basin. Stalk, short and slender, imbedded in a very deep, round, and 
funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, quite white, exceedingly tender and 
marrow-like, with a mild and agreeable acidity. 

A remarkably fine culinary apple ; in use from the beginning of 
August, and lasting throughout the month. It is one of the largest 
and best culinary apples I know. 

The Early Almond is cultivated in the Essex and Berkshire orchards. 

Early Bough. See Large Yellow Bough, 

Early Crofton. See hish Peach, 

EARLY HARVEST (Early French Beinette ; July Pippin ; Prince's 
Harvest; Piinces Early Harvest ; Large Early; July Early Pippin; 
Yellow Harvest; Large White Juneating ; Tart Bough ; Prince's 
Yellow Harvest ; July Early Pijipin ; Pomine d'Ete, of Canada). — 
Fruit of medium size, two inches and three-quarters wide, and two 
inches and a quarter high ; round. Skin, smooth and shining, pale 
yellowish green at first, but changing to clear pale waxen yellow as it 
ripens, with a faint blush of red next the sun, and set with imbedded 
white specks, particularly round the eye. Eye, small and sHghtly 



68 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

closed, set in a round and shallow basin. Stamens, marginal or 
median ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, 
inserted in a rather shallow, somewhat russety cavity. Flesh, white, 
tender, crisp, and juicy, with a quick and pleasant sub-acid flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

An estimable and refreshing early dessert apple, of the first quality ; 
ripe in the end of July and the beginning of August. 

The tree is a healthy and free, though not a vigorous grower, and 
an abundant bearer. It is well adapted for dwarf or espalier training 
when grown on the paradise stock, and ought to find a place in every 
collection, however small. 

Though of American origin, this variety succeeds to perfection in 
this country, a qualification which few of the American apples possess. 

EAKLY JOE. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and nearly an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish, or some- 
times quite oblate, slightly angular, particularly round the crown. 
Skin, smooth and shining, almost entirely covered with thin bright 
red, with darker clouds of the same colour next the sun ; on the shaded 
side it is a rich clear waxen yellow, tinged with red. Eye, quite closed, 
with leaf-like segments, set in a flat puckered basin. Stalk, three- 
quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, very tender, juicy, with a delicate and pleasant flavour. 

A pretty dessert apple ; ripe in the end of August and begmning 
of September. In shape and size, as well as colour, it considerably 
resembles the Devonshire Quarrenden, but the colour is much paler 
and brighter than in that variety. 

An American apple said to have been raised in Ontario County, New York ; but 
some think it is a native of Connecticut. 

EAKLY JULYAN {Early Jidien; Fair Lady in Kent).— Fruit, of 
medium size, two inches and three-quarters wide, and two inches and a 
quarter high ; roundish, slightly flattened, and prominently ribbed from 
the eye downwards to the base. Skin, smooth, pale yellow, with an 
orange tinge next the sun, strewed all over with minute dots and a few 
whitish specks. Eye, closed, with broad segments, and set in a deep, 
irregular, and angular basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, 
conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, not extending beyond the 
base, and inserted in a deep and angular cavity. Flesh, yellowish 
white, crisp, very juicy, and with a brisk, pleasant, and balsamic 
flavour. Cells, open or closed, ovate, round or oblate. 

An excellent early dessert or culinary apple, of first-rate quality ; 
ripe in the second week of August. It might with propriety be called 
the Summer Hawthornden, as it equals that esteemed old variety in all 
its properties. 

. The tree is healthy and hardy, but not a large grower. It is, how- 
ever, a good bearer, though not so much so as the Hawthornden, and 
is well adapted for growing as a dwarf. 



APPLES. 69 

Early Julien, or more properly Early Julyan, is so named from the fruit ripening 
in July before the chanjj^e of the Calendar. It now ripens very early in August, 
and in 1877, in the Weald of Sussex, I gathered it on the 2nd of August. It is said 
to be of Scottish origin, but I cannot ascertain where or when it was first dis- 
covered. It is not mentioned by Gibson, nor is it in the catalogue of Leslie and 
Anderson, of Edinburgh, or any of the Scotch nurserymen of the last century. It 
was first introduced to the South by the late Mr. Hugh Ronalds, of Brentford. 

Early Margaret. See Margaret. 

EARLY NONPAREIL {Hicks' Fancy; New Nonpareil; Stagg's 
Nonpareil). — Fruit, small, roundish, narrowing towards the eye, where 
it is ribbed. Skin, gi-eenish yellow, changing to deep yellow as it 
attains maturity, russety, and spotted with grey russet dots. Eye, 
closed or half open, set in a narrow and ribbed basin. Stamens, mar- 
ginal ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch to three- 
quarters long, set in a narrow round cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, 
crisp, juicy, brisk, and aromatic. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

This is a very nice tender-fleshed dessert apple, and very juicy ; in 
use from October to December. 

This was called Hicks' Fancy by Kirke, the nurseryman at Brompton, who altered 
the name of an old variety for no other reason than that a friend of his, wiio waa 
keeper of the Guildhall, of London, preferred it to any other apple. This Kirke 
told me himself. 

EARLY RED CALYILLE (Cahille Eouge Prccoce). —Frnit, below 
medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter 
high ; roundish, smooth, and even in outline. Skin, very highly 
coloured, being of a brilliant crimson all over, and sprinkled \vith large 
fawn-coloured russet dots. Eye, half open, with somewhat divergent 
segments, set in a shallow, narrow, and neat saucer-like basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, deep, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, straight, 
inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, tender, pleasantly acid, but not 
highly flavoured. Cells, obovate; axile, closed. 

A very ornamental apple, whose greatest recommendation is the 
brilliancy of its colour. It is in use in October and November. 

Early Red Juneating. See Margaret, 

Eai'ly Red Margaret. See Margaret. 

EARLY SPICE. — Fruit, of medium size, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, and 
somewhat angular. Skin, smooth, of an uniform pale yellow or straw 
colour, and thinly strewed with greenish dots. Eye, small and open, 
with long reflexed segments, and set in a small basin. Stalk, three- 
quarters of an inch long, deeply inserted in a rather angular cavity, 
which is thickly lined with russet. Flesh, white, tender, and very 
juicy, with a pleasant, refreshing, and sub-acid flavour. 

An excellent early culinary apple, which is well suited for baking, 



70 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

and is also good as an eating apple. It is ripe in the first week of 
August, but soon becomes woolly after being gathered. 

Early Striped Juneating. See Margaret. 

Early Summer Pippin. See Drap d'Or, 

EARLY WAX. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches wide, and 
two inches and a half high ; oblong, and somewhat ribbed, particularly 
at the base. Skin, thick and membranous, of an uniform waxen yellow 
colour. Eye, partially open, with long reflexed segments, and set in a 
moderately deep basin. Stalk, long and slender, inserted in a deep and 
angular cavity, from which issue prominent ribs. Flesh, yellowish 
white, tender and soft, with a sweet and abundant juice. 

A dessert apple of ordinary merit, valuable only for its earliness, as 
it ripens in the first week of August, but does not keep any time. 

Easter Pippin. See Winter Greening. 

ECKLINVILLE. — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two 
inches and a half high ; roundish and flattened, even in its outhne, and 
slightly angular round the eye. Skin, bright, rather deep lemon colour, 
with a tinge of green, strewed, but not thickly, with large russet dots, 
and with a crimson blush on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, large, 
with closed segments, deeply set in an angular basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, not protrud- 
ing beyond the flat base of the fruit. Flesh, white, tender, and fine 
grained, with a brisk acidulous flavour. Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

This is a handsome and excellent culinary apple ; in use from October 
to Christmas. The tree is a great bearer. 

The tree was raised at Ecklinville, four miles from Portaferry, and eighteen from 
Belfast, by a Scotch gardener of the name of Logan, about the beginning of this 
century, and it is now extensively grown in Ireland and the south of Scotland. 

EDINBURGH CLUSTER {Sir Walter Blacketfs).—Fm[t, below 
medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two and a quarter high ; 
roundish or roundish ovate, obtusely angular, and rather ribbed round 
the eye. Skin, pale lemon yellow, very much dotted with pale brown 
russet and patches of the same, particularly round the base, and with 
a faint orange tinge next the sun. Eye, closed, with broad, erect seg- 
ments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a wide and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, set 
in a narrow cavity, from which branch out lines of rough russet. 
Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and sub-acid, with a peculiar aroma. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, slit. 

A second-rate dessert apple in the southern parts of the country, 
but of better quality in the north, and especially in the Border 
counties. November to January. 

Edmonton Aromatic. See Kerry Pippin. 



APPLES. 71 

EDMUND JUPP. — Fiuit, rather below medium size, roundish 
ovate, even and regular. Skin, smooth, yellow, sometimes with an 
orange tinge next the sun, strewed with a few russet spots. Eye, 
closed, with segments reflexed at the tips, open, set in a narrow plaited 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, slender, very short. 
Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and with a brisk flavour. Cells, ob- 
ovate ; axile. 

An excellent culinary apple ; from September till December. The 
tree is a great bearer. 

A Sussex apple, grown about Horsham. 

EGGLETON STYRE.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches high ; roundish, and obtusely ribbed. Skin, rich 
yellow, orange next the sun, and covered with patches and tracings 
of russet. Eye, open, with reflexed segments, set in an even basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch 
long, slender, deeply inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with 
russet, which branches out over the base. Flesh, yellowish^ tender, 
juicy, sweet, and slightly acid. Cells, round ; axile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple, which was raised by Mr, William Hill, of Lower 
Eggleton, near Ledbury, and the tree first bore fruit in the year 1847. 

ELDON PIPPIN. —Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and 
two inches high ; round, and somewhat oblate and angular, prominently 
ribbed round the eye. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, but almost 
entirely covered with thin crimson, which is streaked with darker 
crimson on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, and deeply set in a 
ribbed and irregular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical or 
rather cup-shaped. Stalk, very short, set in a deep cavity, lined with 
russet, which extends over the base of the fruit. Flesh, yellowish or 
greenish yellow, very juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured, with a fine 
aroma. Cells, round ; axile, slit. 

A very excellent dessert apple ; in use from December till April. 

Elizabeth. See Golden Reinette. 

EMBROIDERED PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a half wide, and two inches high ; roundish oblate, with obtuse ribs, 
which extend from the base to the apex, where they terminate in promi- 
nent ridges. Skin, green on the shaded side, with a few broken streaks 
of pale red, but on the side next the sun it is much streaked with rather 
bright crimson, sprinkled with large russet dots. Eye, open, with 
reflexed acute segments, set in a deep and plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, short and stout, deeply inserted in an 
angular ribbed cavity. Flesh, greenish, crisp, and juicy, with a brisk 
acidity. Cells, round ; axile. 

This is the Embroidered Pippin of the Horticultural Society, but is 
difierent from Fenouillet Jaune. It is a second-rate dessert apple ; in 
use from December till January. 



72 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



EMPEROR ALEXANDER (Aporta; Russian Emperor),— Frmt, 
sometimes very large ; ovate, even and regular in its outline. Skin, 
smooth, greenish yellow with a few streaks of red on the shaded side, 
and orange streaked with bright red next the sun, the whole strewed 
with numerous russety dots. Eye, open or half open, with broad, erect 
segments, set in a deep, even, and slightly ribbed basin. Stamens, 
median or basal ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch or 
more in length, inserted in a deep, round, and even cavity, which is lined 
with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, crisp, juicy, and sugary, 
with a pleasant and slightly aromatic flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A beautiful I and valuable apple, both as regards its size and quality. 
It is more adapted for culinary than dessert use, but is also desirable 
for the latter were it only on account of its noble appearance at the 
table. It is in use from September to December. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, producing long stout 
shoots ; is perfectly hardy and a good bearer. 

This apple was introduced to England by Mr. Lee, nurseryman, of Hammersmkh, 
in 1817, and was exhibited by him at the London Horticultural Society, the speci- 
men produced being five inches and a half in diameter, four inches deep, sixteen 
inches in circumference, and weighing nineteen ounces. 

ENGLISH CODLIN (Common Codlin; Quo dim rj). —'Fruit, large, 
three inches and a quarter wide, and three inches high ; ovate or short 
conical, wide at the base, generally taller on one side of the eye than the 
other, and frequently with a snouted apex terminated in ridges round 
the eye. Skin, lemon yellow, marked with patches and broad veins of 
russet, especially about the apex and in the cavity of the stalk ; some- 
times it has a thin red cheek on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, 
with long, pointed segments, set on one side of the axis in a deep, 
angular, and furrowed basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, 
short, quite within the deep, uneven cavity. Flesh, firm, brisk, and 
with a pleasant perfume. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A fine old English cooking apple ; in use from August to October. 

The trees are excellent bearers, but in most orchards they are gene- 
rally found unhealthy, being cankered and full of woolly aphis, which 
Mr. Lindley attributes to their being grown from suckers and trun- 
cheons stuck into the ground. He says — ''Healthy, robust, and sub- 
stantial trees are only to be obtained by grafting on stocks of the real 
Sour Hedge Crab ; they then grow freely, erect, and form very hand- 
some heads, yielding fruit as superior to those of our old orchards as 
the old and at present deteriorated Codlin is to the Crab itself." This 
circumstance was noticed by Worlidge two hundred years ago — ** You 
may graft them on stocks as you do other fruit, which will accelerate 
and augment their bearing ; but you may save that labour and trouble, 
if you plant the Cions, Slips, or Cuttings of them in the spring-time, a 
little before their budding ; by which means they will prosper very 
well, and soon become trees ; but these are more subject to the canker 
than those that are grafted. '^ 



APPLES. 73 

This is one of our oldest English apples, and still deserving of wider cultivation 
than it at present has. Formerly it was an ingredient in one of the national dishes 
of English cookery in the form of "Codlins and cream." Ray says, " Crudum 
vix editur ob duritiem et aciditatem, sed coctum vel cum cremoro lactis, vel cum 
aqua rosacea et saccharo comestum inter laudatissima t'ercula habetur.'* The name 
is derived from coddle, to parboil. 

Englischer Quittenapfel. See Lemon Pippin. 

English Golden Pearmain. See Golden Pearmain. 

English Nonpareil. See Nonpareil, 

English Pippin. See Golden Reinette, 

ESOPUS SPITZENBURGH (uEsopus Spitzenherg ; Tnie Spitzm- 
burgh). — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and three inches 
high ; ovate, and regularly formed. Skin, almost entirely covered with 
clear bright red, and marked with fawn-coloured russety dots, except on 
a portion of the shaded side, where it is yellow tinged and streaked with 
red. Eye, small and closed, set in a moderately deep and undulating 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, slender, about an inch 
long, inserted in a wide, round, and deep cavity. Flesh, j-ellow, crisp, 
juicy, richly and briskly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

A most excellent dessert apple ; in use from November to February. 

A native of the United States, and there considered one of the best dessert 
apples. Along with the Newtown Pippin, it ranks as one of the most productive 
and profitable orchard fruits, but, like many, and indeed almost all the best American 
varieties, it does not attain to that perfection in this country that it does in its 
native soil. The tree is tender and subject to canker, and the fruit lacks that high 
flavour and peculiar richness which characterises the imported specimens. It was 
raised at Esopus, on the Hudson, where it is still grown to a large extent. 

ESSEX PIPPIN.— Fruit, small ; round and flattened, somewhat 
oblate. Skin, smooth, green at first, but becoming of a yellowish 
green as it ripens, and with a faint tinge of thin red where exposed 
to the sun. Eye, open, with long, reflexed, acuminate segments, placed 
in a shallow basin. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, slender, 
inserted in a round and even cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, and crisp, 
with a brisk, sugary, and rich flavour. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, nearly allied to the Golden 
Pippin ; it is in use from October to February. 

Essex Spice. See UArcy Spice, 

Eve Apple. See Manks Codlin. 

Eve Apple. See Margaret, 

Eve's Apple. See Trumpington. 

Fair Lady. See Early Juhjan. 

EVARGIL. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half wide, 



74 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

and two inches high ; oblate, even and regular in its outline. Skin, 
uniform deep lemon yellow, strewed with a few russet dots. Eye, open, 
with spreading reflexed segments, set in a rather deep, round, and even 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch 
long, slender. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, but not with much flavour. 
Cells, obovate; axile, open. 

An early autumn apple, of little value either for the dessert or 
culinary use. 

FAIR MAID OF TAUNTON.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and an inch and three-quarters high ; ovato-oblate, and rather 
irregularly formed. Skin, smooth and shining, thick and membranous, of 
a pale straw colour, and with a faint tinge of red on the side exposed to 
the sun; thickly strewed all over with small russety dots. Eye, somewhat 
closed, with broad, flat segments, which are reflexed at the tips, and 
set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, 
very short, inserted in a wide cavity, which is lined with rough brown 
russet. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, very juicy, sweet, and, though 
not richly, yet pleasantly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple, but not of the first quality ; in use from November 
to February. 

FAIRY. — Fruit produced in clusters of from three to five, much in 
the same way as clusters of cherries ; small, rather flattened at both 
ends, very even and regular in the outline. Skin, smooth and shining, 
covered with bright lively crimson, shaded with streaks of a deeper 
tinge, and on the unexposed side it is lemon yellow. Eye, closed, set 
prominently, almost level with the surface, and surrounded with plaits. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, sometimes less than a quarter 
of an inch long, and frequently straight, slender, and as much as an 
inch or more inserted in a small shallow cavity, which is russety. 
Flesh of a fine deep yellow, firm, crisp, very juicy, with a rich, brisk 
flavour, and fine delicate aroma when eaten with the skin on. Cells, 
obovate ; axile. 

A pretty little apple, Tvhich comes into use in December and lasts 
till April. 

Raised by Mr. Jennings in his nursery at Shipston-on-Stour, from seed of the 
Scarlet Siberian Crab or Cherry Apple. The seed was sown with no intention of 
raising new varieties of fruit, but for stocks on which to graft the ordinary varieties 
of apples. One of these showing signs of fruit, Mr. Jennings grafted it upon a 
free apple stock, and the result was this variety. 

FALL PIPPIN {Cobbetfs Fall Pippin). — Fruit, large, three inches 
and a quarter wide, and two inches and three-quarters high; roundish, 
generally a little flattened, pretty regular, sometimes with obscure ribs 
at the eye. Skin, smooth, yellowish green, becoming a fine yellow, with 
often a tinge of brownish blush on one side, and with a few scattered 
dots. Eye, open, not very large, rather deeply sunk in a narrow round 
basin. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, extending considerably 



APPLES. 75 

beyond the fruit, set in a rather small, shallow, round cavity. Flesh, 
white, very tender and mellow, with a rich aromatic flavour. 

An excellent American cooking apple ; in use from October to December. 

In former editions of this work I made tlie Fall Pippin synonymous with 
Reinette Blanche d'Espagne, and my attention was called to this error by Mr. 
Charles Downing, of Newburgh, U.S.A., to whom 1 am obliged for the correction. 
It Avas introduced to this country from America by William Cobbeit, the political 
writer. 

Fameuse. See De Nehje. 

FARLEIGH PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized; oblong-ovate, and 
with prominent ribs on the sides, which terminate at the crown in bold 
ridges. Skin, j-ellowish green on the shaded side, and brownish red 
where exposed to the sun. Eye, deeply set in an angular basin. 
Flesh, greenish, firm, rich, and sugary. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from January to April. 

The tree is a strong, vigorous, and upright grower, very hardy, and 
an abundant bearer. 

This variety originated at Farleigh, in Kent. 

FEARN'S PIPPIN {Ferris' Pippin; Clifton Nonesuch ; Thomason).— 
Fruit, medium size, two inches and a half wide, and about two inches 
high ; roundish, and flattened at both ends. Skin, pale greenish yel- 
low, streaked with dull red, on the shaded side, and bright dark crimson, 
strewed with grey dots and small patches of russet, on the side next 
the sun, and extending almost over the whole surface. Eye, large, 
partially open, with broad connivent segments, which are reflexed at 
the tips, and set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, 
inserted in a wide and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, 
crisp, brisk, sweet, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

An excellent apple, either for the dessert or culinary purposes ; it is 
in use from November to February. 

The tree is very hardy and a great bearer. It is grown very extensively 
by the London market gardeners for the supply of Covent Garden Market. 

FEDERAL PEARMAIN. — Fruit, above medium size, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high, roundish 
and somewhat flattened, with obtuse angles on the sides, extending to 
the apex, where they form undulating ridges. Skin, russety, yellowish, 
with a little red, and a few dark red streaks on the side next the 
sun. Eye, open, with spreading or reflexed segments, deeply set in 
a ribbed basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an 
inch long. Flesh, fine, delicate, very juicy, and with a rich vinous 
flavour. Cells, oblate ; axile. 

A first-rate dessert apple ; in use from December to March. 

To call this a Pearmaiu is a misnomer, its shape being nearly oblate, and 
ribbed. 



76 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



FENOUILLET JAUNE.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
broad, and an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish, flattened, and 
broadest at the base ; even and regularly formed. Skin, fine bright yellow, 
marked with traces of pale brown russet. Eye, small and closed, set 
in a wide and pretty deep basin. Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a 
deep funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, white, firm, sweet, and richly per- 
fumed. 

A delicious little dessert apple; in use from December till April. The 
tree is a free grower, quite hardy, and an excellent bearer, but requires 
a light and warm soil. 

This is sometimes called Drap d'Or and Embroidered Pippin, but erroneously. 

Ferris' Pippin. See Fearn^s Pij^piii. 

FILLBASKET. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, 
and the same in height ; conical, round at the base, flattened at the 
apex, and distinctly angular on the sides. Skin, pale dull greenish 
yellow on the shaded side, and streaked with broken patches and pen- 
cillings of pale red where exposed to the sun, the whole covered with 
russety dots. Eye, closed, as if drawn together or puckered, placed 
level with the flat crown, and with a small knob or wart at the base 
of each segment. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, thickest at 
the insertion, and placed in a small, round, and shallow cavity, which 
is surrounded with dark brown russet. Flesh, greenish white, tender, 
juicy, and acid, with a brisk and pleasant flavour. 

An excellent culinary apple, extensively grown in the neighbourhood 
of Lancaster, where it is highly esteemed ; it is in use from October to 
January. 

FIRST AND LAST. — Fruit, medium sized ; conical or ovate, even 
and regular in its outline, being of a true Pearmain shape. Skin, deep 
crimson on the side next the sun, mottled with the yellow ground colour 
which shines through it, and with here and there a smooth crust of pale 
brown russet, particularly round the crown and over the base ; the 
shaded side is yellow, with here and there tinges of red and streaks of 
the same colour. Eye, very large and open, beautifully star-like, with 
long reflexed segments, set in a deep and narrow basin. Stamens, 
median; tube, short, conical, or funnel-shaped. Stalk, very slender, 
deeply inserted in a narrow cavity, which is lined with russet, or with a 
fleshy swelling on one side of it. Flesh, yellowish, tender, sweet, and 
brisk, w^ith a peculiar spicy aroma. Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

An excellent culinary apple, and useful also in the dessert ; in use 
from September till May. 

A Sussex apple, much grown in the northern part of the county, about Horsham, 
and sent to Brighton market. 

FISH'S PIPPIN. — Fruit, small, two inches and an eighth wide, 
and under two inches high ; round, even, and regular, without any ribs 
or undulations. Skin, greenish yellow, dotted with large russet freckles, 



APPLES. 77 

and here and there sprinkled with small russet patches ; on the side 
next the sun it is coloured with broken stripes of dull crimson, a few of 
which are to be found on the shaded side, but of a paler colour. Eye, 
open, small, with quite reflexed, spreading segments, set in a shallow, 
saucer-like, and very even basin. Stamens, median; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, very short, obliquely inserted, and with a large fleshy swelling on 
one side, which pushes it to a right angle of the axis. Flesh, greenish, 
firm, briskly flavoured, but with little character or flavour. Cells, 
roundish elliptical ; axile. 

A second-rate apple ; in use from November till January. 

Five-crowned Pippin. See London Pippin, 

FLANDERS PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, 
and two and a quarter high ; oblate, and marked on the sides with ten 
distinct angles, five of which are more prominent than the others. Skin, 
pale green, changing to pale greenish 3'ellow as it ripens, and occa- 
sionally tinged with a cloud of thin dull red on the side exposed to the 
sun, and thinly strewed with a few dots. Sometimes in favourable soils 
the whole of the side exposed to the sun is red. Eye, closed, with long 
and downy segments, short and stout, set in a narrow and ribbed basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, inserted in a deep ribbed 
cavity, which is sometimes lined with russet. Flesh, white, tender, and 
juicy, and briskly flavoured, with a pleasant perfume. Cells, obovate ; 
abaxile. 

A culinary apple of second-rate quality ; in use during October and 
November. 

It is much grown in the Berkshire orchards. 



Flanders Pippin. See Mire de Mcnaf/e. 



FLAT NONPAREIL. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch 
and a half high ; round, even, and regular in its outline. Skin, smooth, 
greenish yellow, dotted with large russet dots. Eye, small, and open, 
with broad, short, recurved segments, set in a shallow flat basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, inserted in a shallow cavity. 
Flesh, with a greenish tinge, very tender, crisp, and juicy, but not 
highly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile, closed. 

A second-rate dessert apple, which keeps till after Christmas. 

FLOWER OF HERTS.— Fruit, medium size, three inches wide, 
and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish ovate, even in its 
outline. Skin, light pea-green, thinly covered with short broken streaks 
of pale crimson. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, erect segments, set in a 
shallow plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, short 
and slender, half an inch long, inserted in a wide cavity. Flesh, 
greenish white, very tender and soft, not very juicy, and with a 
delicate subacid flavour. Cells, roundish ovate ; axile. 

A second-rate kitchen apple ; in use during November and December. 



73 



THE FBUIT MANUAL. 



FLOWER OF KENT.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, 
and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish ovate, being broad 
at the base and narrowing towards the crown ; it is obtusely angular, 
and has broad ridges round the crown. Skin, bright green, which 
changes to yellow on the shaded side, but wherever exposed to the sun 
it is striped with crimson, forming a beautiful variation with the ground 
colour, and it is russety only over the base. Eye, small, with con- 
nivent segments, set in a pretty deep narrow and angular basin. Stamens, 
basal ; tube, cup-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, set in a rather 
shallow cavity, which sometimes has a slight swelling on one side, and 
surrounded wdth rough brown russet. Flesh, crisp, very juicy, and 
with a brisk acidity Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A first-rate kitchen apple, from October to January. The tree is a 
pretty good bearer, one of the strongest and most vigorous growers, 
and more suitable for the orchard than the fruit garden. 

A very old variety, being mentioned by Parkinson, who was contemporaneous 
with Shakespeare. 

FLUSHING SPITZENBURGH.— Fruit, medium sized; roundish, 
narrowing towards the eye. Skin, entirely covered with deep red, 
which is streaked with deeper red, except on any small portion where 
it has been shaded, and there it is green, marked with broken streaks 
and mottles of red, the whole surface strewed with light grey russety 
dots. Eye, small and closed, very slightly depressed, and surrounded 
with plaits. Stalk, nearly an inch long, inserted in a deep and russety 
cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender, sw^eet, juicy, and without any pre- 
dominance of acid. 

An American dessert apple which is of no merit in this climate. 
It is in use from October to January. 

FORESTER. — Fruit, medium size, two inches and three-quarters 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, evenly shaped. 
Skin, with a deep reddish orange cheek, mottled with thin grey russet 
on the side next the sun, and greenish yellow where shaded. Eye, 
closed, with broad, flat, convergent segments, set in a moderately deep 
basin, which is plaited and somewhat angular. Stamens, median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, set in a deep cavit3\ 
Flesh, yellowish, tender, and agreeably subacid. Cells, roundish 
obovate ; axile. 

A culinary apple, in use up till Christmas. It is much grown in the 
south of Shropshire and north of Worcestershire. 

FOREST STYRE (Stive).— Fruit, below medium size ; roundish, 
inclining to oblate, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, pale 
yellow, with a blush of red on the side which is exposed to the sun. 
Eye, small and closed, with short obtuse segments, set in a shallow 
and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a shallow cavity. 
Flesh, firm. 

Specific gravity of the juice from 1076 to 108L 



APPLES. 79 

This is a fine old Gloucestershire cider apple, which is extensively 
cultivated on the thin limestone soils of the Forest of Dean. The 
cider that it produces is strong bodied, rich, and highly flavoured. 

The tree produces numerous straight, luxuriant, upwai'd shoots, 
like a pollard willow ; it runs much to wood, and in deep soils attains 
a considerable size before it becomes fruitful. 

FORGE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two 
and a quarter high ; roundish, and obtusely ribbed. Skin, of a golden 
yellow colour, mottled with crimson on the shaded side, and dark red 
covered with dark crimson streaks on the side next the sun. Eye, 
small and closed, set in a rather deep angular and plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very 
short, set in a shallow, close cavity, and generally with a fleshy swelling 
on one side of it. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, juicy, sweet, and 
finely perfumed. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A useful kitchen apple. The tree a great and constant bearer. 
October to January. 

This is the cottager's apple par excellence in that part of Sussex which is con- 
terminous to Surrey and Kent. It originated at Forge Farm, near one of the old 
forges in the iron districts of Sussex, near Crawley. 

FORMAN'S CREW. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch 
and three-quarters high ; ovate, even and symmetrical in outline. Skin, 
yellow and russety, with a tinge of reddish brown on the side next the 
sun. Eye, small and open, with short divergent segments, set in a 
ribbed basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an 
inch long, inserted in a small narrow cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, 
juicy, rich, and highly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

One of the best dessert apples, with the flavour of Nonpareil and 
Golden Pippin. November to April. The tree is a great bearer, but 
is tender and subject to canker. It is well adapted for dwarf bushes, 
and cspahers when grafted on the paradise stock. 

This variety was raised by Thomas Scton Forman, Esq., Penny darron Place, 
near Merthyr Tydvil. 

FORMOSA PIPPIN. — Fruit, medium sized ; roundish, and rather 
irregular in its outline, being somewhat ribbed, sometimes inclining to 
oblate. Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, but almost entirely 
covered with crimson, and streaked with the same colour on the side 
next the sun. Eye, closed, set in an even basin. Stalk, half an inch long, 
rather deeply inserted. Flesh, yellow, with a greenish tinge, firm, 
crisp, juicy, brisk, sugary, and with a rather rich flavour. 

A useful apple, either for cooking or for the dessert ; frequently 
confounded with the Ribston Pippin, to which it is somewhat similar, 
but to which it is inferior in flavour. 

FORMOSA NONPAREIL.— Fruit, below medium size, two mches 



80 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

and a half wide, and two inches and an eighth high ; roundish, narrow- 
ing a Uttle towards the crown, even and regular in its outline, and 
with a curved axis. Skin, dark green, becoming paler as it ripens, 
strewed with tracings of russet and russet dots, especially over the 
crown and round the stalk, and occasionally with some broken streaks 
of crimson on the side next the sun. Eye, rather large and wide, 
open, with spreading, sharp-pointed segments, set in a narrow, shallow 
basin, as in the old Nonpareil. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, rather stout, and 
inserted in a wide and moderately deep cavity. Flesh, greenish, firm, 
and crisp, juicy, and with a fine Nonpareil flavour. Cells, round or 
roundish obovate ; axile, closed. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from November till Christmas. 
It has some resemblance in shape to the old Nonpareil. 

FOULDEN PEARMAIN {Horrex's Fear main). —Frnii, below 
medium size, two inches and a half high, and about the same broad ; 
ovate. Skin, yellow in the shade, and clear thin red on the side 
exposed to the sun, strewed all over with small russety dots. Eye, 
small and open, set in a narrow and shallow basin. Stalk, three- 
quarters of an inch long, inserted in a round and moderately deep 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, very juicy, and briskly acid. 

An excellent culinary apple, and suitable also for the dessert ; in 
use from November to March. 

This originated in the garden of Mrs. Horrex, of Foulden, in Norfolk, and was 
first brought into notice by Mr. George Lindley, who communicated it to the 
Horticultural Society, March 7, 1820. 

FOX KERNEL. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and the same in height ; ovate or ovato-conical, with 
five distinct angles, and sometimes smaller intermediate ones, all of 
which extend to the crown, where they form prominent ridges. From 
the middle it narrows both towards the stalk and towards the crown. 
Skin, almost entirely covered with crimson stripes on a deep yellow 
ground, and especially on the side exposed to the sun, becoming paler 
as they extend to the shaded side, where the colour is yellow. Eye, 
rather large, set in a narrow ribbed basin ; segments, convergent, with 
divergent points. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch 
or more long, curved obliquely, inserted in a very deep and angular 
cavity, with an undulating margin. Flesh, very soft, tender, dry, and 
sweet. Cells, ovate; axile, closed. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

FOXLEY. — Fruit, growing in clusters of two or three together, 
very small, not much larger than a good-sized cherry ; roundish, 
and sometimes a little flattened, and narrowing towards the crown. 
Skin, deep rich golden yellow on the shaded side, and bright reddish 
orange on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, not 



APPLES. 81 

depressed, and surrounded witL a few knobs. Stalk, about an inch 
long, inserted in a shallow russety cavity. Flesh, yellow. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 1080. 

A valuable cider apple. 

liaised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., from the Cherry Apjile, impregnated 
with the pollen of the Golden Tippin. It was named Foxley alter the seat of the 
late Uvedale Piice, Esq., in whose garden, where it had been grafted, it first 
attained maturity. Mr. Knight says, "There is no situation where the common 
Wild Crab will produce fruit, in which the Foxley will not produce a fine cider." 

FOX- WHELP. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, 
by the same high ; roundish, inclining to ovate, uneven in outline, 
caused by several obtuse ribs, which terminate in ridges round the eye ; 
in good specimens one side is convex and the other is flattened. 
Skin, beautifully striped with deep bright crimson and yellow ; on 
the side next the sun it is darker crimson than it is on the shaded 
side, where the yellow stripes are more apparent ; the surface is 
marked with several dark patches like scabs, which are a never- 
faihng character. Eye, very small, set in a narrow, shallow, and plaited 
basin ; segments, short, somewhat erect, and slightly divergent. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an 
inch long, obliquely inserted by the side of a fleshy swelling, which 
pushes it on one side and gives it a curving direction. Flesh, yellow 
tinged with red, tender, and with a rough acid flavour. Cells, open, 
elliptical, pointed. 

This is one of the most valuable of the cider apples of Here- 
fordshii'e. 

The earliest record we have of the Fox-whelp is by Evelyn in his " Pomona," 
which is an appendix to the Sylva " concerning fruit trees in relation to cider " 
Tills was first published in 16G4, and at that time and long alter the great apple 
of Herefordshire was the Red-sireak. The Fox-whelp is disposed of in a lew 
words — "Some commend the Fox-whelp." Ralph Austen, who wrote in* 1653, 
makes no mention of it when he says, " l>et the greatest number of fruit trees not 
onely in the orchards but also in the fcilds be Tear-maines, Pippins, Gennet- 
Moyles, Ked-streaks, and such kinds as are knowne by much experience to be 
cspeciall good for cider." Neither is any notice taken of it by Dr. Beale in his 
" Herefordshire Orchards, written in an epistolary addre>8 to Samuel Hartlib, 
Esq.," in 1656. The first notice of it after Evelyn is by Worledge in 1676, who 
merely says, " The Fox-whelp is esteemed among the choice cider fruits.'* In 
Evelyn's litne it appears to have been regarded as a native of Gloucestershire, for 
Dr. Smith in the " Pomona," when writing of" the best fruit (with us in Glouces- 
tershire)," says, " The cider of the Bromsbury Crab and Fox-whelp is not fit for 
drinking till the second year, but then very good ; " and in the quotation at the 
head of this paper " a person of great experience " calls it " the Fox- whelp of the 
Forest of Deane." 

Although all who have noticed the Fox-whelp up to this period have spoken of 
its merits as a cider apple, its cultivation must not have been on an extensive 
scale, otherwise it would have been better known than it appears to have been. 
Even Philips, in his celebrated poem on "Cyder," seems as ignorant of its exist- 
ence as many of the writers on orchards were at that period. The first apprecia- 
tive notice of it with which we are acquainted is found m a letter to a friend 
written by Hugh Stafford of Pynes in Devonshire, Esq., bearing date 1727. He 
says, " This is an apple long known, and of late years has acquired a much greater 

6 



82 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

reputation than it had formerly. The fruit is rather small than middle-sized, in 
shape long, and all over of a dark red colour. I have been told by a person of 
credit that a hogshead of cider from this fruit has been sold in London for £8 or 
eight guineas, and that often a hogshead of French wine has been given in ex- 
change for the same quantity of Fox-whelp. It is said to contain a richer and 
more cordial juice than even the Red-streak itself, though something rougher if 
not softened by racking. The tree seems to want the same helps as the Eed-streak 
to make it grow large. It is of Herefordshire extraction." 

FRANKLIN'S GOLDEN PIPPIN (Sudlow's Fall Pippi7i).— Fruit, 
medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches high ; oblato- 
ovate, even and regularly formed. Skin, of an uniform deep yellow, 
covered all over with dark spots interspersed with fine russet, par- 
ticularly round the apex. Eye, with long narrow segments, erect or 
reflexed at the tips, partially open, and set in a wide and deep basin. 
Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short and slender, about half 
an inch long, inserted in a round, narrow, and smooth cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, tender, and crisp, very juicy, vinous, and aromatic. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from October to December. 

The tree does not attain a large size, but is vigorous, healthy, and 
hardy, and an excellent bearer. It is well suited for a dwarf or espalier, 
and succeeds well on the paradise stock. 

The statement in the Transactions of the Horticultural Society that this is of 
American origin, and was introduced to this country by John Sudlow, Esq., of 
Thames Ditton, and first exhibited at the London Horticultural Society in 1819, 
must be a mistake. I have recently discovered among the Forsyth MSS. a list of 
the fruits he received when he was writing his Treatise on Fruit Trees, and there, 
under date of 1801, 1 lind that he received the Franklin's Golden Pippin from 
Kirke of Brompton. I doubt if it is an American apple. 

FRENCH CODLIN. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and an 
eighth wide, and two inches and a half high ; conical, uneven in its 
outline, narrowing from the middle both towards the stalk and the 
crown, and obscurely ribbed on the sides ; it has a waist near the 
crown. Skin, quite smooth, pale straw colour, and sometimes with a 
faint tinge of blush next the sun. Eye, closed, with erect segments 
set on the surface of the narrow apex in a plaited, slight depression. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped, deep, and very narrow. Stalk, 
small and short, set in a narrow and very shallow cavity. Flesh, white, 
tender, juicy, and brisk, without much or any flavour. Cells, open, 
elliptical. 

An early cooking apple, of pretty appearance ; ripe in the middle of 
August. It is common in the districts round Derby, where it is grown 
under the name of Leicestei' -Burton Pippin. 

French Crab. See Winter Greening. 

French Paradise. See Paradise. 

FRIAR. — Fruit, of good size ; somewhat conical, being broad at the 



APPLES. 88 

base, and narrow at the crown. Skin, dark grass-green on the shaded 
side, and dark muddy livid red where exposed to the sun. Eye, sunk, 
and surrounded by four or five obtuse but prominent ridges. Stalk, 
short and stiff, notwithstanding which the fruit is generally pendant. 

Specific gravity of its juice, 1073. 

This is a cider apple cultivated in the north-west parts of Hereford- 
shire, where the climate is cold and the soil unfavourable, and where 
proper attention is never paid by the farmer to the management of his 
cider, which in consequence is generally fit only for the ordinary pur- 
poses of a farm-house (Knight). 

The trees are vigorous and productive. 

Mr. Knij,'ht says, " The Friar probably derived its name from some imagined 
resemblance between its colour and that of the countenance of a well-fed 
ecclesiastic." 

Frith Pitcher. See Mariks Codlin. 

FROGMORE GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, 
and an inch and three-quarters high, but occasionally the large fleshy 
swelling at the stalk in the way of the Lemon Pippin would make the 
height two inches, and on that account the fruit is more oval than 
round. Skin, yellow, with a pale red cheek, which is streaked with 
crimson. Eye, open, with short divergent segments, set almost even 
with the surface, and surrounded with a few plaits. Stamens, mar- 
ginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, set on the end of a 
fleshy mass. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, briskly flavoured. Cells, 
roundish obovate ; axile, closed. 

A good dessert apple ; in use from November till January. It was 
raised by Mr. Ingram at the Royal Gardens, Windsor. 

FROGMORE NONPAREIL.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half 
wide, and an inch and three-quarters high ; oblate, higher on one side 
of the axis than the other, even and symmetrical in its outline. Skin, 
of an uniform straw colour, with a greenish tinge, dotted all over 
sparingly with russet dots, and with some russet in the basin of the 
eye. Eye, wide open, with divergent segments, set in a round, even, 
saucer-like basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, long and slender, inserted in a wide, funnel-shaped cavity. 
Flesh, tender, juicy, sweet, and with a fine aroma. Cells, ovate or 
roundish ; axile. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use during October and Novelnber. 

This was raised in the Royal Garden at Frogmore, near Windsor. 

FROGMORE PROLIFIC— Fruit, large, three inches and a half 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish, very regular 
in outline. Skin, smooth, of a pale greenish yellow, slightly streaked 
and shaded with crimson on the side next the sun. Eye, rather 
small, closed, and set in a shallow, regular basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, very deeply 



84 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

inserted. Flesh, white,very tender, juicy, and sweet. Cells, roundish ; 
abaxile. 

In use from September to Christmas. Its great merit rests in its 
cooking qualities, being esteemed one of the finest which is sent into 
the Royal household at Windsor. 

Raised in the gardens at Frograore by the late Mr. Ingram, the royal gardener. 

Fry's Pippin. See Court of Wick, 

GALLOWAY PIPPIN ((7ro/i-m-Jaac/i).— Fruit, large, three inches 
and a half wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish, 
and obscurely angular round the basin of the eye. Skin, smooth, 
of a greenish yellow colour on the shaded side, and of a pale thin red, 
gradually blending into the yellow, on that exposed to the sun, strewed 
with russet dots like Dumelow's Seedling, and here and there traces of 
russet ; as it ripens it becomes a clear bright straw colour. Eye, 
with erect convergent segments, set in a pretty deep basin, which is 
uneven, with knobbed plaits. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short, conical. 
Stalk, about half an inch long, imbedded in the deep cavity, which is 
smooth. Flesh, yellowish with a greenish tinge, and somewhat 
perfumed, tender, briskly flavoured. Cells, small, obovate ; axile, 
closed. 

A first-rate kitchen apple ; in use till the end of January. 

This has been cultivated near Wigtoun, in Galloway, from time immemorial. 

GANGES. — Fruit, rather large and cylindrical, with angles on the 
sides, extending from the base to the apex. Skin, pale grass-green, 
assuming a yellowish tinge by keeping, and with a blush of red on the 
side next the sun, marked with short broken streaks of crimson. Eye, 
closed, with long, broad, flat woolly segments, set in a pretty deep 
basin, marked with ten prominent ribs, and lined with down. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch loug, slender, 
sometimes a little downy. Flesh, yellowish green, tender, and fine- 
grained, crisp and juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, 
elliptical ; abaxile. 

A kitchen apple ; in use from October to January. 

Gardener's Apple. See Americcni Mother. 

Garnon's. See Court-Pendit-Plat, 

Garret Pippin. See Borsddrfer, 

GENNET-MOYLE.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half 
wide, and two inches and an eighth high ; roundish, and somewhat 
flattened, prominently and obtusely ribbed, and with ridges round the 
crown. Skin, clear lemon yellow with a more or less russety cheek, 
and with russet lines all over the side next the sun. Eye, closed, 
with connivent leafy segments, set in a puckered basin. Stamens, 



APPLES. 85 

marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about half an inch long, 
inserted all its length in the cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, 
with a yellowish tinge, tender, not very juicy, but rather dry, and with 
a sweet, slightly acid flavour. Cells, round or roundish obovate ; 
axile, open. 

An old cider apple mentioned by Evelyn and Worlidfje. The latter says, 
" The Gennet-Moyle is a pleasant and necessary fruit in the kitchen, and one of 
the best cider apples. The fruit is well marked, and the trees great bearers." It 
was used as a stock for grafting other apple trees u[)on from its being propagated 
easily from cuttings. The name is derived from two obsolete words, Gennet sig- 
nifying a mule, and Moyle a scion or graft, the name therefore meaning a mule or 
hybrid produced by grafting. 

Mortimer says, "The Gennet-Moyle is commonly propagated by cutting off the 
branch a little below a bur-knot, and setting of it without any more ceremony." 
Nourse, in " Campania Felix," says, " It makes an incomparable pleasant liquor, 
but a little weakish, and fit only to be drunk by ladies in the summer, and will 
not keep so lone: as the more masculine cyders, to which it bears the same resem- 
blance as the Verdea does to the stronger wines of Florence." Philips sings its 
praises as — 

" the Moile 
Of sweetest hony'd taste." 

GILLIFLOAVER. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide at 
the base, and three inches high ; conical or Codlin-shaped, very uneven 
in its outline, having prominent ribs, which terminate at the apex in 
corresponding ridges. Skin, smooth and unctuous, shining, pale 
yellowish green on the shaded side, and a red cheek on the side next 
the sun. Eye, large, open, set in a deep angular and uneven basin ; 
segments, erect, divergent. Stamens, median ; tube, deep conical. 
Stalk, half an inch long, deeply inserted. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, 
sweet, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use in October. 

GIPSY KING. — Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and an 
inch and three-quarters high ; oblate, even and symmetrical. Skin, 
dull brownish red on the side next the sun, greenish yellow, with a 
few pale red streaks, on the shaded side, the surface covered with 
patches and freckles of ashy grey russet. E^-e, like that of the 
Blenheim Pippin, open, with divergent segments, set in a round, 
pretty deep, saucer-like basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, half an inch long, straight, inserted in a round, wide, and rather 
shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and sweet, with a 
pleasant acidity and aroma. Colls, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A handsome dessert apple ; in use from October to December. It 
soon shrivels. 

Girkin Pippin. See Wyken Pippin, 

Glammis Castle. See Tower of Glammis. 

GLORIA MUNDI {Baltimore; Belle Dubois; Glazenwood Gloria 



bo THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Mundi; Mammoth; Monstrous Pippin; Ox Apple). — Fruit, immensely 
large, sometimes measuring four inches and a half in diameter ; of a 
roundish shape, prominently angular on the sides, ribbed round the 
eye, and flattened both at the base and the apex. Skin, smooth, pale 
yellowish green, interspersed with white dots and patches of thin 
delicate russet, and tinged with a faint blush of red next the sun. 
Eye, large, open, and deeply set in a wide and slightly furrowed basin. 
Stamens, median or basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short and stout, 
inserted in a deep and open cavity, which is lined wdth russet. Flesh, 
white, tender, juicy, and, though not highly flavoured, is an excellent 
culinary apple. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 
It is in use from October to Christmas. 

Supposed to be of American origin, but some doubts exist as to where it was 
first raised, that honour being claimed by several different localities. The general 
opinion, however, is that it originated in the garden of a Mr. Smith, in the neigh- 
bourhood of Baltimore, and was brought over to this country by Captain George 
Hudson, of the ship Belvedere, of Baltimore, in 1817. It was introduced from 
America into France by Comte Lelieur in 1804. But from the account given in 
the Allgemeines Teutsches Gartenmagazin, it is doubtful whether it is a native of 
America, for in the volume of that work for 1805 it is said to have been raised by 
Herr Kiinstgartner Maszman, of Hanover. If that account is correct, its existence 
in America is, in all probability, owing to its having been taken thither by some 
Hanoverian emigrants. At page 41, vol. iii., Dittrich has confounded the 
synonymes of the Gloria Mundi with Golden Mundi, which he has described under 
the name of Monstow^s Pepping. It was called Belle Dubois by a nurseryman of 
the name of Dubois at Sceaux, near Paris, who sent it out under his own name. 

GLORY OF ENGLAND.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half 
wide, and over two inches and three-quarters high ; ovate, somewhat 
of the shape of Emperor Alexander, ribbed on the sides, and terminated 
round the eye by a number of puckered-like knobs. Skin, dull 
greenish yellow, with numerous imbedded whitish specks, particularly 
round the eye, and covered with large dark russety dots, and linear 
marks of russet ; but on the side exposed to the sun it is of a deeper 
yellow, with a few broken streaks and dots of crimson. Eye, small 
and slightly closed, set in a shallow and puckered basin. Stalk, short 
and fleshy, inserted in a wide, deep, and russety cavity. Flesh, 
greenish yellow, tender, soft, juicy, sprightly, and slightly perfumed. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use from October to January. 

Glory of Flanders. See Brabant Bellefleur, 

GLORY OF THE WEST.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
broad, and two inches and three-quarters high ; oblate, ridged and 
angular about the eye, and ribbed on the sides. Skin, smooth and 
shining, yellow, mixed in some parts with a tinge of green, and washed 
with thin clear red on the side next the sun ; the whole surface is 
strewed with minute russety dots, and several large dark spots, such 
as are often met with on the Hawthornden. Eye, large, with long 
segments, and set in an angular basin. Stalk, three-quarters of an 
inch long, inserted in a deep cavity, which is surrounded with a large 



APPLES. 87 

patch of rough grey rnsset. Flesh, yellowish white, firm but tender, 
very juicy, with a pleasant, brisk, and slightly perfumed flavour. 

A culinary apple of first quality ; it is in use the end of October and 
continues till Christmas. The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, 
attaining a great size, and is an excellent bearer. 

I had this from the late Mr. James Lake, of Bridgewater. It is evidently 
identical with the Glory of the West of Diel, a name which, according to Lindley, 
is sometimes applied to the Dutch Codlin. The variety here described bears a 
considerable lesemblance to that known by the name of Turk's Cap. 

Glory of the West. See DiUch Codlin, 

Glory of York. See Ribston Pippin, 

GLOUCESTER QUOINING.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, and 
two inches and a half high ; round, bluntly angular, undulating at the 
apex. Skin, dull bro^s-nish red next the sun, and streaked with short 
broken streaks of dark crimson and green, or yellowish green, on the 
shaded side ; the surface covered with patches of thin grey russet. 
Eye, closed, with connivent segments, set in a rather deep and angular 
basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical, sometimes inclining to funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, slender, inserted all its length in the narrow, deep 
cavity, which is green and lined with russet. Flesh, white, tender, 
juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile, open. 

A handsome kitchen apple from Glou^'estershire, which I met with at 
the Pomological Meeting at Hereford. It keeps till January. 

GLOUCESTERSHIRE COSTARD.— Fruit, very large, three inches 
wide, and three inches and a half high ; conical or somewhat cylindrical, 
prominently ribbed, and with ridges round the eye ; it is longer conical 
than the Herefordshire Costard. Skin, almost entirely covered with 
crimson streaks, mottled with the yellow ground colour which shows 
between the streaks ; on the side which is shaded there is less crimson, 
but more of the rich deep yellow ; the surface is strewed with minute 
dots. Eye, closed, with long segments, set in a narrow, pretty deep, 
and plaited basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch 
long, stout, and deeply set in an irregular furrowed basin. Flesh, 
yellow, tender, sweet, and of good flavour. Cells, large, open, but not 
wide open like the Codlins, as might be expected from the appearance 
of the fruit ; elliptical ; axile. 

This is a very handsome apple, of good flavour ; but more adapted 
for cooking than the dessert. It keeps well till January. 

It came to me from Mr, Vyner Ellis, of Minsterworth, near Gloucester, through 
Dr. Henry Bull, of Hereford. 

Goff. See Orange Gof. 

GOGAR PIPPIN (Stone Pippin). — Fruit, medium sized ; roundish, 
obscurely angled, and slightly flattened. Skin, thick and membranous, 
pale green, strewed all over with small russety dots, and faintly mottled, 



88 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

with a tinge of brownish red, next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set 
in a narrow, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a 
very shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, tender, juicy, sugary, and 
brisk. 

A dessert apple of second-rate quahty ; in use from January to March. 

This is of Scotch origin, and is said to have originated at Gogar, near 
Edinburgh. 

Golden Apple. See OsUn. 

GOLDEN BITTER-SWEET.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, and 
a little more in height ; conical, bluntly ribbed, narrowing from the 
middle to the stalk and to the eye. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, 
thin dull red on the side next the sun, marked with traces of russet 
and sprinkled with russet dots. Eye, small, closed, with erect 
segments meeting in a point, set in a deep, narrow, and puckered 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, conical. Stalk, short, im- 
bedded in a narrow cavity. Flesh, dry and woolly, sweetish. Cells, 
long, narrow, obovate, elliptical ; axile, more closed than open. 

A good Devonshire cider apple, which bears well and keeps without 
wasting. 

This was sent me by Mr. Kendall, of Netherton Manor, Devon. 

Golden Drop. See Coitrt of Wick. 

GOLDEN DUCAT {Golden Voucat ; Golden Ducket).— Fruit, above 
medium size, three inches wide, and two inches and a half high ; 
round, and obtusely angular. Skin, rich yellow, having some pale 
broken streaks of crimson on the side exposed to the sun, and the whole 
surface strewed with large russet dots. Eye, open, with divergent 
segments like Blenheim Pippin, set in a pretty deep and even basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about an inch long, 
slender, inserted in a wide and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
juicy, sweet, and briskly flavoured. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

A dessert or cooking apple ; in use during October and November. 

A very old apple, mentioned by Worledge. 

GOLDEN HARVEY (Brandy Apple; Round Russet Harveij).— 
Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch and three-quarters high ; 
oblato- cylindrical, even, and free from angles. Skin, entirely covered 
with rough scaly russet, with sometimes a patch of the yellow ground 
colour exposed on the shaded side, and covered with brownish red on 
the side next the sun. Eye, small and open, with very short, reflexed 
segments, set in a wide, shallow, and slightly plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted 
in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, with an 
exceedingly rich and powerful aromatic flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, 
closed. 

This is one of the richest and most excellent dessert apples ; it is in 



APPLES. 89 

use from December to May, but is very apt to slu'ivel if exposed to 
light and air, as most russety apples are. 

The tree is a free grower, and perfectly hardy. It attains about 
the middle size, and is an excellent bearer. When grown on the 
paradise stock it is well adapted for dwarf training, and forms a good 
espalier. 

Independently of being one of the best dessert apples, it is also one of the best for 
cider; and from the great strength of its juice, the specitic gravity of which is 
1085, it has been called the Brandy Apple, 

GOLDEN KNOB. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch and a 
half high ; round, incUniiig to ovate, even and regular in outline. Skin, 
almost entirely covered with rough russet ; on the shaded fide it is 
greenish yellow, and on that exposed to the sun it has an orange thage 
when fully ripe. Eye, partially open, with flat, convergent, short seg- 
ments, set in a narrow, shallow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, fiumel- 
shaped or conical. Stalk, short, imbedded in the shiUlow cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, with a greenish tinge, crisp, juicy, and of good flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A small late-keeping dessert apple ; in use from December till 
March. 

The tree is a strong grower, hardy, and a great bearer. 

GOLDEN MONDAY.— Fruit, small, roundish, and flattened. Skin, 
clear, golden yellow, with markings of russet. Eye, small, and rather 
open. Stalk, very short. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, sugary, 
briskly flavoured, and with a nice aroma. 

A kitchen apple ; in use from October to Christmas. 

GOLDEN NOBLE. — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two and 
three-quarters high ; roimd, and narrowing towards the eye ; handsome 
and symmetrical, without ribs. Skin, smooth, clear bright golden- 
yellow, without any blush of red, but a few small reddish spots and 
small patches of russet. Eye, small, rather closed, with slightly erect 
segments, which are spreading at the tips, set in a smooth and shaUow 
basin, surrounded with plaits. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, short, often with a fleshy growth on one side of it, 
which connects it with the fruit, surroimded with rough russet. Flesh, 
yellow, tender, with a pleasant acid juice, and baking of a clear amber 
colour, perfectly melting, with a rich acidity. Cells, roundish obovate 
or ovate ; abaxile. 

A valuable culinary apple ; in use from September to December. 

Much confusion exists as to the identification of Golden Noble, 
Waltham Abbey Seedling, and Dr. Harvey, the general resemblance 
being so much alike. In Golden Noble the eye is small, somewhat 
closed, with flat, convergent segments, set in a smooth shallow basin, and 
the tube is funnel-shaped ; the stalk is short, generally obliquely in- 
serted by the side of a swollen knob or surrounded by a swelling ; the 



90 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

cells are round or oblate, and abaxile ; the fruit is heavy, and is in use 
from September till December. 

In Waltham Abbey Seedling the eye is larger and open, with erect, 
somewhat divergent segments, and set in an even basin ; the tube is 
conical ; the stalk slender and straight ; the cells obovate, axile ; and 
the fruit is light, and in use from October till January. 

In Dr. Harvey the eye is small and scarcely sunk, and is surrounded 
with knobbed plaits ; the tube is funnel-shaped ; the stalk is straight 
and slender ; the cells obovate, axile ; and the fruit is light, and in use 
from October till January. 

Golden Noble was first brought into notice by Sir Thomas Harr, of Stowe Hall, 
Norfolk, whose gardener procured it from a tree supposed to be the original, in 
an old orchard at Downham, and communicated it to the Horticultural Society of 
Loudon in 1820. 

GOLDEN NONPAREIL. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a half wide, and two inches high ; round and somewhat flattened, even 
and regular in its outline, and having a resemblance in shape to the old 
Nonpareil. Skin, greenish yellow, with an orange or brownish tinge 
next the sun, sprinkled over with russet dots and thin patches of russet. 
Eye, half open, with erect segments, which are reflexed at the tips, set 
in a shallow plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, over half an inch long, stout, and inserted in a saucer- 
like cavity. Flesh, greenish, very juicy and tender, with an agreeable, 
though not a rich jflavour. Cells, ovate or roundish ovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple, which keeps till January or February. 

GOLDEN PEARMAIN (English Golden Fearmain; Buchnan's 
Pearmain). — Fruit, small, about two inches and a half in diameter, and 
the same in height ; abrupt Pearmain- shaped, obscurely ribbed, and 
narrow at the apex. Skin, pale yellow, strewed with patches of russet, 
and covered with minute russety dots on the shady side, but deep red- 
dish orange, streaked with deeper colour, and strewed with minute 
russety dots, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, large and open, with 
reflexed segments, and set in a wide, deep, and angular basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, slender, three-quarters of an inch long, 
and obliquely inserted, with frequently a fleshy protuberance on one 
side of it, in a rather shallow cavity, which is lined with green russet. 
Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, very juicy, sweet, and lacking acidity, 
which gives it a sickly flavour. Cells, obovate or ovate ; axile. 

An apple of second-rate quality, suitable either for culinary purposes 
or the dessert ; in use from November to March. 

The tree is an upright grower and a free bearer, but requires to be 
grown in good soil. 

This is distinguished from the Golden Winter Pearmain by being 
more conical in shape, narrow at the apex, having a fleshy protuberance 
at the base of the stalk, and in having the tube conical instead of funnel- 
shaped, and the stamens always median. 



APPLES. 91 

GOLDEN PIPPIN [Amei-ican Plate ; Balgone Pippin ; Bayfordhury 
Pippin ; Herefordsliire Golden Pippin ; London Golden Pippin : 
Milton Golden Pippin ; Pusset Golden Pippin ; Warier s Golden 
Pippin). — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and about the same in height; 
roundish, inclining to oblong, regularly and handsomely shaped, without 
inequalities or angles on the sides. Skin, rich yellow, assuming a deep 
golden tinge when perfectly ripe, with a deeper tinge where it has been 
exposed to the sun ; the whole surface is strewed with russety dots, 
which are largest on the sunny side, and intermixed with these arc 
numerous imbedded pearly specks. Eye, small and open, with long 
segments, placed in a shallow, smooth, and even basin. Stamens, 
median or marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, from half an inch to 
an inch in length, inserted in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, 
crisp, very juicy, and sweet, with a brisk vinous and particularly fine 
flavour. Cells, ovate, pointed ; axife, closed. 

This is one of the oldest and one of the most highly esteemed of 
our dessert apples. It is in season from November till April. The 
tree is a healthy grower, attaining about the middle size, and it is an 
excellent bearer, Wlien grown on the dwarfing stocks it makes hand- 
some bushes and espaliers. 

It is uncertain where the Golden Pippin originated, but all writers are agreed in 
calling it an English varieiy, and some state that it was raised at Parbam Park, 
near Arundel, in Sussex. 

Although it is not recorded at so early a period as some others, there is no doubt 
it is very old. It is not, however, the " Golden Pippin " of Parkinson, for he says 
** it is the greatest and best of all sorts of Pippins." It was perhaps this circum- 
stance that led Mr. Knight to remark, that from the description Parkinson has 
given of the apples cultivated in his time, it is evident that those now known by 
the same names are different, and probably new varieties. But this is not evidence 
of such being the case, for I find there were two sorts of Golden Pippin, the " Great 
Golding," and the " Small Golding, or Bayford," both of which are mentioned by 
Leonard Meager, and there is no doubt that the *' Golden Pippin " of Parkinson 
was the "Great Golding." llalph Austin calls it " a very speciall apple and great 
bearer." Evelyn states that Lord Clarendon cultivated it, but it was only as a 
cider apple; for he says, " at Lord Clarendon's seat at Swallowfield, Berks, there 
is an orchard of 1,000 Golden and other cider Pippins." In his Treatise on Cider 
he frequently notices it as a cider apple; but never in any place that I can recollect 
of as a dessert fruit. In the Pomona, he says, ''About London and the southern 
tracts, the Pippin, and especially the Golden, is esteemed for making the most 
delicious cider, most wholesome, and most restorative." Switzer calls it " the most 
antient, as well as most excellent apple that is." 

Towards the end of last century Mr. Thomas Andrew Knight entertained a 
theory that the Golden Pippin, and all the old varieties of English apples, were in 
the last stage of decay, and that a few years would witness their total extinction. 
This belief he founded upon the degenerate state of these varieties in the Here- 
fordshire orchards, and the opinion that no variety of apple will continue to exist 
longer than 200 years, after which period the original tree and all its progeny will 
fall to decay. It would be needless to enter into any further discussion upon a 
subject concerning which so much has already been said and written, as there is 
sufficient evidence to confute that theory. The Pearmain, which is the oldest 
English apple on record, shows no symptom of decay, neither do the Catshead, 
London Pippin, or Winter Quoining, those only of the old varieties having dis- 
appeared from our orchards which were not worth perpetuating, their places being 
supplied by others infinitely superior. 



92 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

It was towards the end of the last century that this doctrine was first announced, 
and though many of the old diseased trees of the Herefordshire orchards, of which 
Mr, Knight spoke, have passed away, we have the Golden Pippin still, in all the 
luxuriance of early youth, where attention has been paid to irs cultivation and it 
is grrown in a soil congenial to it, and it exhibits as little indication of decay as any 
of the varieties which Mr. Knight raised to supply the vacancy he expected it to 
create. 

With the best intention for their improvement Mr. Knight did unconsciously a 
vast amount of injury to the Herefordshire orchards by promulgating this error. 
Those who were influenced by his opinion naturally ceased to propagate and to 
plant those grand old varieties which made the reputation and created the wealth 
of these orchards. The existing trees were allowed to fall into decay and neglect, 
and the varieties which Mr. Knight raised with the expectation that they would 
take their places failed to realise the hopes of the planters, and so between two 
stools the Herefordshire orchards suffered. Instead of persistently adhering to the 
Fox- whelp, the Red-streak, Skyrme's Kernel, and such other varieties as the orchardist 
had formerly relied upon, he simply began to plant any strong-growing tree lie 
found in his seed-beds, and which prooii^ed to fill a blank in his orchards. 

But this alarm of Mr. Knight for the safety of the Golden Pippin, and his fear 
of its extinction, were based upon no new doctrine, for we find Mortimer a 
hundred years before equally lamenting the Kentish Pippin. After speaking of 
manures, &c., for the regeneration of fruit trees, he says, *' I shall be glad if this 
account may put any upon the trial of raising that excellent fruit the Kentish 
Pippin, which else, I fear, will be lost. For I find in several orchards, both in 
Kent, Essex, and Hertfordshire, old trees of that sort, but I can find no young 
ones to prosper. A friend of mine tried a great many experiments in Hertford- 
shire about raising them, and could never get them to thrive, though he had old 
trees in the same orchard that grew and bore very well. 1 likewise tried several 
experiments myself, and have had young trees thrive so well as to make mat>y 
shoots of a yard long in a year, but these y«'ung shoots Avere always blasted the 
next year, or cankered ; which makes me think that the ancients had some 
particular way of raiding them, that we have lost the knowledge of." Although 
this was written in the beginning of last century, we have the Kentish Pipjiin still, 
as vigorous and healthy as ever it was. 

GOLDEN REINETTE {Aurore ; Dundee; Megginch Favourite; 
JPrincesse Noble ; Reinette d'Aix ; Reinette Gielen ; Yellow German 
Beinette ; Elizabeth ; Englise Pippin ; Wygers ; Court-pendii doree ; 
Kirke's Golden Beinette; Golden Benet ; Golden Bennet ; Fomme 
Madayne; Wyker Fippin). — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, and 
flattened. Skin, a fine deep yellow, which towards the sun is tinged 
with red, streaked with deeper and livelier red, and dotted all over with 
russety dots. Eye, large and open, wdth short dry segments, and set in 
a wide and even basin. Stamens, marginal; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
half an inch long, deeply inserted in a round and even cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, crisp, brisk, juicy, rich, and sweet. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A fine old dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from 
November to April. The tree is healthy, vigorous, and an abundant 
bearer. It requires a light and warm soil, and is well adapted for 
dwarf training when worked on the paradise stock. 

Large quantities of this fruit are grown in the counties round London 
for the supply of the difierent markets, where they always command 
a high price. 



APPLES. 93 

This hai alwas's lieen regarded as a Hertfordshire apple, and some of the 
old antfiors speak of ii as being in its greatest perfection when grown in that 
county. It has been esteemed as one o^' the finest apples, Worlidge, in 1676, 
says, '" It is to be preferred in our plantations for all occasions." KUis, in his 
" Modern Husbandman," in 1744, says, "The Golden Rennet, when of the largest 
sort, may be truly said to be the farmer's greatest favourite apple, because when 
all others miss bearing, this generally stands his friend, and bears him large 
quantities on one tiee." 

GOLDEN RUSSET {St. Leonard's Nonpareil).— Fruit, medium 
sized, two inches and three-quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter 
high ; ovate. Skin, thick, covered with dingy yellow russet, which is 
rough, thick, and scaly on the shaded side and round the base, and 
sometimes with a bright flame of varnished red on the side next the sun. 
Eye, small and closed, or half open, with erect convergent segments, set 
in a prominently plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, 
very short, inserted in an uneven cavity, and not protruding beyond the 
base. Flesh, pale yellow, firm, crisp, sugary, and aromatic, but not 
abounding in juice. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from Decem- 
ber to March. 

The tree is healthy and an excellent bearer, but requires a warm 
situation to bring the fruit to perfection. 

This is another of our old English apples. Worlidge calls it the Aromatic, or 
Golden Russeting, '• it hath no compear, it being of a gold-colour coat, under a 
russet hair, with some warts on it. It lies over the winter, and is, without dispute, 
the most pleasant apple that grows, having a most pleasant aromatic hautgust, 
and melting in the mouth." It is called St. Leonard's Nonpareil about Horsham 
Irom being grown under that name at Leonard's-lee, near that town. 

Golden Russet Nonpareil. See Nonpareil. 

GOLDEN SPIRE [Tom Matthem).—FrmU large, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and three inches and a quarter high ; conical, even 
in outline, with a slight waist towards the apex, and ribbed round the 
eye. Skin, smooth and shining, pale straw-coloured where it is shaded, 
but of a thin golden colour, tinged with pale orange, where exposed to 
the sun. E3e, rather deeply sunk in a deep and angular basin, with 
divergent segments, which are sometimes quite reflexed. Stamens, basal ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, set in a deep and some- 
what uneven cavity. Flesh, tender, with an agreeable acidity. Cells, 
elliptical ; abaxile. 

A fine solid-fleshed apple ; in use up to December. It is an excellent 
cooking apple, and I am told it is used in Gloucestershire for cider under 
the name of Tom Matthews. 

Golden Vining. See Hubbard's Pearrnain, 

GOLDEN WINTER PEARIMilN {King of the Fippim ; Hamp- 
shire Yellow; Jones's Southampton Pippin). — Fruit, medium sized, 
two inches and a half wide, and two and a quarter high ; abrupt Pear- 



94 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



main- shaped, broadest at the base. Skin, smooth, of a deep, rich, golden 
yellow, which is paler on the shaded side than on that exposed to the 
sun, where it is of a deep orange, marked with streaks and mottles of 
crimson, and strewed with russety dots. Eye, large and open, with 
long and reflexed segments, and placed in a round, even, and rather 
deep basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three- 
quarters of an inch long, stout, and inserted in a rather shallow cavity, 
which is lined with thin pale brown russet mixed with a tinge of green. 
Flesh, yellowish white, firm, breaking, juicy, and sweet, with a plea- 
sant and somewhat aromatic flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A beautiful and very handsome apple of first-rate quality, and suit- 
able either for the dessert or for culinary purposes ; it is in use from 
the end of October to January. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, a most abundant bearer, and 
attains a considerable size. It is perfectly hardy, and will grow in 
almost any situation. 

GOODYEAR PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and about the same in height ; somewhat conical, irregu- 
larly ribbed both at the eye and the stalk. Skin, smooth, of a deep 
lemon-yellow colour, mixed with shaded patches of lively green on the 
shaded side, and with an orange cheek, marked with broken stripes of 
crimson, on the side next the sun. Eye, rather large and open, with 
short, ragged, and imperfect segments, set in a moderately deep and 
plaited depression. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
very short, inserted in a rather deep irregular cavity. Flesh, white, 
tender, and juicy, rather too sweet. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A summer apple, ripe in the beginning of September ; not good 
enough for the dessert, and not sufficiently acid for culinary purposes. 

GOOSE APPLE. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches and a half high ; conical, even in its outline, 
and obtusely angular, terminating in a narrow ribbed apex. Skin, 
smooth, grass-green, except where the fruit is quite exposed, and then 
it has a thin brownish red cheek, which is mottled with darker red. Eye, 
small and closed, with erect segments, which form a cone, set in a rather 
deep, narrow, and ribbed basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, 
short and slender, rather deeply inserted in a close, narrow cavity. Flesh, 
greenish, tender, and rather soft, with a mild acidity and sweetish flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A Herefordshire cooking apple ; in use till Christmas. 

GOOSEBERRY APPLE.— Fruit, above medium size; roundish, 
with obtuse ribs on the sides, which extend to the crown, where they 
form ridges. Skin, deep lively green, with a tinge of brownish red 
next the sun. Eye, open, not deeply sunk. Stamens, median ; funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, short. Flesh, greenish white, very tender, juicy, and 
with a fine agreeable and subdued acidity. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 



APPLES. 95 

A very valuable late-keeping culinary apple, which comes into use 
in November and continues *' till apples come again." 

An excellent apple, and a very valuable one to the orchardist, on account of its 
long-keeping property. It is extensively cultivated in Kent and Sussex, and 
especially about Faversham and Sittiugbourne, for the supply of the London 
markets. 

Gooseberry Pippin. See Ronalds' Goosebetry Pippin. 
Gowrie. See Tower of Glammis, 

GRAHAM {Kentish Deux-Ans). — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and 
two inches and a half high ; roundish and flattened, even in its outline, 
and flat at the base. Skin, green on the shaded side, but with a blush 
on the side next the sun, which is much mottled and streaked with 
crimson, the mottles extending to the shaded side, where. they become 
fainter ; the base is covered entirely with thin greenish grey russet, 
which ramifies up the sides, and frequently almost quite overspreads 
the fruit. Eye, closed, with convergent segments. Stamens, median ; 
tube, short, conical. Stalk, very short, inserted the whole of its 
length in a narrow cavity, and frequently with a fleshy swelling on 
one side of it. Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a 
fine brisk flavour. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A valuable late kitchen apple ; in use up till February. It is much 
grown in the Kentish orchards about Maidstone. 

Grand Bohemian Borsdurfer. See Borsdorfer. 

GRAND DUI^ CONSTANTINE.— This is of the largest size, of 
a roundish shape, somewhat flattened, and obtusely angular on the 
sides, the angles extending to the apex, where they become more pro- 
minent, and form five prominent ridges round the basin of the eye. 
Skin, clear bright yellow, almost entirely covered with streaks of dark 
rich crimson on the side exposed to the sun, and on the shaded side 
much more of the rich yellow ground colour is exposed b}' reason of 
the fewer and less bright markings of crimson. Eye, half open, and 
placed in a deep, irregular, and angular basin, which is surrounded by 
the five knobs or prominences above alluded to. The stalk is short, 
stout, and deeply inserted in the uneven and angular cavity, caused 
by the ribs extending there. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, sweet, slightly 
sub-acid, and with the fine balsamic aroma which is met with in the 
flesh of Cellini. 

This admirable early apple is of Russian origin, but I met with it in 
the collection of my friend, Rev. W. Kingsley, of South Kilvington, 
who is, I believe, the first person who fruited it in this country. In 
the latitude of Thirsk the fruit ripens in the beginning of November ; but 
in the south it is probable that it will come earlier — in all probability in 
the end of September. It does not keep long, as it soon becomes mealy. 

GRANGE'S PEARMAIN {Grange's Pippin),— YivXi, large, three 



96 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

inches wide, and the same in height ; Pearmain-shaped, as large and 
very much the shape of the Ro3'al Pearmain. Skin, yellow, with a 
tinge of green, and studded with imbedded pearly specks, on some of 
which are minute russety points, on the shaded side, but marked with 
broken stripes and spots of crimson, interspersed with large russety 
dots, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, partially closed, with broad, 
flat segments, set in a round, deep, and plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, stout, and rather 
fleshy, inserted in a deep and russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, 
crisp, tender, juicy, and sweet, with a brisk and pleastmt flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A fine large apple of first-rate quality as a culinary fruit, and also 
very good for dessert. It bakes well, and has a fine pleasant acidity. 
In use from November to February. The tree is hardy and an excellent 
bearer. 

Raised by Mr. James Grange, a market gardener, at Kingsland, Middlesex. His 
garden extended over sixty acres. He was also a fruiterer in Covent Garden and 
Piccadilly; the former establishment still exists in the name of Webber, and the 
latter retains the name of the founder. Mr. Grange died 15ih February, 1829, 
aged 70. 

Grange's Pippin. See Gramje's Pearmain. 

GRANNY GIFFARD.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half 
wide, and the same high ; conical, even in outline, except towards the 
crown, where it is ribbed and knobbed. Skin, pale greenish yellow, 
with broken streaks of pale crimson, except where much shaded. Eye, 
quite closed, with erect segments, which are spreading at the tips, set in 
a ribbed and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, slender, and inserted in a rather 
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, very juic}^ sweet, and with an 
excellent flavour. Cells, symmetrical, ovate ; axile, open. 

An excellent dessert or kitchen apple ; in use from November till 
February. 

The first time I saw this was at a meeting of the Biidsh Pomological Society, 
October 15th, 1858, when it was exhibited by Mr. Swiucrd, gardener to John 
ISwinford, Esq., of Minster, near Margate. 

GRAYENSTEIN. — Fruit, above the medium size, three inches wide, 
and two and three-quarters high ; roundish, irregular, and angular on 
the sides, the ribs of which extend from the base, even to the eye. 
Skin, smooth, clear pale waxen yellow, streaked and dotted with lively 
crimson, intermixed with orange, on the side next the sun. Eye, large 
and open, with long segments, which are a little rfeflexed, and set in an 
irregular, angular, and knobbed basin, which is sometimes lined with 
fine delicate russet, aiid dotted round the margin with minute russety 
dots. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, very 
short, but sometimes three-quarters of an inch long, set in a deep 
and angular cavity. Flesh, white, crisp, very juicy, with a rich. 



APPLES. 97 

vinous, and powerful aromatic flavour ; and if held up between the 
eye and the lij,dit, with the hand placed on the margin of the basin of 
the eye, it exhibits a transparency like porcelain. Cells, elliptical or 
round ; abaxile. 

This is a very valuable apple of the first quality, and is equally 
desirable either for the dessert or culinary purposes ; it is in use from 
October to December. The tree is hardy, a vigorous and healthy 
grower, and generally a good bearer. It has somewhat of a pjTamidal 
habit of growth, and attains a considerable size. 

Thouf^h not of recent introduction, this beautiful and excellent apple is com- 
paratively but little known, otherwise it would be more generally cultivated. It 
is one of the favourite apples of Germany, particularly about Hamburgh, and in 
Holstein, where it is said to have originated in the garden of the Duke of 
Augustcnbcrg, at the Castle of Grafenstein. The original tree is said to have been 
in existence about the middle of the last centurj'. 

GREEN BALSAM. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish and flattened, obtusely 
angular on the side, and ribbed at the crown. Skin, of an uniform 
bright green. Eye, with flat, convergent segments, somewhat erect. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, 
inserted in a shallow, narrow cavity. Flesh, crisp, not very juicy, and 
with a pleasant acidity. Cells, round or roundish obovate ; axile, slit. 

A cooking apple peculiar to the northern parts of Yorkshire, where 
it is grown in almost every garden and orchard. •* It is the farmer's 
wife's apple." 

Green Blenheim. See Hambledon Deux-Am. 

Green Cossings. See Rymer. 

Green Kitchen. See Hambledon Deux-Ans, 

Green Newtown Pippin. See Hunt's Green Newtown Pippin and 
Newtown Pippin. 

Green Nonpareil. See Petworth Nonpareil. 

GREEN NORMAN. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
three-eighths wide, and two inches and one-eighth high ; roundish oblate, 
and obtusely ribbed. Skin, shining, bright grass-green, generally with 
a dull red cheek, which extends occasionally over nearly the whole 
surface, and marked with small patches of pale brown russet, and 
especially on the base round the stalk ; the whole surface is strewed 
with russet dots. Eye, closed, set in a narrow, slightly angular basin, 
with connivent segments. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, conical. 
Stalk, about half an inch long, inserted in a rather wide cavity. Flesh, 
greenish, not very juicy, firm, and sweetish. Cells, ovate ; axile, 
closed. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

7 



98 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Green Street. See Wanstall. 

GREEN TIFFING (Mage's Johnjiij).— Fruit, medium sized, two 
inches and a half high, and about the same in width ; conical, rounded 
at the base, and somewhat angular and ribbed on the sides and round 
the eye. Skin, smooth, green at first, but changing as it ripens to 
yellowish green ; next the sun it is quite yellow, strewed with minute 
russety dots, and a few dots of red. Eye, small and closed, set in a 
shallow basin, and surrounded with prominent plaits. Stalk, short, 
inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, white, crisp, tender, very 
juicy, and pleasantly acid. 

A most excellent culinary apple ; in use from September to December. 
The tree is a free grower, and an excellent bearer. 

This is an esteemed variety in Lancashire, where it is extensively cultivated. 

GREEN "WILDING. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and about the same high ; short, conical ; obscurely 
ribbed, narrowing to the eye, where it is somewhat puckered. Skin, 
yellowish green, strewed with numerous large russety dots, and a few 
lines of russet. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow, puckered basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, completely im- 
bedded in a deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender, sweet, and mawkish. 
Cells, ovate ; axile, open. 

A useful Herefordshire cider apple. 

Green Winter Pippin. See Newtown Pippin. 

GREENWOOD RUSSET.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half 
wide, and two inches high ; oblate, even and regular in its outline. 
Skin, deep yellow on the shaded side, and covered with a coat of ash- 
grey russet on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with erect conver- 
gent segments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a shallow, plaited 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, not 
exceeding a quarter of an inch, and set in a wide, flat cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, juicy, sweet, and well-flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A second-rate dessert apple, which keeps in good condition to 
February without shrivelling. 

GREEN WOODCOCK (TFooc^coc/i:).— Fruit, medium sized; round 
and somewhat flattened. Skin, green, changing to yellow with a blush 
of red, which is striped with broad broken streaks of dark red on the 
side next the sun. Eye, open, with long pointed segments, deeply set 
in an angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, 
inserted in a shallow cavity, lined with rough russet, which extends 
over the base. Flesh, white, tinged with green, tender, juicy, and 
briskly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A good culinary apple ; in use from October till Christmas. 

This is very much grown about Heathfield and Hailsham, in Sussex. 



APPLES. 99 

GREENUP'S PIPPIN (Yorkshire Beauty ; Cumberland Favourite ; 
Counsellor; Red Hauthomclen). — Fruit, above medium size, three 
inches wide, and two and a half high ; roundish ovate, broadest at the 
base, and with a prominent rib on one side, extending from the base 
to the crown. Skin, smooth, pale straw-coloured, tinged with green 
on the shaded side, but covered with beautiful bright red on the side 
next the sun, and marked with several patches of thin delicate russet. 
Eye, with long, flat, erect segments, placed in a round, rather deep, 
and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted in a wide cavity. Flesh, pale 
yellowish white, tender, juicy, sweet, and briskly flavoured. Cells, 
elliptical ; axile, slit. 

An excellent apple, either for culinary or dessert use. 

In the northern counties it is a popular and highly -esteemed variety, 
and ranks as a first-rate fruit ; it is in use from October to December. 

The tree is hardy and healthy ; it does not attain a large size, but is 
an abundant bearer. When grown against a wall, as it sometimes is 
in the North of England and border counties, the fruit attains a large 
size, and is particularly handsome and beautiful. Grown on the 
Hastings Sand formation, it is a very handsome apple, attaining a 
large size, with a smooth glossy skin ; the usual red cheek becomes a 
delicate rose tint, blending into the lemon yellow, and forming a fruit 
of great beauty. On that formation the tree succeeds admirably, and it 
is one I would strongly recommend for such light soils. 

This was discovered in the garden of a shoemaker, at Keswick, named Greenup, 
and was first cultivated hy Clarke and Atkinson, nurserymen at that place, in the 
end of last century. It is now much grown throughout the Border counties, and is 
a valuable apple where the choicer varieties do not attain perfection. 

GRENADIER. — Fruit, large, four inches wide, and three inches 
high ; roundish ovate, prominently and obtusely ribbed, the ribs 
terminating at the crown in bold ridges. Skin, uniform yellowish 
green colour, without any trace of red or russet, but with a deeper 
tinge of yellow on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with connivent 
segments, set in a deep, ribbed, and strongly plaited basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, deeply set in an uneven cavity, 
surmounted with an irregular patch of coarse, rough russet. Flesh, 
firm, crisp, very juicy, and pleasantly acid, and a fine perfume, which 
is peculiar. Cells, elliptical ; abaxilc ; wide open. 

A large and handsome kitchen apple ; in use during September and 
October. 

GREY LEADINGTON.— Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
a quarter wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; conical, angu- 
lar, and terminating at the apex in several unequal ridges, distinctly 
ribbed. Skin, greenish j-ellow, covered with patches of dark brown 
russet on the shaded side, and pale red when exposed to the sun ; the 
whole covered with whitish grey dots. Eye, closed, with long erect 



100 THE FRUIT MANUAIi. 

segments, and set in a rather deep basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, about half an inch long, angular and 
plaited, short and stout, inserted in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, firm, tender, very juicy, and of a rich, vinous, sweet, and 
aromatic flavour. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

An excellent apple of first-rate quality, desirable either for the dessert 
or for culinary purposes ; it is in use from November to January. 

The tree is a strong grower, vigorous, hardy, and an excellent bearer. 
It succeeds well as a dwarf on the paradise stock. 

A favourite apple in Scotland, where it ranks as one of the best dessert fruits. 
It derives its name from Lethington (now called Lennoxlove), pronounced Leading- 
ton, the ancient seat of the Maitlands of Lauderdale, in East Lothian. The Grey 
Leadington of Lindley ( Guide to the Orchard) is quite another fruit, and is pro- 
bably the Stoup Leadington. 

GROSSE CASSELER REINETTE.— Fruit, small, two inches 
wide, and the same high ; roundish and flattened, even in its outline. 
Skin, greenish yellow, with a few broken streaks of pale crimson on 
the exposed side. Eye, open, with erect convergent segments, which 
are spreading at the tips, and set in a shallow, narrow, plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch and a half or more 
in length, inserted in a narrow shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, 
tender, sweet, and agreeably sub-acid, but not richly flavoured. Cells, 
roundish oblate, pointed ; axile, slit. 

A second-rate dessert apple ; in use from November till January. 
This is a German apple. 

Grumas's Pippin. See Birmingham Pippin. 

Grummage Pippin. See Birmingham Pippin. 

Griine Reinette. See Nonpareil. 

GUERNSEY PIPPIN (Hammond's Guernsey Pippin).— Fruit, 
small, two inches and an eighth wide, and an inch and three-quarters 
high ; roundish, even, and regularly formed. Skin, entirely covered 
with cinnamon-coloured russet, so that the greenish yellow ground is 
rarely seen even on the shaded side ; on the side next the sun it has a 
brownish red tinge. Eye, open, with reflexed segments, set in a 
shallow, even basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
half an inch long, slender, deeply inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, 
greenish yellow, crisp, very juicy, sweet, and with a fine aromatic 
flavour. Cells, roundish ; axile, closed. 

A fine dessert apple ; in use during February and March. This is 
highly deserving of an extensive cultivation. 

HAFFNER'S GOLDEN REINETTE.— Fruit, small, two inches 
and an eighth wide, and two inches high ; round or somewhat oblate, 
even and regular in its outline. Skin, smooth, deep yellow, and with 
broken streaks of crimson on the side next the sun, strewed all over 



APPLES. 101 

with large russet dots. Eye, wide open, with short, recurved segments, 
set in a flat, saucer-like basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical, like 
a wedge. Stalk, very short, inserted in a naiTOw cavity. Flesh, very 
tender and juicy, sweet, and pleasantly flavoured, but without the high 
aroma that the English Golden Reinette has. Cells, roundish or oblate ; 
axile, open. 

An excellent apple ; in use during November and December. 

HAGGERSTON PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
round, and two inches high ; round, even and symmetrical in its outline. 
Skin, deep red, with here and there patches of russet, except on the 
shaded side, where it is green, and much covered with a russety crust. 
Eye, small, with flat, convergent segments, set in a narrow and shallow 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter 
of an inch long, slender, and inserted in a shallow cavit}', and some- 
times a fleshy swelling on one side of it. Flesh, firm, crisp, sweet, and 
richly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of first quality ; in use from December till April. 

HAGLOE CRAB. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the same in 
height ; ovate, flattened, and irregularly shaped. Skin, pale yellow, 
streaked with red next the sun, and covered with a few patches of grey 
russet. Eye, open, with flat, reflexed segments. Stalk, short. Flesh, 
soft and woolly, but not dry. 

Specific gravity of its juice, 1081. 

This is a most excellent cider apple, the liquor it produces being 
remarkable for its strength, richness, and high flavour. It requires, 
however, to be grown in certain situations ; a dry soil with a cal- 
careous subsoil being considered the best adapted for producing its 
cider in perfection. 

Marshall says, " It was raised from seed by Mr. Bellamy, of Hagloe, in Glouces- 
tershire, grandfatlier of the present Mr. Bellamy, near Ross, in Herefordshire, who 
draws from it (that is, from trees grafted with scions from this parent stock) a 
liquor, which for richness, flavour, and pure nn the spot, exceeds perhaps every 
other fniit liquor which nature and art have produced. He has been oflfered sixty- 
guineas for a hogshead (about 110 gallons) of this liquor. He has likewise been 
offered bottle for bottle of wine, or spirituous liquors, the best to be produced ; and 
this without freight, duty, or even a mile of carriage to enhance its original price." 

HALL DOOR. — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two 

inches and three-quarters high ; oblate, puckered round the eye. Skin, 
pale green at first, but changing to dull yellow, streaked with red. Eye, 
set in a wide and irregular basin. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a 
moderately deep cavity. Flesh, white, firm, but coarse, juicy, and 
pleasantly flavoured. 

A dessert apple of ordinary merit ; in use from December to March. 

Hallingbury. See Hollandhury . 

HAMBLEDON DEUX ANS [Green Blenheim; Green Kitchen; 



102 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Stone Blenheim ; Black Blenheim). — Fruit, large, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a half high ; roundish, rather broadest at the base. 
Skin, greenish yellow in the shade, and dull red, streaked with broad 
stripes of deeper and brighter red, on the side next the sun, and here 
and there a thin crust of grey russet. Eye, small and closed, set 
in a rather shallow plaited basin. Stamens, median or basal ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish 
white, firm, crisp, not very juicy, but richly and briskly flavoured. 
Cells, wide open, obovate ; abaxile. 

One of the most valuable culinary apples, and not unworthy of the 
dessert ; it is in use from January to May, and is an excellent keeper. 

Originated at Hambledon, a village in Hampshire, where there are several trees 
of a great age now in existence. 

Hammon's. See HnbbarcVs Pearmain. 

Hammond's Guernsey Pippin. See Guernsey Pipjmi. 

Hamper's American. See Red Astrachan. 

HANDSOME NORMAN. — Fruit, medium size, two inches and five- 
eighths wide, and two and a half high ; bluntly conical, with a waist 
towards the apex, very uneven and irregular in its outline, being angu- 
lar, and having one very prominent rib, which makes the fruit one- 
sided ; the base is rounded, and prominently swollen, so that the stalk 
is placed nearly on a level with the surface. Skin, smooth and shining, 
lemon-coloured in the shade, and entirely covered with a bright red 
cheek on the side next the sun ; the whole surface is strewed with large 
russet specks, and the base surrounding the stalk has a patch of grey 
russet all over it. Eye, closed, with erect pointed segments, set in a 
deep, irregularly ribbed basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, conical. 
Stalk, very short, sometimes a mere knob, and sometimes half an inch 
long, inserted in a small shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
spongy, and sweetish. Cells, open or closed, symmetrical, ellip- 
tical, or roundish ovate ; axile, closed. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

HANGDOWN. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and five-eighths 
wide, and two inches and a half high, nearly oval, even and regular in 
shape, narrow at the apex, where there are several small ridges. Skin, 
yellow, covered with broken streaks of pale crimson. Eye, small and 
closed, or sometimes rather open, set in a narrow and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very long and slender, 
as much as an inch and a quarter, straight, and inserted in a wide and 
not deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, and juicy, sweet, and 
with a pleasant flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile, open. 

A good apple ; in use from November till February. It is grown 
about Horsham, in Sussex. 

Hanging Pearmain. See Adams' Pearmain. 



APPLES. 103 

HANWELL SOURING. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish ovate, angular, 
or somewhat five-sided, and narrow towards the eye. Skin, greenish 
yellow, sprinkled with large russety dots, which are largest about the 
base, and with a foint blush of red next the sun. Eye, closed, set in 
a deep, narrow, and angular basin, which is lined with russet. Stamens, 
basal ; tube, funnel-shaped or conical. Stalk, very short, inserted in 
an even funnel-shaped cavity, from which issue ramifications of russet. 
Flesh, white, firm, crisp, with a brisk and poignant acid flavour. Cells, 
elliptical or obovate ; axile, slit. 

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use in December, 
and keeps till March, when it possesses more acidity than any other 
variety which keeps to so late a period. 

It is said to have been raised at Hanwell, a place near Banbury, in Oxfordshire. 

HARD BEARER. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and 
two inches high ; roundish ovate, even in its outline. Skin, deep 
bright red on the side exposed to the sun, and yellow covered with 
broken streaks of pale red on the shaded side. Eye, small and closed, 
set in a narrow angular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, quite short, and well within the cavity. Flesh, yellowish, 
with a pink tinge at the eye, juicy, with a bitter-sweet and somewhat 
astringent flavour. Cells, quite closed, obovate. 

A Herefordshire cider apple, introduced within the last few years. 

HARGREAVE'S GREEN-SWEET.— Fruit, medium sized, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; oblato- 
cylindrical, angular on the sides, with prominent ridges round the eye. 
Skin, yellow, tinged with green on the shaded side, but deeper yellow 
tinged with green, and marked with a few faint streaks of red, next the 
sun, and strewed all over with small russety dots. Eye, half open, 
with linear segments, placed in a deep and angular basin, which is 
surrounded with ridges. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, slender, 
and inserted in a deep, round cavity, which is lined with rough russet. 
Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and perfumed. 

A good dessert apple, but lacks acidity ; it is in use during September 
and October. 

About Lancaster this is a well-known apple. The original tree, which was of 
great age, was, in 1846, when I last saw it, still standing in the nursery of Messrs. 
Hargreave, hence it is called Hargreave's Green-Sweet. 

Hardingham's Russet. See Pine Apple Russet. 

Harvey Apple. See Doctor Harvey. 

HARVEY'S PIPPIN [Dredge's Beauty of iriZte).— Fruit, medium 
sized ; roundish. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, but washed with 



104 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

fine red on the side next the sun, and marked with crimson dots. 
Flesh, firm, crisp, juicy, and richly flavoured. 

An excellent and useful apple, either for culinary purposes or dessert 
use ; it is in season from December to February. 

The tree is a free grower, and an excellent bearer ; it attains above 
the middle size, and may be grown either as an open dwarf, or an 
espalier, when grafted on the paradise stock. 

HARVEY'S REINETTE.— Fruit, very large, four inches wide, and 
three inches and a quarter high ; roundish ovate, with obtuse angles 
towards the apex, which are sometimes developed into prominent ridges 
round the eye. Skin, considerably covered with a thick crust of brown 
russet, but not entirely obscuring the crimson cheek, which is striped 
with broad broken streaks of crimson, and a little of the dull yellow 
ground. Eye, closed, with convergent segments, set in a pretty deep 
basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, stout and woody, set in 
a wide, deep cavity. Flesh, greenish white, firm, crisp, and juicy, with 
a sweet, brisk, and rather rich flavour. Cells, open, obovate ; abaxile. 

A large, handsome, and very excellent apple, either for culinary 
purposes or the dessert. 

This was sent me from Cornwall by John Vivian, Esq., of Hayle, a gentleman to 
whom I am indebted for various other excellent apples of that part of the country. 

HARVEY'S WILTSHIRE DEFIANCE.— Fruit, of the largest 
size, three inches and a half wide, and three and a quarter high ; coni- 
cal, and very handsomely shaped, distinctly five-sided, having five 
prominent and acute angles descending from the apex, till they are lost 
in the base. Skin, fine deep sulphur yellow ; of a deeper shade on the 
side which is exposed to the sun, and covered all over with minute 
russety dots, with here and there ramifying patches of russet. Eye, 
pretty large and open, with short ragged segments, and set in a rather 
shallow and angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, 
very short, about half an inch long, and not extending beyond the base, 
inserted in a round and deep cavity, lined with rough scaly russet, which 
branches out over a portion of the base. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, 
and juicy, sweet, vinous, and richly flavoured. Core, very small for 
the size of the apple. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A very handsome and most desirable apple, being of first-rate quality, 
either as a dessert or culinary fruit ; it is in use from the end of 
October to the beginning of January. 

This seems to be comparatively little known, but it is well deserving 
the notice either of the fruit gardener or the orchardist ; to the latter 
particularly, as its size, fine appearance, and handsome shape make it 
attractive at market, and its solid and weighty flesh gives it an advantage 
over many apples of its size. 

HAUTE BONTE. — Fruit, medium sized; roundish, somewhat 
ribbed on the sides, and flattened at both ends ; broadest at the base, 



APPLES. 105 

and naxrowing towards the apex, which is terminated by prominent 
ridges. Skin, smootli and shining, green at first, but changing to 
yellow as it ripens, and with a faint tinge of red on the side exposed to 
the sun. Eye, half open, with long acuminate segments, set in a deep 
and angular basin. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep and 
irregular cavity. Flesh, greenish white, tender, juicy, sweet, rich, 
brisk, and aromatic. 

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality when grown to perfec- 
tion ; it is in use from January to May. 

This is a variety of the Reinette Grise, and a very old French apple. 

Hawberry Pippin. See Hollandbury, 

HAWKRIDGE. — Fruit, very fragrant, small ; roundish oblate, very 
uneven in the outline from havmg prominent angles on the side, 
which extend to the cro^vn, and form prominent unequal ridges, much 
like those on the London Pippin. Skin, green at first, but soon 
becoming golden yellow after being gathered ; where exposed to the 
sun it is quite covered with dark bright crimson, which is streaked 
with darker stripes of the same colour ; but where shaded, the yellow 
ground-colour is merely marked with pale broken stripes of red. Eye, 
closed, about medium size, with long leafy segments, set in a puckered 
depression. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch to 
three-quarters long, slender, inserted in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish white, not very juicy, but sweet, and with a brisk acidity. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A pretty little apple for cooking or dessert use, but preferably for 
the former ; ripe in the middle of August. The fruit has a fine bal- 
samic fragrance, like the Irish peach. 

A very popular apple in East Sussex, especially about Hailsham, Heathfield, and 
those parts, where it is met with in almost every orchard and garden. It originated 
at a farm called Hawkridge, in Hellingly, near Hailsham. 

HAWTHORNDEN {Hawthorndean ; White Hawthormlean ; Old 
Hawthorndcan). — Fruit, varying very much in size, according to the 
situation and condition of the tree ; sometimes it is very large, and 
again scarcely attaining the middle size ; generally, however, it is 
above the medium size ; roundish and depressed, with occasionally a 
prominent rib on one side, which gives it an irregularity in its appear- 
ance. Skin, smooth, covered with a delicate bloom ; greenish yellow, 
with a blush of red on one side, which varies in extent and depth of 
colour according as it has been more or less exposed to the sun. Eye, 
small and closed, with broad and flat segments, placed in a pretty deep 
and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, 
stout, and sometimes fleshy, inserted in a deep and irregular cavity. 
Flesh, white, crisp, and tender, very juicy, with an agreeable and 
pleasant flavour. Cells, oblate or obovate ; abaxile. 

One of the most valuable and popular apples in cultivation. It 



106 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

is suitable only for kitchen use, and is in season from October to 
December. 

The tree is very healthy and vigorous, and is an early and abundant 
bearer. It succeeds well in almost every description of soil and situa- 
tion ; but in some it cankers and is subject to attacks of the woolly 
aphis. 

It takes its name from Ilawthornden, a romantic spot near Edinburgh, celebrated 
as the birthphice and residence of Druramond, the poet, who was born there in 
1585. I have never learnt at what period the Ilawthornden was first discovered. 
The earliest mention of it is in the catalogue of Leslie & Anderson, of Edinburgh, 
but I do not think it was known about London till 1790, when it was introduced to 
the Bromptou Park Nursery. 

Hawthornden, New. See Winter Hawthornden. 

HAYMAKER. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the same in height ; 
bluntly conical, even and regularly formed, knobbed and puckered 
round the eye. Skin, thin red almost over the whole surface, being 
yellow tinged with pale red where shaded ; on the side next the sun it 
is bright shining red, streaked with dark crimson and mottled with 
pearl-Uke specks. Eye, closed, with erect segments, reflexed at the 
tips, set level with the surface and surrounded with prominent plaits. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Flesh, yellowish, soft, 
tender, not very juicy, and sometimes tinged with red. Cells, ovate, 
elliptical ; axile, closed. 

A very early apple, much grown in Derbyshire and the surrounding 
districts for the supply of the markets. It is quite ripe in the second 
week of August. 

HEADCROFT'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, medium size, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and the same high ; ovate, even in its outline, and 
regularly formed ; it narrows abruptly towards the crown, where it is 
puckered with numerous small ridges. Skin, smooth, clear pale 
yellow, and very few minute dots. Eye, small and open, set in 
a narrow puckered basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, very short, imbedded in the narrow cavity. Flesh, yellow, very 
tender, and brisk. Cells, ovate ; axile, open. 

An excellent cooking apple ; in use from October till December. 

A Sussex apple, much grown about Horsbain. 

HEREFORDSHIRE BEEFING.— Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches high ; roundish oblate, and even in its out- 
line. Skin, almost entirely of a dark chestnut colour, veined and dotted 
all over with cinnamon-coloured russet, but especially round the 
crown and surrounding the stalk, whence it branches out over the 
base ; on the shaded side it is orange with a greenish tinge. Eye, 
rather large, set in a moderately deep basin, closed, with convergent 
segments, which are sometimes also erect connivent. Stamens, basal ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, stout and straight, set in a round cavity. 



APPLES. 107 

surrounded with russot. Flesh, yellowish, very firm and solid, crisp, 
very juicy, and with a brisk, sharp, but not harsh acidity. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, closed. 

This is a very fine and very heavy apple for its size ; excellent for 
kitchen use, juid lasting till January. 

I first met with this nt Hereford, at one of the pomolot;ioal meetings of the 
Wuulljope Club, where it was cxhiliited without a iianie. Struck with its reinark- 
ublc rcbcmbhiiice to the Norfolk Heotiu;;, and having tested its excellence for 
cooking, I recomniended the clul) to designate it llerefordHhire Beefing. When 
8uhsc<iuently turning over some papers and inemoratida of \V. Forsyth, author of a 
Treatise on Fruit Trees, I found that, in 1799, lie mentions a II«!refordshire Beefing 
which was sent liiin by " Mr. Stroud, from Dorsetshire," and of which he says, " It 
is about the size of a Nonpareil. It is a Hat-shaped apple, of a brownish red, with 
some yellow on the side from the sun." 1 had therefore be«!n anticipated in the name 
I proposed to the club, as the two apples are no doubt identical. 

HEREFOllDSHIllE COSTARD.— Fruit, large, three inches and a 
half wide at the base, and four inches high ; conical, larger on one 
side of the axis thsin the other ; towards the apex there is a waist, 
from which it narrows abruptly to the eye, where it is much ridged ; 
it has prominent ribs and an undulating outline, tikin, fine deep 
yellow on the shaded side, and bright red on the side exposed to the 
sun, where it is streaked with red and orange. Eye, small, set in a 
deep narrow basin, with erect convergent segments, half opan. Stamens, 
median ; tube, long, funnel- shaped Stalk, about half an inch long, 
stout, inserted in a very deep and prominently ribbed cavity, some- 
times with a swelling on ooe side of it, which presses it in an oblique 
direction. Flesh, white, very tender, with a mild sub-acid flavour. 
Cells, long and narrow, pointed, ovate ; axile, open. 

A very handsome apple, nuich esteemed for roasting, and especially 
for baking ; in use from November till January. 

. The fruit of this fine apple was sent to me by Dr. Bull, of Hereford, who received 
it from Mr. Arthur Annitage. of Dadnor, near Koss, who, in a letter to Dr. Bull, 
says, *• I believe the orchard In-re, in which the tree grows, was planted by the late 
l)r, Evans, of Koss, who held this farm in his own hands for many years; and if 
so, the tree would be about 50 }ears old. It is not a large one, and has generally 
been a shy bearer. 

Herefordshire Golden Pippin. See Golden Pippin. 

HEREFORDSHIRE PEARMAIN {Hertfordshire Pearniain ; Eoyal 
Peaimain). — Fruit, largo, three inches wide, and the same high; 
short conical, slightly angular, having a prominent rib on one side. 
Skin, smooth, dark dull green on the shaded side, but changing 
during winter to clear greenish yellow, and marked with traces of 
russet ; on the side next the sun it is covered with brownish red and 
streaks of deeper red, all of which change during winter to clear 
crimson ; the surface is strewed with many russety specks. Eye, 
open, with broiul segments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a 
wide, pretty deep, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short. 



108 



THE FEU IT MANUAL. 



funnel-shaped. Stalk, from half an inch to three-quarters long, 
inserted in a deep cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, 
tinged with green, tender, crisp, juicy, sweet, and perfumed, with a 
brisk and pleasant flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile, closed. 

A fine old English apple, suitable chiefly for culinary purposes, and 
useful also in the dessert. It comes into use in November and 
December, and continues till March. 

The tree attains the middle size, is a free and vigorous grower, very 
hardy, and an excellent bearer. 

Herefordshire Queening. See Crimson Quoinmg. 
Herefordshire Redstreak. See Eedstreak. 

HEREFORDSHIRE SPICE.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and about the same in height ; conical, uneven 
in its outline, being angular on the sides, in the way of Margil, and 
ridged round the eye. Skin, smooth and shining as if varnished, 
almost entirely covered with deep bright crimson, which is streaked 
and mottled with darker crimson on the side next the sun, but where 
shaded it is yellowish and mottled with crimson. Eye, small, and 
closed, with erect connivent segments, set in a deep and plaited 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped ; style, very stout and 
thick at the base, nearly filling the base of the tube. Stalk, very short, 
stout and fleshy, set in a very shallow basin. Flesh, tender, crisp, 
fine grained, sweet, and with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, open. 

In use during October and November. 

HERMANN'S PIPPIN. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
broad, and the same in height ; roundish, and irregularly formed. 
Skin, yellow, tinged with green on the shaded side, but striped and 
mottled with dark crimson on the side next the sun, and thickly strewed 
with russety dots round the eye. Eye, open, with long green acumin- 
ate segments, which are recurved at the tips, and set in a deep and 
slightly plaited basin. Stamens; median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a round, deep, and even cavity, 
which is lined with rough grey russet, extending over almost the whole 
of the base. Flesh, yellowish white, very tender and juicy, but with 
little flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

An apple of very ordinary quality, which seems only suitable for 
culinary purposes ; it is in use from October to January. 

This is a Somersetshire apple, which I received from the late Mr. James Lake, 
of Bridgewaler. 

Hicks' s Fancy. See Early Nonpareil. 

HOARY MORNING {Dainty Apple; Downy; Sam Rawlinys ; New 
Margil). — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches 
and three-quarters high ; roundish, somewhat flattened and angular. 



APPLES. 109 

Skin, yellowish, marked with broad pale red stripes on the shaded 
side, and broad broken stripes of bright crimson on the side next the 
sun ; the whole surface entirely covered with a thick bloom, like thin 
hoar frost. Eye, very small, closed, and set in a shallow and plaited 
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide and round cavity. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Flesh, yellowish white, tinged with 
red at the surface under the skin, brisk, juicy, rich, and slightly acid. 
Colls, closed, obovate or ovate ; axile, slit or closed. 

A beautiful and very good culinary apple, of second-rate quality ; it 
is in use from October to December. 

HODGE'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, large, about three inches wide, 
and three inches and a half high ; conical or Codlin-shaped, with 
obtuse ribs, and terminating at the crown in several prominent unequal 
ridges ; some specimens have a waist near the crown. Skin, smooth 
and shining, with a fine deep yellow ground and a blush of bright red, 
marked with broad broken streaks of darker red on the side next the 
sun ; the whole thinly strewed with russet dots. Eye, closed, with 
convergent segments, set in a deep and uneven angular basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a 
close deep cavity, with a slight swelling on one side of it. Flesh, firm, 
crisp, and juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, open, 
elliptical. 

A handsome and very good culinary apple ; in use up till Christmas. 
It is quite a Codlin in appearance. 

This was sent me from Cornwall, in 1876, by J. Vivian, Esq., of Hayle. 

HOLBERT'S VICTORIA.— Fruit, small and ovate. Skin, covered 
with pale grey russet, the greenish yellow ground shining through it 
in places. Eye, open, with long, sharp-pointed, reflexed segments, set 
in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a wide 
shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, very juicy, vinous, and 
aromatic. Cells, ovate ; axile, closed. 

An excellent dessert apple of the first quality. December to May. 

This was raised by a Mr. Ilolbcrt, at Gloucester, in the early part of Her 
Majesty's reign. 

HOLLANDBURY {HaUiwihimj ; Horsley Pippin; Kirk's Scarlet 
Admirable; Haivbernj Pippin). — Fruit, very large, three inches 
and three-quarters wide, and three inches high ; roundish and 
flattened, with irregular and prominent angles or ribs extending 
from the base to the apex. Skin, deep yellow, tinged with green 
on the shaded side, but bright deep scarlet where exposed to 
the sun, generally extending over the whole surface. Eye, closed, 
with erect convergent segments, and set in a wide and deep 
basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short and slender, in- 
serted in a deep funnel-shaped cavity, which is generally lined with 



110 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



russet. Flesh, white, with a slight tinge of green, delicate, tender, 
and juicy, with a brisk and pleasant flavour. Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

A beautiful and showy apple for culinary purposes ; it is in use from 
October to Christmas. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, but not a very abundant 
bearer. It succeeds well on the paradise stock. 

I have not been able to trace the history of this hanr^some arple beyond the 
close of last century. It is not mentioned in the copious list of Miller & Sweet, of 
Bristol, in 1790, nor in any of the nursery workings of the Bromjiton Park 
Nursery, lists of which are in my possession as far back as 1750. The first record 
of it I find is in the Forsyth MSS., where, under the name of Kirk's Scarlet 
Admirable, he seems to have received it in 1799, and again in 1801, from Ronalds, 
of Brentford, as Hallingbury, but in his Tieatise on Fruit Trees it is called 
Rolling bury. 

HOLLAND PIPPIN.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two 
inches and a half high ; roundish and flattened, with ribs on the sides. 
Skin, greenish yellow, with a slight tinge of pale brown where exposed 
to the sun, and strewed with large green dots. Eye, small and closed, 
set in a round, narrow, and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded 
in a wide and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, tender, juicy, 
sweet, and briskly acid. 

A valuable apple, of first-rate quality for culinary purposes ; it is in 
use from November to March. The tree is a strong grower, vigorous, 
healthy, and a good bearer. 

This is the Holland Pippin of Langley and Miller, but not of Ray or Ralph 
Austen, who make it synonymous with the Kirton Pippin, which Ray describes 
as being small and oblate, and the same as is called Broad-Eye in Sussex, The 
Holland Pippin is a native of the Holland district of Lincolnshire, hence its 
name. 

HOLLOW COPiE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half 
wide, and three inches high ; conical, irregular in its outline, ribbed, 
and distinctly four-sided ; at about four-fifths of its length towards the 
crown it is very much contracted and swells out again towards the eye, 
altogether very much resembling a Codlin in shape. Skin, smooth and 
shining, pale grass-green on the shaded side, and covered with a cloud 
of pale red next the sun, thinly strewed with dots, which are red on 
the exposed, and dark green on the shaded side. Eye, small and 
closed, set in a narrow, contracted, and plaited basin, which is sur- 
rounded with several small knobs. Stalk, green and downy, half an 
inch long, inserted in a narrow, close, and deep basin, which is quite 
smooth. Flesh, white, very tender and delicate, with a brisk, mild, 
and pleasant flavour. Core, very large, with open cells. 

An excellent culinary apple, with a fine perfume ; ripe in September. 

It is extensively grown in Berkshire, particularly about Newbury and Reading, 
whence large quantities are sent to London for the supply of Covent Garden 
Market, 

HOLLOW-CROWNED PIPPIN {Hollow-eyed Pippin). — Fruit, 



APPLES. Ill 

medium sized ; oblato-oblong, the same width at the apex as the base, 
and slightly angular on the sides. Skin, pale green, becoming yellow 
at maturity, with a faint blush of red where it is exposed to the sun. 
Eye, large, set in a wide and deep basin. Stalk, short, thick, and 
curved, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, firm, juicy, sugary, 
and briskly acid. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use from November to February'. 

Hollow-eyed Pippin. See Hollow -crowned Pippin. 

Hood's Seedling. See Scarlet Pearmain. 

HORMEAD PEARMAIN (Arundel Pearmain ; Hormead Pippin),^ 
Fruit, medium sized, two and a half to three inches wide, and two 
inches and three-quai'ters high ; even in outline, and roundish. Skin, 
greenish yellow, becoming quite yellow when fully ripe, and an orange 
tinge where exposed to the sun ; there are here and there traces of thin 
russet. Eye, partially open, with flat convergent segments, set in a 
wide basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
short and stout, with sometimes a fleshy swelling on one side, sur- 
rounded with a patch of nisset. Flesh, firm, crisp, very juicy, and 
pleasantly acid. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile. 

An excellent cooking apple ; in use from October till March. 

Horrex's Pearmain. See Foulden Pearmain. 

HORSHAM RUSSET.— Fruit, about the size of the Nonpareil, but 
not so regular in its outline, generally about two inches and a quarter 
in diameter, and two inches deep. Eye, small and closed, in a small 
depression without angles. Stalk, short, rather thick, rather deeply 
inserted in a wide, uneven cavity. Skin, pale green, covered with a 
thin yellowish grey russet round its upper part, with a pale salmon- 
coloured tinge on the sunny side. Flesh, greenish white, firm, crisp. 
Juice, plentiful, of a high aromatic Nonpareil flavour. 

A dessert apple ; in season from November till March. 

Raised from the seed of a Nonpareil about 1P2', by Mrs. Goose, of Horsham 
St. Faith's, near Norwich. It is a very hardy tree, and a good bearer. 

Horsley Pippin. See Hollandbury. 

HOSKREIGER. — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and 
two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish and considerably 
flattened, almost oblate. Skin, of a fine grass-green, which changes as 
it ripens to yellowish green, and marked with broad streaks of pale red 
on the side next the sun, which is strewed with rather large russety 
freckles. Eye, small and open, with erect, acute segments, and placed 
in a rather deep, narrow, and undulating basin. Stalk, short, inserted 
in a round, funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with pale brown 



112 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

russet. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, and juicy, with a brisk and pleasant 
flavour. 

A first-rata culinary apple ; in use from November till March. 

The tree is a vigorous and healthy grower, and an abundant bearer. 

Hubbard's. See Huhhard's Pearmain. 

HUBBAED'S PEARMAIN (Hubbard's; Russet Pearmain ; Golden 
Vining ; Hammond's Pearmain). — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and 
the same high ; ovate, or conical, even and regularly formed, broadest 
at the base, and diminishing to a narrow apex. Skin, covered with 
pale brown russet, and where any portion of the ground colour is 
exposed, it is yellowish green on the shaded side, and brownish red 
next the sun ; but sometimes it is almost free from russet, particularly 
in hot seasons, being then of an uniform yellowish green, mottled with 
orange or pale red next the sun. Eye, small, open or closed, with 
short erect segments, which are recurved at the tips, and set in a shal- 
low basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
short, about half an inch long, inserted in a round and even cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, firm, not juicy, but very rich, sweet, and highly 
aromatic. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

This is one of the richest flavoured dessert apples ; it is in use from 
November to April. 

The tree is a small grower, but healthy, hardy, and an abundant bearer. 

Hubbard's Pearmain was first introduced to public notice by Mr. Georj^e Lindley, 
at a meeting of the London Horticultural Society in 1820. " This," says Mr. 
Lindley, "is a real Norfolk apple, well known in the Norwich market; and 
although it may be found elsewhere, its great excellence may have caused its 
removal hence. The merits of Hubbard's Pearmain as a table apple are un- 
rivalled, and its superior, from the commencement of the season to the end, does 
not, I am of opinion, exist in this country." 

HUGHES'S GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two 
inches and a half wide, and two inches high; round, and flattened at 
both extremities. Skin, rich yellow, covered with large green and 
russety dots, which are thickest round the eye. Eye, open, with short, 
flat, acuminate segments, which are generally reflexed at the tips, and 
set in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, and not at all depressed, being some- 
times like a small knob on the flattened base. Flesh, yellowish white, 
firm, rich, brisk, juicy, sugary, and aromatic. Cells, ovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to 
February. 

The tree is hardy and healthy, though not a strong grower, the shoots 
being long and slender. It is also an excellent bearer. 

HUNT'S DEUX ANS. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, by two inches and a half high ; somewhat conical, 
irregularly formed, and angular. Skin, greenish, and covered with 
grey russet on the shaded side, but reddish brown covered with grey 



APPLES. 113 

russet, and large riissety dots, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, 
large and open, with long, spreading segments, placed in a deep, angu- 
lar, and irregular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half 
an inch long, inserted in a deep, oblique cavity, and not extending 
bej'ond the base. Flesh, yellowish white, tinged with green, firm and 
leathery, juicy and sugary, with a rich and highly aromatic flavour, 
very similar to, and little inferior to, the Ribston Pippin. Cells, 
roundish obovate; axile, closed. 

A dessert apple of the first quality, whether as regards its long dura- 
tion or the peculiar richness of its flavour ; it is in use from December 
to March. 

HUNT'S DUKE OF GLOUCESTER— Fruit, below medium size ; 
roimdish ovate. Skin, almost entirely covered with thin russet, except 
a spot on the shaded side, where it is green ; and where exposed to the 
sun it is of a reddish brown. Eye, small, half open, with short, erect, 
convergent segments, set in a roimd, shallow, plaited basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Flesh, white, tinged with green, 
crisp, juicy, and highly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to 
February. 

Raised from a seed of the old Nonpareil, to which it bears a strong resemblance, 
by Dr. Frj-, of Gloucester, and received the name it now bears from beinp sent to 
the Horticultural Society of London by Thomas Hunt, Esq., of Stratford-on- 
Avon, in 1820. 

HUNT'S EARLY.— Fruit, fragrant, like the Irish Peach ; small, 
two inches and a quarter wide, and about two inches high ; roundish or 
oblate, angular on the sides, and ribbed round the eye. Skin, with a 
bright crimson cheek, marked with a few darker streaks on the side 
next the sun, and greenish yellow on the shaded side. Eye, closed, 
with long, convergent, erect segments, reflexed at the tips, and set in a 
ribbed basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
short, or about half an inch long, slender, set in a narrow cavity. 
Flesh, greenish, tender, juicy, and perfumed. Cells, roundish, inclining 
to ovate ; axile, open. 

An early dessert apple, ripe in the first week of August, but inferior 
to Irish Peach. 

HUNT'S GREEN NEWTOWN PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches 
and a half wide, by two inches high ; round, and somewhat flattened, 
obscurely ribbed, and with ridges round the crown. Skin, dark green, 
with a brownish tinge on the side next the sun, strewed all over with 
russet dots, and with a patch of russet surrounding the stalk. Eye, 
small and closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a narrow, shal- 
low, and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, either funnel-shaped 
or conical. Stalk, very short, not a quarter of an inch long, inserted in 
a wide shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish, firm, crisp, very juicy, but not 
with a high flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

8 



114 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

A kitchen apple ; in use from Christmas to March. It has a good 
deal of resemblance to Winter Majetin and Winter Greening, being the 
same colour, and having the five ridges round the crown. 

HUNTHOUSE [Large Hunthouse). — Fruit, of medium size, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, by two inches and a half high ; conical, 
ribbed on the sides, and terminated at the apex with rather prominent 
knobs. Skin, at first grass-green, but changing as it ripens to greenish 
yellow ; where exposed to the sun it is tinged with red, and marked 
with small crimson dots and a few short broken streaks of the same 
colour ; but where shaded it is veined with thin brown russet, particu- 
larly about the eye, and very thinly strewed with russety dots. Eye, 
large, half open, with broad segments, set in a narrow and deeply fur- 
rowed basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch long, 
straight, inserted in a very shallow cavity, sometimes between two 
fleshy lips, but generally with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. 
Flesh, greenish white, firm, tender, and with a brisk but rather coarse 
and rough acid flavour. Cells, roundish elliptical ; axile, open. 

A useful culinary apple ; in use from December to March. 

Its chief recommendation is the immense productiveness of the tree, 
which is rather small, with pendulous shoots, and extremely hardy ; 
it succeeds in exposed situations where many other varieties could not 
grow. 

Discovered at Whitby, in Yorkshire, where it is extensively cultivated, 

HUNTINGDON CODLIN.— Fruit, odorous, large, three inches 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; round, prominently 
ribbed on the sides, and terminating in ridges round the eye. Skin, 
greasy to handle, deep yellow. Eye, closed, with connivent segments, 
set in a ribbed and coarsely puckered basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, slender, set in a 
narrow shallow cavity, sometimes oblique, by the side of a swelling. 
Flesh, tender, mildly acid, with a pleasant perfume. Cells, obovate ; 
abaxile. 

An early cooking apple ; ripe in August and September. The tree is 
a great bearer, and is well suited for orcharding for market. 

It was sent cut by Messrs. Wood & Ingram, of Huntingdon. 

Hunt's Nonpareil. See Nonpareil. 

Hutching's Seedling. See Sugar-loaf Pippin. 

BUTTON SQUARE.— Fruit, large ; roundish ovate, and irregular 
in its outline, being much bossed on the sides, and knobbed about the 
eye and the stalk. Skin, smooth, dull greenish yellow where shaded, 
and strewed with minute russety dots, but washed with dull red next the 
sun, and dotted with black dots. Eye, small and closed, placed in an 
angular and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel- 



APPLES. 115 

shaped. Stalk, short, deeply imbedded in an angular cavity. Flesh, 
white, firm, crisp, sweet, briskly and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, 
ovate ; axile, slit. 

A valuable culinary apple of first-rate quality, and not unsuitable for 
the dessert, where a brisk and poignant-flavoured apple is preferred ; it 
is in use from November to March. The tree is an excellent bearer. 

This is extensively grown about Lancaster ; and is said to have originated at 
the village of Hutton, in that vicinity. 

Ingestrie Red. See Bed Ingestrie. 
Ingestrie Yellow. See Yellow Ingestrie. 
Irish Codlin. See Manks Codlin. 

IRISH PEACH {Early Crofton). — Fruit, medium sized, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, by two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, 
somewhat flattened, and slightly angular. Skin, smooth, pale yellowish 
green, tinged with dull reddish brown, and thickly dotted with green 
dots on the shaded side, but fine lively red, mottled and speckled with 
yellow spots, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, 
set in a rather deep and knobbed basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; 
tube, conical or funnel-shaped Stalk, short, thick, and fleshy, inserted 
in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, greenish white, tender, and crisp, 
abounding in a rich, brisk, vinous, and aromatic juice, which, at this 
season, is particularly refreshing. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

An early dessert apple of the finest quality. It is ripe during the 
first week in August, and lasts all through that month. It is a most 
beautiful, and certainly one of the most excellent summer apples, 
possessing all the rich flavour of some of the winter varieties, with the 
abundant and refreshing juice of the summer fruits. Like most of the 
summer apples it is in greatest perfection when eaten from the tree, 
which is hai-dy, vigorous, and an abundant bearer. 

Irish Pitcher. See Manks Codlin. 

IRISH REINETTE.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, by two inches and a half high ; oblong, somewhat five- 
sided, with five ribs which extend from the base to the apex, where 
\hey run into the eye, forming five prominent ridges. Skin, yellowish 
green, strewed with minute russety dots on the shaded side ; but dull 
brownish red, almost entirely covered with large patches of dull leaden 
coloured russet, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and 
closed, placed in a ribbed and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in 
a round, deep, and even cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, crisp, 
and very juicy, with a brisk and poignant acid juice. 

A valuable culinary apple ; in use from November to February. 

It is much cultivated about Lancaster, and in the county of Westmoreland, 
where it is highly esteemed. 



116 



THE FKUIT MANUAL. 



Irish Russet. See Sam Young. 
Iron Apple. See Brabant Bellefleur. 

IRON PIN. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and two 
inches and three-quarters high ; conical, even and regular in its outline. 
Skin, quite smooth, shining, bright grass-green, with a brownish tinge 
next the sun, and thinly strewed with minute russet dots. Eye, closed, 
set on the apex of the fruit, surrounded with several plaits. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, slender, half an inch long, inserted 
in a very shallow cavity. Flesh, white, greenish under the skin, tender, 
and agreeably flavoured. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A cooking apple, which keeps in good condition to January and Feb- 
ruary. It appears to be a Dorsetshire apple, and was sent me by Mr. 
C. T. Hall, Osmington Lodge, Weymouth. 

L'onstone. See Winter Greening. 

ISLE OF WIGHT PIPPIN [Me of Wight Orange ; Orange Pippin ; 
Pontine d' Orange; Englese Oranje Appel). — Fruit, small, two inches 
wide, by an inch and a half deep ; globular or roundish oblate. Eye, 
closed, with broad acute segments, set in a shallow and plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted in 
a shallow cavity. Skin, yellowish grey, sprinkled with russet, highly 
coloured with orange and red next the sun. Flesh, firm and juicy, with 
a rich and aromatic flavour. Cells, closed, oblate. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, and also valuable as a cider 
fruit ; it is in use from September to January. 

The specific gravity of its juice is 1074. 

The tree does not attain a large size, but is hardy, healthy, and an 
excellent bearer. It succeeds well when grafted on the paradise stock, 
and grown as an open dwarf, or an espalier. 

This is a very old variety, and is, no doubt, the " Orange Apple " of Ray and 
Worlidge. According to Mr. Knight, it is by some supposed to have been intro- 
duced from Normandy to the Isle of Wight, where it was first planted in the 
garden at Wrexall Cottage, near the Undercliff, where it was growing in 1817. 
There are several other varieties of apples known by the name of " Orange " and 
*' Orange Pippin," but they are all very inferior to this. 

ISLEWORTH CRAB [Brentford Craft).— Fruit, medium sized, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, by the same in height ; conical. Skin, 
smooth, of a pale yellow colour, with a deeper tinge where exposed to 
the sun, and covered with small reddish brown dots. Eye, small and 
open, with reflexed segments, set in a round and narrow basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, slender, inserted in a deep, 
round and even cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, sweet, juicy, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Cells, roundish ; axile, open. 

A pretty good culinary apple of second-rate quality ; in use during 
October ; but scarcely worth cultivation. 
This was raised at the Isleworth nursery of Messrs. Ronalds, of Brentford. 



APPLES. 117 

IZARD'S I{:ERNEL {Er/r/leton Bed : Pijm Square).— Frmi, below 
medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches high ; round, 
and somewhat flattened, even and regular in its outline. Skin, smooth 
and shining, entirely covered with bright crimson, which is rather paler 
on the shaded side, and shghtly mottled with the yellow ground colour. 
Eye, small and closed, with broad segments, and surrounded with small 
bosses or knobs round the margin of the basin. Stamens, marginal; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, sometimes a mere knob on the rounded 
base, at others half an inch long, in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, tinged with red under the surface of the skin, very tender and 
juicy, briskly and well flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, open ; the 
points of the carpels are stained with red. 

A cider apple, sent me by Dr. Bull, of Hereford. It was raised at 
Eastnor Farm, near Eastnor Castle, by Mr. Henry Izard, about the 
year 1839. 

Jack-in-the-Wood. See Wanstall. 
Jerusalem. See Pigeon. 

JOANETING (Ginetting ; Junetiruj ; Early Jenneting ; White 
Juneating ; Juneating ; Owen's Golden Beauty: Pr uniting). — Fruit, 
small, an inch and three-quarters wide, and about an inch and a half 
high ; round, and a little flattened. Skin, smooth and shining, pale 
yellowish green in the shade, but clear yellow, with sometimes a faint 
tinge of red or orange, next the sun. Eye, small and closed, surrounded 
with a few small plaits, and set in a very shallow basin. Stamens, 
marginal or median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, slender, 
and inserted in a shallow cavity, which is lined with delicate russet. 
Flesh, white, crisp, brisk, and juicy, with a vinous and slightly perfumed 
flavour, but becoming mealy and tasteless if kept only a few days after 
being gathered. Cells, obovate or roundish obovate ; axile, closed. 

This is the earliest apple of the year ; it is in greatest perfection 
in July and August, when gathered oif the tree, or immediately after- 
wards, as it very soon becomes dry and mealy. 

The tree does not attain a large size, but is hardy and healthy. It 
is not a great bearer, which may, in a great measure, account for its not 
being so generally cultivated as its earliness would recommend it to be. 
K worked on the paradise stock it may be grown in pots, when the 
fruit will not only be produced earlier, but in greater abundance than 
on the crab, or free stock. 

One of our oldest apples, and although generally known and popular, seems to 
have escaped the notice of Miller, who does not even mention it in any of the 
editions of his Dictionary. As I have doubts of this being the Geneting of Parkin- 
son — his tigure being evidently intended for the Margaret, which in some districts 
is called Joaneting — the first mention we have of this variety is by Rea, in 
1665, who describes it as *' a small, yellow, red-sided apple, upon a wall, ripe in the 
end of June." 

" Juneating," as applied to this apple, is quite a misnomer. Abercrombie was 



118 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

the first who wrote it June-eating, as if in allusion to the period of its maturity, 
which is, however, not till the end of July. J)r. Johnson, in his Dictionary, 
writes it Gineting, and says it is a corruption of Janeton (Fr.), signifying Jane or 
Janet, having been so called from a person of that name. Hay* says, "Pomum 
Ginettinum, quod unde dictum sit me latet." Indeed, there does not seem ever to 
have been a correct definition given of it. 

My definition of the name is this. In the Middle Ages, it was customary to 
make the festivals of the Church periods on which occurrences were to take place or 
from which events were to be named. Even in the present day we hear the country 
people talking of some crop to be sown, or some other to be planted, at Michaelmas, 
St. Martin's, or St. Andrew's tide. It was also the practice for parents to dedicate 
their children to some particular saint, as Jean Baptiste, on the recurrence of whose 
festival all who are so named keep it as a holiday. So it was also in regard to fruits, 
which were named after the day about which they came to maturity. Thus, we 
have the Margaret Apple, so called from being ripe about St. Margaret's Day, the 
20th of July ; the Magdalene, or Maudlin, from St, Magdalene's Day, the 22nd of 
July. And in Curtiusf we find the Joannina, so called, " Quod circa divi Joannis 
Baptistae nativitatem esui sint." These are also noticed by J. Baptista Porta ; he 
says, "Est genus alterum quod quia circa festum Divi Joannis maturiscit, vulgus 
Meto de San Giovanni dioXtuY." And according to Tragus,| " Quas apud nos prima 
maturantur, Sanct Johans Opff^ell, Latine, Proecocia mala dicuntur." 

We see, thex-efore, that apples were called Joannina because they ripened about 
St. John's Day, and we have among the old French pears Amire Joannet — the 
"Wonderful Little John," which Merlet informs us was so called because it 
ripened about St. John's Day. If, then, we add to Joannet the termination ing^ 
so general among our names of apples, we have Joannetmg, There can be no 
doubt that this is the correct derivation of the name of this apple. 

JOEBY CRAB. — Fruit, small, about two inches wide, and an inch 
and three-quarters high ; round, somewhat flattened, and evenly 
shaped. Skin, almost entirely covered with deep bright crimson, 
except where shaded, and then it is deep yellow, with a few stains of 
pale crimson and broken streaks of the same colour towards the exposed 
side. Eye, very small and closed, set in a shallow plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, sometimes a mere knob, 
and sometimes a quarter of an inch long, rather deeply inserted. Flesh, 
white, firm, and intensely acid. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

An old-fashioned cider apple, much in repute with old-fashioned 
Herefordshire cider-makers. This was sent to me by Dr. Bull, of 
Hereford. 

John Apple. See Winter Greening. 

John Apple. See Northern Greening. 

JOHN GIDLEY PEARMAIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; conical or Pear- 
main shaped, even and regular in outline, with a few ridges round the 
narrow crown. Skin, deep golden yellow, with a pale red cheek on the 
sun side, which is marked with broken stripes of dark bright crimson ; 
the whole surface is sparingly sprinkled with russet dots. Eye, small 
and closed, with erect segments, set in a narrow and plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, and almost 
* Hist. Plant., ii. 1447. f Hortorum, p. 522. J Hist., p. 1043. 



APPLES. 119 

quite imbecMed in the deep round cavity, sometimes with a swelling on 
one side of it. Flesh, 3-ellow, tender, juicy, sweet, with a rich flavour 
and high aroma. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A delicious dessert apple, which will keep till March. 

This was raised from Cornish Gilliflower by Mr. John GiHley, town clerk of 
Exeter, and was sent to me by Messrs. Lucombe, Pince & Co., nurserymen of that 
city, in 1876. 

JOLLY BEGGAR. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a 
half wide, and two inches high ; roundish oblate, with connivent 
segments. Bkin, pale yellow, with an orange tinge next the sun, and 
strewed with russet dots. Eye, with connivent segments, set in a 
plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch 
long, set in a deep, very wide cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, 
sweet, briskly and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A first-rate early cooking apple from August till October. The 
great merit of this variety is its great fertility, the small bush trees 
producing an abundance of fine yellow fruit. The tree bears very early, 
and is one of the most useful for garden culture. 

JONATHAN. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a quarter 
to two and a half wide, and the same high ; conical, even and regular 
in its outline. Skin, very much covered with bright red, splashed 
and streaked with darker red and deep yellow, stained with red on 
the shaded side, the whole strewed with large russet dots. Eye, 
closed, with short convergent segments, set in a narrow basin, which is 
ribbed and plaited. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
three-quarters to an inch long, slender, inserted in a round, even cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and briskly flavoured. Cells^ 
obovate ; axile, slit. 

A very fine dessert apple ; in use from December to April. It was 
brought to my notice by Mr. Rivers, of Sawbridge worth ; and a few 
fruit which he gave me I wrapped in tissue paper, and they kept well 
till the end of June. 

This is an American variety, and originated on the farm of Mr. Philip Rick, of 
Kingston, New York. 

Jones's Southampton Pippin. See Golden Winter Pearmain. 

Josephine. See Reinette BlaiKhe d'Espagne. 

Jubilee Pippin. See Bland's Jubilee. 

JULY PIPPIN. — Fruit, small, about two inches wide, and two and 
a quarter high ; conical, larger on one side of the axis than the other. 
Skin, when ripe, deep yellow, streaked or mottled with pale crimson on 
the shaded side, and entirely covered with red, which is streaked with 
deep crimson, on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with long erect 
segments, set on the surface, and surrounded by several knobs. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Flesh, juicy, briskly and 
agreeably flavoured. Cells, Codlin-like, elliptical ; abaxile, open. 



120 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

An early apple of inferior quality. It is much grown about Heath- 
field, in Sussex, where it is esteemed for its earliness, and where it ripens 
in the first week of August. 

KEDDLESTON PI PPIX.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and not quite so much high ; roundish ovate, and regularly 
formed. Skin, of a uniform golden yellow colour, with veinings and 
specks of russet. Eye, half open, set in a shallow plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, thick and fleshy. 
Flesh, yellowish, crisp, very juicy, sugary, and aromatic. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, closed or slit. 

A first-rate dessert apple ; in use from November to March. 

KEEPING KED-STllEAK. — Fruit, medium sized ; roundish, 
flattened, angular on the sides. Skin, green at first, changing to 
greenish yellow, and striped with red on the shaded side, but entirely 
covered with dark red on the side next the sun ; marked with russet, 
and numerous grey dots. Eye, open, set in a shallow and undulating 
basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a narrow and shallow cavity. 
Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, brisk, and pleasantly flavoured. 

A culinary apple ; in use from December to April. 

KEEPING KUSSET.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and five- 
eighths wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roimdish. Skin, 
entirely covered with thin, pale yellowish brown russet, like the Golden 
Russet, and occasionally with a bright, varnished, fiery-red cheek on 
the side next the sun, which is sometimes more distinct than at others. 
Eye, open, set in a round and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, 
imbedded in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, juicy, and 
sugary, with a particula'ly rich, mellow flavour, equal to, and even 
surpassing that of the Ribston Pippin. 

A delicious dessert apple, of first-rate quality ; in use from October 
to January, and, under favourable circumstances, will even keep till 
March. 

This is an apple which is very little known, and does not seem at all 
to be in general cultivation. I obtained it from the private garden of 
the late Mr. James Lee, at Hammersmith. It certainly deserves greater 
publicity. 

Kempster's Pippin. See Blenhnm Pippin. 

Kentish Broading. See Broad-eivl. 

KENTISH CODLIN.-This is so exactly like the English Codlin, 
which I have already described, that, after examining a great number of 
specimens, I cannot observe any great difi'erence between them. 

Kentish Deux-Ans. See Graham. 

KENTISH FILL-BASKET [Lady de Greys; Potters Lanje).— 



APPLES. 121 

Fruit, very large, three and a half inches wide, and three inches hi^'h ; 
roundish, irregular, and slightly ribbed, with ridges at the eye. Skin, 
smooth, yellowish green in the shade, and pale yellow, with a reddish 
brown blush, which is streaked with broken stripes of deeper red, on 
the side next the sun. Eye, large, closed, set in a wide and irregular 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Flesh, tender and juicy, 
with a brisk and pleasant flavour. Cells, wide open, obovate ; abaxile. 

This is an excellent culinary apple, of first-rate quality ; in use from 
November to January. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, attaining a large size, and 
is an abundant bearer. 

This is not the Kentish Fill-basket of Miller and Forsyth, nor yet of Rojrers ; 
the variety described under this name hy these writers beinj^ evidently the Kentish 
Codlin. 

KENTISH PIPPIN [Colojiel Vaiuihan's; Bed Kentish Pippin: 
V aim's Pipinn). — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three quarters 
broad, and two inches and a half high ; conical and slightly angular. 
Skin, pale yellow, with brownish red next the sun, studded with 
specks, which are greenish on the shaded side, but yellowish next the 
sun. Eye, small, and partially open, set in a wide, shallow, and 
plaited ba^in. Stamens, mediau ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short 
and fleshy, almost imbedded in a deep and wide cavity, which is 
smooth or rarely marked with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, delicate, 
very juicy, with a sweet and briskly acid flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile, 
slit. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from October to 
January. 

The tree attains a pretty good size, is hardy, vigorous, and a good 
bearer. 

A very old and favourite apple, first mentioned by Ray, and enumerated in the 
list of Leonard Mea<;er as one of the varieties then cultivated in the London 
nurseries in 1670. Mortimer made gnat lamentation on the supposed degeneration 
of the Kentish Pipjuu, which I have quoted in treatmgof the Golden Pippin. 

KERRY PIPPIN {Edmonton; Aromatic Pippin).— FruiU below 
medium size, two inches wide, and nearly two inches and a quarter 
high ; oval, sometimes roundish oval. Skin, smooth and shining, 
greenish yellow at first, but changing as it ripens to a fine clear pale 
yellow colour, tinged and streaked with red, on the side next the sim ; 
but sometimes, when fully exposed, one-half of the surface is covered 
with bright shining crimson, streaked with deeper crimson ; it is 
marked on the shaded side with some traces of delicate russet. Eye, 
small and closed, with broad, erect, convergent or connivent segments, 
set in a shallow basin, which is generally surrounded with five prominent 
plaits. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, slender, th-ee- 
quarters of an inch long, obliquely inserted in a small cavity, by the 
side of a fleshy protuberance. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, and 



122 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

very juicy, with a rich, sugary, brisk, and aromatic flavour. Cells, 
roundish obovate ; axile, closed or slit. 

An early dessert apple of the highest excellence ; it is in use during 
September and October. The tree is a free grower, hardy, and a 
good bearer, attaining about the middle size. It is well adapted for 
grafting on the paradise stock, and being grown either as a dwarf or 
espalier. 

This was introduced chiefly through the instrumentality of Mr. Robertson, the 
nurseryman of Kilkenny, lu Ireland, who died there August 27, 1839, much 
respected. 

KESWICK CODLIN.— Fruit, above medium size, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and the same in height ; conical, angular in its 
outline, the angles on its sides running to the crown, where they form 
rather acute ridges round the eye. Skin, rather pale yellow on the 
shaded side, but deeper yellow with an orange or blush tinge on the 
side next the sun. Eye, closed, with long, narrow, connivent segments, 
and set in a pretty deep and rather puckered basin. Stamens, median; 
tube, conical. Stalk, about a quarter of an inch long, downy, inserted 
in a deep cavity, which is marked with russet. Flesh, pale yellowish 
white, very juicy, tender, and soft, with a brisk and pleasant flavour, 
but becomes mealy after being kept for a month. Cells, ovate lanceolate ; 
ab axile. 

One of the earliest and most valuable of our culinary apples. It may 
be used for tarts so early as the end of June ; but it is in perfection 
during August and September. 

The tree is healthy, vigorous, and an immense bearer, attaining to 
the middle size. It succeeds well in almost every soil and situation, 
and, when grown on the paradise stock, is well suited for espalier 
training. 

This excellent apple was first discovered growing among a quantity of rubbish 
behind a wall at Gleaston Castle, near Ulverstone, and was first brought into 
notice by one John Sander, a nurseryman at Keswick, who, having propagated it, 
sent it out under the name of Keswick Codlin. 

In the Memoirs of the Caledonian Horticultural Society, 1813, Sir John Sinclair 
says : "The Keswick Codlin tree has never failed to bear a crop since it was planted 
in the episcopal garden at Rose Castle, Carlisle, twenty years ago. It is an 
apple of fine tartness and flavour, and may be used early in autumn. The tree is 
a very copious bearer, and the fruit is of good size, considerably larger than the 
Carlisle Codlin. It flourishes best in a strong soil." 



KILKENNY PEARMAIN. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a half wide, and the same in height ; roundish, inclining to conical. 
Skin, yellow, sprinkled with russety dots, and sometimes covered with 
slight reticulations of russet ; tinged with orange and a few streaks of 
red on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small, and rather open, set 
in a narrow basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity, and 



APPLES. 123 

surrounded with a large patch of russet. Flesh, 3'ellowish, crisp, 
tender, juicy, and sweet, but of dry texture, and lacking acidity. 

A dessert apple of no great merit; in use from October to 
Christmas. 

King. See Borsddrfer. 

King Apple. See Wariur's King. 

KING CHAELES' PEARMAIN.— Fruit, medium size, two inches 
and a half wide, and two inches high ; bluntly conical, even and regular 
in its outline. Skin, entirely covered with thin pale browTi russet, which 
does not entirely obscure the deep yellow ground colour ; on the side 
next the sun it has a tinge of rather bright red. Eye, open, with flat 
convergent segments, set in a pretty deep imdulating basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, deeply imbedded in 
the cavity. Flesh, firm, crisp, juicy, sweet, and with a rich flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of good quality ; in use from November till March. 

This was sent me by Messrs. Richard Smith & Co., Nurserymen, Worcester, in 
March, 1876. 

King George, See Borsddrfer. 

KING HARRY. — Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and 
two inches high ; roundish ovate, even and regular in its outline. 
Skin, lemon-yellow all over, and rather thickly strewed with large 
russet dots. Ej-e, small and open, with divergent segments, set in a 
shallow, saucer-like basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, slender, inserted in a deep round 
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, juicy, sweet, 
and of fine flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of high quality ; in use from October till the end of 
November. 

KING OF THE PIPPINS.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
a quarter wide, and the same high ; ovate or conical, regularly and 
handsomely shaped. Skin, greenish yellow, with a blush of red next 
the sun, and marked with a little rough brown russet. Eye, large and 
partially open, with long and broad segments, which are connivent, but 
reflexed at the tips, set in a shallow and undulating basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, just 
extending beyond the base. Flesh, white, with a yellowish tinge, firm, 
crisp, very juicy and sugary, with a rich vinous flavour. Cells, 
obovate ; axile. 

This is one of the richest flavoured early dessert apples, and un- 
equalled by any other variety of the same season ; it is ripe in the end 
of August and beginning of September. 

This is the original and true King of the Pippins, and a very different apple 
from that generally known by the same name. See Golden Winter Pearmain. I 
suspect this is the King Apple of Bea. 



124 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

King of the Pippins. See Golden Winter Fearmain. 

KING OF TOMPKINS COUNTY {Tom's Bed; Tommy Red).— 
Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and three- 
quarters high ; round, somewhat oblate, and obtusely angular, the angles 
forming ridges at the crown and the base. Skin, deep rich yellow, very 
much streaked on the side exposed to the sun, and with a few fainter 
streaks on the shaded side. Eye, closed, with long connivent segments, 
set in a rather deep angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, over half an inch long, very stout, inserted in a deep, 
irregular cavity. Flesh, very tender, not very juicy, but sweet, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

An American dessert apple, introduced by Mr. Eivers, of Sawbridge- 
worth, to whom I am indebted for the specimen from which this 
description is taken. It is a large, handsome, and beautiful fruit, and 
is in season from December till March. 

KINGSTON BLACK.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and two inches high ; roundish ovate, or short conical, bluntly angular. 
Skin, pale yellow, striped with red on the shaded side, and very dark 
red, striped with dark purple, or almost black stripes, on the side next 
the sun ; thickly strewed all over with light grey russety dots, and 
with a large patch of russet over the base. Eye, open, with broad 
reflexed segments, and set in a deep basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted in a rather deep cavity. 
Flesh, white, stained with red under the skin on the side next the sun, 
tender, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, ovate, open ; 
axile. 

This is a beautiful little apple, extensively grown in Somersetshire, 
where in the present day it is considered the most valuable cider apple. 
It keeps till Christmas. 

It takes its name from Kingston, near Taunton. 

Kirke's Admirable. See Hollandhary. 
Kirke's Fame. See Pomeroij of Herefordshire. 
Kirke's Golden Reinette. See (irolden Reinette. 
Kirke's Lemon Pippin. See Lemon Pippin. 

KIRKE'S LORD NELSON.— Fruit, large, three inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish, and 
narrowing a little towards the apex. Skin, smooth, pale yellow, 
streaked all over with red. Eye, open, with short reflexed segments, 
and set in a plaited basin. Stalk, short and slender. Flesh, yellowish 
white, firm, juicy, and aromatic, but wants acidity. 

An inferior variety, neither a good dessert apple, nor at all suitable 
or culinary purposes ; it is in use from November to February. 



APPLES. 125 

KITCHEN DOOR. — Fruit, large, two inches and a half wide, and 
three and a quarter high ; conical, distinctly angular, so much so as to 
be five-sided ; it is widest in the middle and tapers towards the base 
and the crown, near which it is contracted so as to form a waist, and 
round which the ribs terminate in prominent ridges. Skin, dull 
greenish yellow, entirely covered with broken streaks of crimson, which 
are brighter on the side next the sun than on the shaded side. Eye, 
closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a deep, contracted, irregular 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters 
of an inch long, slender, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, firm, 
crisp, juicy, and with a brisk acidity. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A handsome cooking apple ; in use from October to Christmas. It is 
grown about Maidstone and Sevenoaks. 

I^ight's Codjin. See Wormsley Pippin. 

KNIGHT'S LEMON PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches high ; roundish. Skin, greenish yellow, 
sprinkled all over with a thin coat of grey russet. Eye, closed, with 
erect segments, which are reflexed at the tips and placed in a shallow 
plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an 
inch long, obliquely inserted in a small shallow cavity, with a fleshy lip 
on one side of it, like the Kerry Pippin. Flesh, firm, crisp, juicy, 
and sweet, with a pleasant flavour. Cells, roundish ovate ; axile, 
closed. 

A good dessert apple, raised by T. A. Knight ; it shrivels before 
Christmas. 

Knight wick. See Court of Wick. 

KNOBBED RUSSET {Kiwbby Bmset ; Old Maid's ; Winter 
Apple). — Fruit, medium sized; roundish-oval, and very uneven on its 
surface, being covered with numerous knobs, or large warts, some of 
which are the size of peas. Skin, greenish yellow, and covered with 
thick scaly russet. Eye, set in a deep basin. Stalk, inserted in a 
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, sweet, and highly flavoured, but 
not very juicy. 

A singular-looking dessert apple, of first-rate quality ; it is in use 
from December to March. 

This was introduced to the notice of the Tendon Horticultural Society in 1619 
by Mr. Huslar Capron, uf Midhurst, ia Sussex. 

KNOTT'S KERNEL.— Fruit, medium sized ; roundish and flattened, 
or obtusely ovate, the sides having five prominent angles, which are most 
acute from the middle to the crown. Skin, with a citron-coloured 
gi'oimd, considerably covered with numerous broken stripes of dark 
purplish red which extend more or less over the whole surface, but are 
fewer and paler on the shaded side. Eye, of moderate size, with 
reflexed segments, set in a narrow plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long. 



126 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

thickened at the insertion, set in a wide, deep, and funnel-shaped 
cavity, which has but slight traces of russet. Flesh, white, tender, 
crisp, juicy, and sweet, with a brisk acidity. 

A useful early culinary apple ; in use September and October. The 
tree is a free bearer. 

This is much grown in the orchards of Worcestershire. 
Lady Apple. See Api. 
Lady de Grey's. See Kentish Fill-basket. 
Lady Derby. See Whorle Pippin. 

LADY HENNIKIER,. — Fruit, very large, three inches and a half 
wide, and three inches high ; roundish, narrowing a little towards the 
apex, and with blunt angles on the sides, which terminate in prominent 
ridges round the eye. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, with a faint 
blush of red, which is covered with broken streaks of crimson, on the 
side next the sun. Eye, large and open, with short segments, and set 
in a very deep and angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical or 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, set in a very deep, wide, russety 
cavity. Flesh, very tender in the grain, well flavoured, and with a 
pleasant perfume. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A first-rate apple, chiefly valuable as a cooking variety, but useful 
also in the dessert. October to February. 

This apple was raised at Thornham Hall, near Eye, in Suffolk, and the account 
of it, furnished in 1873 by Mr. John Perkins, the gardener there, is the following: — 

"Between the years 1840 and 1850 the late Lord Henniker had great quantities 
of cider made to give away in the summer months. Several bushels of apple pips 
were sown in beds, from which the most promising seedlings were selected and 
planted ; these were reduced every few years. The last thinning was about seven 
years ago, when thirty-three trees were cut out. The tree in question was always 
the favourite, and it has been carefully preserved. It is largely used here when 
large and handsome dishes of mixed fruit are required for the dinner-table. Its 
appearance by lamplight is most telling. The tree is very healthy, and a great 
bearer." 

LADY'S DELIGHT. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a quarter high ; oblate, and ribbed on the sides. 
Skin, smooth and shining, greenish yellow, marked with a number of 
imbedded dark green specks ; washed with red on the side next the 
sun, and with a circle of red rays round the base. Eye, partially 
closed, with broad and flat segments, set in an angular and plaited 
basin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a round and rather deep 
cavity. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, very juicy, sweet, brisk, and 
pleasantly aromatic. 

An excellent culinary or dessert apple, highly esteemed about 
Lancaster, where it is much grown ; it is in use from October to 
Christmas. The habit of the tree is drooping, like that of the Weeping 
Willow. 



127 



Lady's Finger. See White Paradise. 



LADY'S FINGER OF HEREFORD.— Fruit, small, two inches 
and a quarter wide, and two inches and a half high ; conical, larger on 
one side of the axis than the other, angular and sometimes distinctly 
five-sided, very round on the base and sometimes without any stalk 
cavity. Skin, deep red, streaked with deeper red where exposed to the 
sun, but where shaded it is yellowish, but still covered with red streaks 
of a paler tint. Eye, open, with divergent reflexed segments, set in a 
narrow and shallow plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical, 
occasionally tending to funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, 
inserted in a shallow cavity, or merely in a slight depression, sur- 
rounded with a patch of russet. Flesh, j^ellowish, soft, not very juicy, 
and with a mawkish sweet taste. Cells, elliptical ; axile, open. 

A Herefordshire cider apple, sent to me by Dr. Bull. I have been 
obliged to distinguish this Lady's Finger as that of Hereford, to prevent 
confusion between it and the Lady's Fingers of Lancaster and of 
Kent, and also the White Paradise, which has been long known by that 
name. 

Lady's Finger of Kent. See Smart* s Prince Arthur. 

LADY'S FINGER OF LANCASTER.— Fruit, below medium size, 
two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; 
conical, rounded at the base, distinctly five-sided, flattened at the apex, 
where it is terminated in five prominent knobs, with a smaller one 
between each. Skin, smooth, dull greenish yellow, strewed with minute 
grey russety dots ; tinged on the side next the sun with a dull blush, 
which is interspersed with spots of deep lively red. Eye, small and 
partially closed, set in a small and regularly notched basin. Stalk, 
slender, short, and obliquely inserted under a fleshy protuberance. 
Flesh, yellow, tender, juicy, and pleasantly acid. 

A culinary apple, much grown about Lancaster ; it is in use from 
November to March or April. 

This is a very different apple from the White Paradise^ which is 
sometimes called the '* Lady's Finger." 

La Fameuse. See De Xeige. 

LAMB ABBEY PEARIVIAIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches high ; roimdish or oblato-oblong, regularly 
and handsomely shaped. Skin, smooth greenish yellow on the shaded 
side, but becoming clear yellow when at maturity ; on the side next the 
sun it is dull orange, streaked and striped with red, which becomes 
more faint as it extends to the shaded side, and dotted all over with 
minute, punctured, russety dots. Eye, rather large and open, with 
long, broad, divergent segments, reflexed at the tips, and set in a wide, 
deep, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical or funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, from a quarter to half an inch long, slender, deeply 



128 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



inserted in a russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, crisp, very 
juicy and sugary, with a brisk and rich vinous flavour. Cells, obovate ; 
axile, open. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality, and very valuable, both as regards 
the richness of its flavour, and the long period to which it remains in 
perfection ; it is in use from January till April. The tree is healthy, 
a fi-ee grower, and good bearer. 

Raised in the year 1804, by the wife of Neil Malcolm, Esq., of Lamb Abbey 
near Dartford, m Kent, from the pip of an imported fruit of the Newtown Pippin. 

Lammas. See Margaret. 

Lancashire Crab. See Minchull Crab. 

LANDSBERGER REINETTE.— Fruit, above medium size, some- 
what conical, slightly ribbed near the eye. Skin, pale yellow, very 
clear and shining, having a tinge of crimson on the side next the sun. 
Eye, open ; segments of the calyx long, reflexed, set in a shallow basin. 
Stalk, long, slender, deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, delicate, melting, 
sweet. 

An excellent apple, fit for either kitchen or dessert use, from October 
to Christmas. The tree is a great bearer. 

LANE'S PRINCE ALBERT.— Fruit, large and handsome, three 
inches and a half wide, and three and a quarter high ; short, conical or 
ovate, even and regular in its outline, with broad obtuse ribs round the 
crown. Skin, smooth and shining, fine grass-gi^een at first, but changing 
to clear pale yellow as it ripens ; where exposed to the sun it is pale 
red marked with broken streaks of bright crimson. Eye, rather small, 
closed, with erect pointed segments, which are reflexed at the points [ 
set in a deep, saucer-like, plaited basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Flesh, tender, juicy, briskly and agreeably flavoured. Cells, 
elliptical, abaxile, Codlin-like. 

A very excellent culinary apple, from October to March. It w^as 
raised by Messrs. H. Lane & Son, of Berkhampstead, and exhibited by 
them at a meeting of the British Pomological Society, October 26th, 
1857. The tree is a marvellous bearer, and rarely fails to produce a 
crop. 

LANE'S PROLIFIC— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; round, even and 
symmetrical in its outline. Skin, green, with sometimes a dull red 
blush on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and open, with short 
erect segments, set in a very deep, even, round basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, deep, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, and 
woody. Flesh, firm, crisp, and with a greenish tinge ; brisk and acid 
at first, but later in the season mild and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, closed. 



APPLES. 129 

A first-rate kitchen apple. The tree is a marvellous bearer, rarely 
failing to produce a crop. 

This was raised by Messrs. Lane & Son, of Bcrkham])stead. 

Langton Nonesuch, ^ee yonesuch. 

Large Early Bough. See Laiye Yclloic Boufjh. 

Large Himthouse. See HimtJwiise. 

LARGE YELLOW BOUGH {Larrje Earhj Yellow Bough; Sweet 
BoiKjh : Early Bntu/h ; Bouijh ; Sweet Harvest). — Fruit, above medium 
size ; oblong oval, handsomely and regularly formed. Skin, smooth, 
pale greenish yellow. Eye, set in a narrow and deep basin. Stalk, 
rather long. Flesh, white, very tender, crisp, and very juicy, with a 
rich, sweet, sprightly flavour. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality. Ripe in the beginning of 
August. The tree is a vigorous and luxuriant grower, and a good 
bearer. 

Large Yellow Newtown Pippin. See Newtown Pippin, 

Leathercoat. See Fioyal Russet. 

LEATHERCOAT. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and 
two inches high ; conical or ovate, and angular, with ribs round the 
crown. Skin, almost entirely covered with dark brown russet, and here 
and there patches of the yellowish green ground exposed. Eye, small 
and closed, with connivent segments, set in a narrow, uneven basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, 
deeply inserted. Flesh, greenish, crisp, juicy, sweet, and briskly 
flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A dessert apple of good flavour ; in use from November till 
February. 

This is the old Leathercoat, which has been in cultivation for centuries, and is 
totally distinct from the Royal Russet which is sometimes called by that name. 
It was sent from the Vale of Berkeley by Mr. Viner Ellis, of Minsterworth, to 
Dr. Bull, of Hereford, to whom I am indebted for specimens of this interesting 
apple. This is no doubt the apple which Shakespeare mentions in Henry IV., 
when Davy says to Bardolph — 

'* There is a dish of Leather-coats for you," 
and the scene is laid in Gloucestershire. 

Leicester Burton Pippin. See French Codlin, 

LEMON PIPPIN (Kirkes Lemon Pippin ; Quince ; Englischer 
Winterquitienapfel). — Fruit, medium sized, three inches and a quarter 
long, by two and a half broad ; oval, with a large fleshy elongation 
covering the stalk, which gives it the form of a lemon. Skin, pale 
yellow, tinged with green, changing to a lemon yellow as it attains 
maturity, strewed with russety freckles, and patches of thin delicate 
russet. Eye, small, and partially open, with short segments, and set 

9 



130 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



in an irregular basin, which is frequently higher on one side than the 
other. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, entirely 
covered with the fleshy elongation of the fruit. Flesh, firm, crisp, and 
briskly flavoured. Core, very small, and occupying very little space in 
the fruit. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A very good apple, either for culinary or dessert use ; it is in season 
from October to April, and is perhaps the most characteristic apple we 
have, being sometimes so much like a lemon as at first sight to be 
taken for that fruit. Forsyth says it is excellent for di'ying. The 
tree does not attain a large size, but is healthy, hardy, and a good 
bearer. 

It is uncertain at what period the Lemon Pippin was first brought into notice. 
Rogers calls it the " Quince Apple," and, if it is what has always been known 
under that name, it must be of considerable antiquit}^ being mentioned by Rea, 
Worlidge, Ray, and almost all the early writers ; but the first instance wherein we 
find it called Lemon Pippin is in Ellis's " Modern Husbandman," 17^44, where he 
says it is "esteemed so good an apple for all uses, that many plant this tree prefer- 
able to all others." 

LEWIS'S INCOMPAKABLE.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, and 
two inches and three-quarters high ; conical, broad at the base and 
narrow at the apex, which is generally higher on one side than the 
other. Skin, deep lively red, streaked with crimson on the side next 
the sun, but yellow, faintly streaked with light red, on the shaded side, 
and strewed with numerous minute russety dots. Eye, small and open, 
with broad and slightly connivent segments, set in a rather narrow and 
somewhat ^angular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, conical. 
Stalk, very short, inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which is lined 
with thin grey russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a 
brisk and slightly perfumed flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A useful apple, either for culinary purposes or the dessert, but only 
of second-rate quality ; it is in use from December to February. The 
tree attains the largest size, is strong, vigorous, and an abundant bearer. 

LEYDEN PIPPIN. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and 
two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, inclining to oblate, broad at 
the base and narrowing towards the crown, obtusely ribbed, and ridged 
around the eye. Skin, uniform bright green, becoming yellowish as it 
ripens, and ultimately quite yellow. Eye, half open, with broad erect 
segments, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal or 
median ; tube, conical, or somewhat funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch 
long, stout, inserted in a wide and rather deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, 
very tender and soft, juicy, and briskly flavoured. Cells, roundish ; 
axile. 

A handsome early dessert apple, of good quality ; ripe in the end of 
August. 

Lily Buckland. See Devonshire Buddand. 

LINCOLN CODLIN. — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and over 
three inches high ; conical, with prominent angles, which extend to the 



APPLES. 131 

cro^\-n, forming corresponding ridges round the eye. Skin, deep lemon 
colom*, strewed all over with large russet specks. Eye, closed, with 
erect connivent segments, set in a deep and angular basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, long, fimnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in 
a deep, narrow cavity. Flesh, white, tender, very juicy, with a pleasant 
flavour and mild acidity. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent culinary apple, which keeps well till January. 

LINCOLNSHIRE HOLLAND PIPPIN {Striped Holland Pippin).— 
Fruit, above medium size, three inches and a half wide, and three 
inches and a quarter high ; roundish, inclining to ovate, and somewhat 
angular on the sides. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, but orange, 
streaked with crimson, on the side next the sun, and studded all over 
with numerous imbedded green specks. Eye, small, set in a pretty 
deep basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, 
white, and pleasantly sub-acid. 

A very showy, but very useless apple, fit only for kitchen use, and then 
only of second-rate quality ; it is in season from Novtjmber to February. 

LITTLE HERBERT.— A small, roimd apple, covered with brown 
russet. Much esteemed in Gloucestershu*e as a first-rate dessert fruit ; 
but is, in fact, only second-rate. 

Tree, a shy bearer. December to March. 

LOAN'S PEARMAIN. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches ahd a half 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish ovate or abrupt 
Pearmain-shaped. Skin, greenish yellow, changing to bright yellow, 
dotted with russet, with a few faint streaks of red, and stre^^ed with 
numerous large russety dots on the shaded side, but deep orange 
mottled and streaked with crimson, and covered with patches of thin 
grey russet, on the side next the sun. Eye, open, with reflexed seg- 
ments, set in a wide, even, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch or more long, inserted in a rather 
shallow cavity, with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, 
greenish white, tender, crisp, and very juicy, with a sugary and 
pleasant flavom*. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent old dessert apple ; in use from November to February. 

This very old variety is first mentioned by Ray, but is not in Meagcr's list It 
very much resembles Cox's Orange Pippin in shape and colour, but is not nearly 
so rich in flavour. 

LODDINGTON (Stone's Apple; Loddington Seedli7iff). — FrmU 
large, three inches and three-quarters wide, and three inches high ; 
roimd, somewhat flattened, and narrowing abruptly towards the eye ; 
it has obtuse ribs, which terminate in ridges round the eye. Skin, 
smooth and shining, gi'ass-green at first, with a tinge of brown on the 
side next the sun, but changing when the fruit is gathered to lemon 
yellow with a tinge of pale crimson, with broken streaks and specks of 
deep crimson on the side next the sun, the whole surface strewed with 



132 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

many minute russet dots. Eye, closed, with convergent, leafy seg- 
ments, deeply set and surrounded with prominent plaits. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, 
slender for the size of the fruit, set in a deep, wide cavity, which is 
lined with ash-grey russet extending over the base. Flesh, tender, 
fine-grained, and with a mild acidity. Cells, roundish elliptical ; 
axile, open. 

A large and handsome kitchen apple, which comes into use in 
September and continues during October and November. 

The tree is an early and immense bearer, medium sized and compact 
in growth. It does not produce long rampant shoots, but on the 
contrary when it comes into bearing it makes little wood, and keeps 
on forming an abundance of spurs. 

The Loddington is best known in Kent by the name of Stone's Apple, from the 
origical tree being found on the farm of Mr. Stone, at Loddington, about five 
miles from Maidstone, and its great merit as an orchard fruit caused it to be pro- 
pagated in the immediate neighbourhood, to which it was for a long time confined. 
Its cultivation has gradually extended to the adjoining parishes. 

LODGEMORE NONPAREIL {CUssoMs Seedling).— Fiuii, about 
medium size, two inches and a half wide, and nearly two inches high ; 
roundish ovate, regular in its outline. Skin, rich golden yellow when 
fully ripe, dotted with minute grey dots, and with a blush of red on the 
side exposed to the sun. Eye slightly closed, with broad, flat, leafy 
segments, and set in a narrow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a narrow cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, sweet, and with a fine aroma. 
Cells, round ; axile, open. 

This is a dessert apple of great excellence ; in use from February 
till the beginning of June ; and is one of the best late sorts I know. 
The tree is hardy, and a good bearer. 

The Lodgemore Nonpareil was raised about the year 1808 by Mr. Cook, of 
Lodgemore, near Stroud, in Gloucestershire, and was long known as Lodgemore 
Seedling ; but the garden being afterwards rented by Mr. Clissold, a nurseryman 
at Stroud, he propagated and sold it under the name of Clissold's Seedling. 

London Golden Pippin. See Golden Pippin. 

London Major. See Lord Derby. 

LONDON PEARMAIN. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a 
half wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; Pearmain-shaped, 
uneven and angular in its outline, and much ribbed round the eye. 
Skin smooth and shining, lemon yellow on the shaded side, and with 
a bright red cheek, streaked with dark crimson, on the side next the 
sun ; the whole sprinkled with russet dots, and here and there traces of 
russet round the stalk. Eye, large and closed, with convergent seg- 
ments, divergent at the tips, broad and leaf-like. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, stout, inserted in a 



APPLES. 133 

narrow cavity. Flesh, crisp, tender, juicy, and richly flavoured, with a 
brisk acidity. Cells, elliptical ; axile. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use till January. In shape it is not 
unlike Herefordshire Pearmain. 

LONDON PIPPIN {Five- Crowned Pippin ; yeiv London Pippin).— 
Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quarters broad, and two 
inches and a quarter high ; roundish, and flattened, with a few ribs on 
the sides, which increase in size towards the crown, where they termi- 
nate in tivo prominent and equal ridges, from which circumstance it 
has been called the Five-CrowTied Pippin. Skin, at first pale yellowish 
green, changing to pale yellow or lemon colour, with brownish red on 
the side next the sim. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Eye, small and closed, set in a rather shallow basin. Stalk, half an 
inch long, slender, and deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish white, 
firm, crisp, tender, and juicy, with a brisk and pleasant flavour. Cells, 
round ; axile, closed. 

An excellent culinary apple, and serviceable also for the dessert ; it 
is in use from November to April, when it is perfectly sound, and shows 
no symptoms of shrivelling. 

The tree attains about the middle size, is not a strong grower, but 
quite hai'dy, and an excellent bearer. 

Although there is no record of this variety in the writings of any poraological 
author before Mr. Lindley, it is nevertheless a very old English apple. In an 
ancient note-book of an ancestor of the Trevelyans, of Nettlecorabe, in Somerset- 
shire, so early as 1580, the " Lounden Peppen" is mentioned among the " names 
of Appelles which I had their graffes from Brentmarch, out of Essex, from one 
Mr. Pace." From this we may learn that we are not to take for granted the non- 
existence of any variety, simply because there is no notice of it, previous to the 
period when it may have been first recorded, in works on pomology. This has 
been erroneously called lioyal Somerset, which see. 

LONDON ROYAL RUSSET.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, and 
two inches and three-quai'ters high ; roimdish, inclining to ovate, un- 
even in its outline, with ribs which extend to the apex, where they 
form corresponding ridges round the eye. Skin, coloured like a 
Ribston Pippin, the greenish yellow ground being streaked with dark 
crimson, mottled with pale brown russet, with a sprinkling of the russet 
in thin patches all over the surface, and especially over the base. Eye, 
closed, with connivent segments, which are divergent at the tips, set in 
a deep angulai' basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
half an inch long, stout, deeply inserted in a wide, even cavity, lined 
with smooth olive-coloured russet. Flesh, greenish yellow, very tender 
and juicy, with a brisk and pleasant flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile, 
open. 

A very excellent and tender-fleshed kitchen apple ; sent me from 
Cornwall by Mr. Vivian, of Hayle. It is in use up till Christmas. 

LONG NOSE. — Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a 
half high, and about the same in width at the base ; conical, with 



134 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

prominent angles on the sides. Skin, smooth and shining, grass-green, 
changing to greenish yellow, with a cloud of bright red on the side 
exposed to the sun. Eye, closed, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, a 
quarter of an inch long, fleshy at the insertion, sometimes with a fleshy 
protuberance on one side of it, and inserted in a narrow, shallow, and 
russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, and tender, with a 
slightly sweet, but rather indiflerent flavour. 

An apple of little merit either for culinary purposes or the dessert ; it is in 
season I'rom October to December, and is met with in the Berkshire orchards, 
especially about Wantage. 

LONGSTAKT {Westmo7'eIand Longstart). — Fruit, medium sized ; 
roundish, narrowing towards the eye, somewhat like the old Nonpareil 
in shape. Skin, almost entirely covered with red, which is streaked 
with deeper red, except on the shaded side, where there is a patch of 
greenish yellow, tinged with thin red. Eye, partially open, with broad 
flat segments, and set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about an inch long, inserted in a 
wide cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, white, crisp, tender, 
juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A very excellent culinary apple ; comes in use during October, and 
lasts till Christmas. 

This is much grown about Lancaster, and some parts of Westmoreland, where 
it is a great favourite among the cottagers. 

LONGVILLE'S KERNEL.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; ovate, slightly 
angular, with ridges round the eye. Skin, greenish yellow, tinged with 
red, and streaked with dark red on the side next the sun. Eye, small 
and closed on the shaded side, with short erect segments, set in a deep 
and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch 
long, slender, and deeply inserted in a russety cavity. Flesh, yellow, 
firm, sweet, slightly acid, and with a perfumed flavour. Cells, ovate, 
axile open. 

A dessert apple, of good, but only second-rate quality ; in use during 
August and September. 

According to Mr. Lindley, " It is said that this apple originated in Here- 
fordshire, where it is at present but little known ; it is very handsome, and of 
considerable merit," 

LORD BURGHLEY. — Fruit, medium sized ; roundish, and slightly 
flattened, ribbed at the apex, and angular on the sides ; at the base it 
resembles the Nonpareil. Skin, green at first, changing to deej) golden 
yellow on the shaded side, and dark red changing to deep clear shining 
crimson on the side next the sun, and dotted all over with russet specks 
and dots. Eye, rather closed, set in an angular plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch to 
three-quarters long, frequently a mere knob, set in a wide cavity. 



APPLES. 185 

Flesh, yellowish, very tender and juicy, sweet, and with a fine pine 
flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A first-rate dessert apple ; in use from Christmas till May. 

Raised in the garden of the Marquis of Exeter, at Burghley, near Stamford, and 
was first distributed in 1865 by Mr, House, tlie nurseryman at Peterborough. 

LORD CLYDE. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and five- 
eighths wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; not unlike a small 
specimen of Golden Noble. It is regular and even in its outline. 
Skin, of an uniform lemon colour, without any trace of red, and with 
very little thin grey russet in the cavity of the stalk. Eye, closed, 
with flat convergent segments, set in a narrow and rather shallow basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, 
inserted in a wide and rather deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, 
tender, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly flavom-ed. Cells, open, roundish. 

An excellent cooking apple, which keeps well till March. It was 
raised by Mr. B. W. Witham, nurseryman, lleddish, near Stockport. 

LORD DERBY {Londmi Major], — Fruit, large, three inches and a 
quarter high, and three inches wide ; roimdish, narrowing from the 
middle to the eye ; it has prominent ribs, which extend in ridges round 
the crown. Skin, smooth and shining, quite dark grass-green, strewed 
with a few russet dots, and some lines of russet. Eye, closed, with 
connivent leafy segments, set in a deep angular or puckered basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped or conical. Stalk, very short 
and stout, imbedded in the cavity. Flesh, greenish, soft, and tender, 
with a mild acidity. Cells, roundish ovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use up till Christmas. It is a good 
deal like Gloria Mundi, and sometimes gi-ows to an enormous size. I 
have them this year (1883) four inches in diameter, and the same in 
height. 

LORD GROSYENOR.— Fruit, large, varying from three inches and 
ii quarter wide, and three inches high, to four inches wide, and three 
inches and three-quarters high ; ovate or conical, very prominently 
and irregularly ribbed, with ridges and bold puckers round the eye. 
Skin, of an uniform straw colour, covered with a few dots, and here 
and there traces of thin pale bro'VNTi russet. Eye, closed, with con- 
nivent segments, and set in a deep, irregular, and ribbed basin. 
Stamens, mai'ginal ; tube, deep, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, 
slender, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and 
agi'eeably sub-acid. Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

A large and handsome culinary apple ; in use from September till 
November. It is one of those early yellow apples, of which there are 
now so many in the style of Stirling Castle, Lord Suffield, Hawthorn- 
den, Keswick Codlin, &c., &c. 

Lord Gwydyr's Newto^wTi Pippin. See Alfriston. 

LORD LENNOX. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 



136 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

and an inch and three-quarters high ; round or oblate, even and regu- 
lar in its outline. Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, and 
covered with bright red, streaked with dark crimson, on the side next the 
sun ; the surface marked here and there, and especiall}^ round the eye, 
with patches of pale brown russet. Eye, small and closed, with flat 
convergent segments, set in a shallow, rather flat, and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, 
rather stout, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, 
juicy, sweet, and with a fine flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

An excellent and very pretty dessert apple ; in use up to January, 
It is much grown about Lincoln for market purposes. 

Lord Nelson. See Kirke's Lord Nelson. 

LORD RAGLAN. — Fruit, round and even in outline. Skin, yellow 
on the shaded side, and with a delicate red cheek, speckled with deeper 
red, on the side next the sun. Eye, rather small, and closed, deeply 
sunk in a plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a very narrow shallow 
cavity, the base of the fruit being nearly flat. Flesh, tender, pleasantly 
sub-acid. 

An excellent cooking apple ; in use during March and April. 

LORD SUFFIELD. — Fruit, large, two inches and three quarters 
wide and three inches high ; conical or ovate, even in its outline, with 
several obtuse angles on its sides. Skin, smooth, pale greenish yellow, 
with sometimes a tinge of red next the sun. Eye, small, and quite 
closed, the segments being connivent and placed in a plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, slender, over half an inch 
long, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender, and firm, very 
juicy, and briskly flavoured. Cells, open, ovate ; abaxile. 

One of the best early cooking apples ; it is in use during August and 
September. 

The tree is an early and very prolific bearer, and one of those 
varieties which, on account of these properties, is not long lived. 

This was raised by a hand-loom weaver named Thomas Thorpe, of Boardman 
Lane, Middleton, near Manchester, and was first let out in 1836 or 1837. It was 
called Lord Suffield on account of that nobleman being at the time Lord of the 
Manor of Middleton. 

Lovedon's Pippin. See Xonjjareil. 

LUCOMBE'S PINE APPLE (Pine AjipJe ; Pine Apple Pippin).— 
Fruit, rather below medium size ; ovate or conical, slightly and 
obscurely ribbed about the eye. Skin, of an uniform clear pale yellow, 
but with an orange tinge on the side next the sun, the whole surface 
thinly strewed with pale brown russety dots. Eye, small and closed, with 
broad ovate segments, reflexed at the tips, set in a narrow, shallow, and 
plaited basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, stout, about a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a narrow and 



APPLES. 137 

shallow cavity, generally with a swelling on one side. Flesh, yellowish 
white, tender and delicate, juicy and sugary, with a rich aromatic 
flavour, resembling that of a pine apple. Cells, roundish ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from the beginning 
of October till Christmas. 

This desirable apple orif^inated in the nursery of Messrs. Lucombe, Pince&Co., 
of Exeter, and is well worthy of general cultivation. 

LUCOMBE'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, large, three mches and a half 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish and angular. 
Skin, pale greenish yellow, strewed with dark dots, and imbedded 
green specks on the shaded side, but bright red, which is streaked with 
crimson, on the side next the sun. Eye, small and open, set in an 
angular and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a rather deep cavity. 
Flesh, white, firm, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. Celhi, roundish ; 
axile, open. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from October to Feb- 
ruary. The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, attains a large size, 
and is an excellent and early bearer. 

This, as well as the preceding, was raised in the Exeter nursery. 

MABBOTT'S PEARMAIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and about the same high ; round, and bluntly angular. 
Skin, bright yellow tinged with thin red on the shaded side, and bright 
red on the side exposed to the sun ; the whole surface thickly strewed 
with grey russet dots like freckles. Eye, closed, with broad convergent 
segments, set in a shallow plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, very slender, inserted in a deep russety cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, slit. 

A valuable dessert apple ; in use up till Christmas. 

This is a favourite among the great orchard ists about Maidstone, and was first 
brought to my notice by Mr. Lewis Killick, of Langley, near Maidstone. 

MACLEAN'S FAVOURITE.— Fruit, medium sized, roundish. 
Skin, yellow. Flesh, crisp, and richly flavoured, resembling the New- 
town Pippin. 

A very excellent dessert apple. The tree is an abundant bearer, but 
a delicate grower, and apt to canker unless in warm and light soils. 
October to January. 

Eaised by Dr. Maclean, of Colchester. 

MADELEINE (Margaret; Summer Pippin). — Fruit, rather below 
medium size ; roundish. Skin, yellowish white, with numerous im- 
bedded pearly specks, with an orange tinge next the sun, and sometimes 
marked with faint streaks of red. Eye, small and closed, set in a 
narrow basin, and surrounded with several unequal plaits. Stalk, 
short and slender, not extending beyond the base, and inserted in a 



138 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, white, very crisp and tender, juicy, 
sweet, and highly flavoured. 

An early dessert apple, of good, but only second-rate quality ; ripe in 
the middle and end of August. The tree is a free grower, and is readily 
distinguished by the excessive pubescence of its leaves and shoots. 

Mr. Lindlcy, in the " Guide to the Orchard," considers this variety as identical 
with the Margaret of Ray, which is a mistake. It is, no doubt, the Margaret of 
Miller, but certainly not of any English author either preceding or subsequent to 
him. It is to be observed that the lists of fruits given by Miller in his Dictionary 
are chiefly taken from the works of the French pomologists, while the fruits of his 
own country are almost wholly neglected ; and the only reason I can assign for his 
describing this variety for the Margaret is, because our own Margaret being by 
some authors called the Magdalene, he might have thought the two synonymous. — 
See Margaret. 

Magdalene. See Margaret. 
Mage's Johnny. See Green Tiffing. 

MAGGIE. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three-quarters 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, uneven in its out- 
line, and somewhat flattened. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, and red 
next the sun, strewed with small russet dots. Eye, open, with erect and 
slightly divergent segments, set in an irregular basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a narrow and 
rather deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, extremely acid and austere. 
Cells, open, roundish obovate. 

A Gloucestershire cider apple. 

MAIDEN'S BLUSH. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, 
and two inches and a half high ; roundish and flattened. Skin, of a 
fine rich pale yellow colour, tinged with a blush of beautiful red on the 
side exposed to the sun. Eye, pretty large and closed, set in a round, 
even, and rather deep basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short, conical. 
Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and round cavity. Flesh, white, tender, 
brisk, and pleasantly acid. Cells, ovate. 

A very beautiful culinary apple, but not of first-rate quality ; it is in 
use during September and October. 

The tree is a vigorous grower, and an abundant bearer. 

An American apple. It is highly esteemed in the neighbourhood of Phila- 
delphia, and considered one of the best culinary apples in America ; it is also 
much used for drying, for which purpose it is considered the best. It is not, 
however, held in great repute in this country, its size and colour being its chief 
recommendation. 

MALAKOVNA. — Fruit, small ; roundish oblate, very regular in its 
outline. Skin, deep bright crimson over the entire surface, and wonder- 
fully beautiful when growing on the tree. Eye, with long, pointed, 
somewhat connivent segments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a 
shallow depression. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped or conical. 



APPLES. 189 

Stalk, long, slender. Flesh, whitish, tinged with pink, firm, and rather 
dry, but sweet and pleasant. Cells, open, obovato ; abaxile. 

In use from October till December. The tree has a line habit of 
growth, and is very productive, seeming one mass of scarlet when full 
of fruit. Highly worthy of cultivation as an ornamental variety. 

This was received from liussia by the Koyal Horticultural Society. 

Male Carle. See Mela Carla. 

Malingre d'Angleterre. See Calville Malingre, 

MALTSTER. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish and 
flattened, with prominent angles, which terminate in bold ridges round 
the eye. Skin, smooth, deep yellow when ripe, and with a few faint 
broken streaks of red on the shaded side, but bright red, streaked with 
deeper red, on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with connivent 
segments, set in a deep angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Flesh, yellow, tender, sweet, and agreeably flavoured. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, closed, sometimes slightly open. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use from October till December. 
The tree is a free grower, and great bearer. It is much grown in 
Nottinghamshire. 

Mammoth. See Gloriu Mundi. 

MANKS CODLIN (Irish Pitcher; Irish Cocllin; Eve; Frith Pippin). 
— Fruit, medium sized ; conical, and slightly angular. Skin, smooth, 
greenish yellow at first, but changing as it ripens to clear pale yellow, 
tinged with rich orange red on the side next the sun, but sometimes, 
when fully exposed, assuming a clear bright red cheek. Eye, small and 
closed, set in a small, plaited, and pretty deep basin. Stamens, margi- 
nal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, more 
or less fleshy, sometimes straight, but generally obliquely inserted, and 
occasionally united to the fruit by a fleshy protuberance on one side of 
it. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, brisk, juicy, and slightly perfumed. 
Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A very valuable early culinary apple, of first-rate quality ; it is ripe 
in the beginning of August, and continues in use till November. 

The tree is very hardy and healthy, but not a large grower. It is a 
very early and abundant bearer, young trees in the nursery quarters 
generally producing a considerable quantity of fruit when only two years 
old from the gi*afts. It is well suited for planting in exposed situations, 
and succeeds well in shallow soils. It forms a beautiful little tree when 
grafted on the paradise stock, and is well adapted for espalier training. 

MANNINGTON'S PEARMAIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two 
and a half inches wide, and the same high ; abrupt Pearmain-shaped, 
even and regular in its outline. Skin, of a rich golden yellow colour. 



140 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

covered with thin brown russet on the shaded side, but covered with 
dall brownish red on the side next the sun, strewed with large russet 
dots. Eye, partially closed, with broad flat segments, set in a shallow 
and plaited basin. Stamens, median; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
three-quarters of an inch to an inch long, obliquely inserted in a 
moderately deep cavity, with generally a fleshy protuberance on one 
side of it. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, and very sugary, with a 
brisk and particularly rich flavour. Cells, open, obovate ; axile. 

This is one of the best and richest flavoured of our dessert apples ; 
it comes into use in October and November, and continues in good 
condition till March. 

A communication of some importance was sent me by Mr. Cameron, 
of Uckfield, by whom this variety was first propagated. He says the 
fruit should be allowed to hang late on the tree before it is gathered, so 
as to secure its peculiar richness of flavour, and long period of duration ; 
for if gathered too soon, it loses much of its fine richness, and is very 
apt to shrivel. 

The tree does not attain a large size, but is perfectly hardy, and 
an early and excellent bearer ; young trees, only two or three years 
from the graft, producing a considerable crop of handsome, well-grown 
fruit. 

This esteemed variety originated about the year 1770, in a garden lately in pos- 
session of Mr. John Mannington, at Uckfield, in Sussex, At the time it was raised 
the garden belonged to Mr. Turley, a blacksmith, and grandfather of Mr. Man- 
nington. The original tree grew up at the root of a hedge, where the refuse from 
a cider press had been thrown ; it never attained any great size, but continued to 
preserve a stunted and diminutive habit of giowth, till it died about the year 1820. 
Previous to this, however, grafts had been freely distributed to persons in the 
neighbourhood ; but it does not seem to have been known beyond its own locality 
till the autumn of 1847, when Mr. Mannington caused specimens of the fruit to 
be forwarded to the London Horticultural Society, by whom it was pronounced to 
be a dessert fruit of the highest excellence, and was designated by Mr. Thompson 
" Mannington's Pearmain." 

Mr. Mannington, whose acquaintance I made in 1846, was a man of singular 
intelligence on many subjects, and was an enthusiastic pomologist. He raised 
many varieties of fruits, especially pears, some of which are of great excellence. 
He was an unwearying correspondent, and up to within a few months of his death 
I was favoured wnth his views in respect to pomological matters. He died at Uck- 
field on the 19th September, 1880, aged 93 years, and one of his last letters to me 
finished thus — " Written without spectacles." 

MARBLE PIPPIN. — Fruit, medium sized, nearly three inches in 
diameter, and two inches and a quarter high ; round and flattened ; in 
shape and colour bearing much resemblance to Blenheim Pippin. Skin, 
pale yellow, strewed with russet dots, and with a red blush next the sun 
side. Eye, open, with reflexed, sharp-pointed segments, set in a round, 
smooth basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an 
inch long, set in a deep wide cavity. Flesh, very tender, sweet, juicy, 
and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, open, roundish ovate. 

An excellent dessert or culinary apple; in use from November till 
January. 



APPLES. 141 

MARGARET {Early Bed Margaret; Early Red Jiineatim/ ; Red 
Juneatiwj ; Striped Juneating ; Early Striped Jiineating ; Striped 
Quarrenden ; Summer Traveller ; Eve Apjile, iyi Ireland; Early Mar- 
garet ; Marget Apple; Maudlin; Magdalene; Marguerite; Lammas), 
— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the same in height ; roundish 
ovate, and narrowing towards the eye, where it is angular. Skin, 
greenish 3'ellow on the shaded side, but bright red next the sun, striped 
all over with darker red, and strewed with grey russety dots. Eye, half 
open, and prominent, with long, broad, erect segments, surroimded 
with a number of puckered knobs. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, short and thick, about half an inch long, inserted in a 
small and shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, brisk, juicy, and 
vinous, with a pleasant and very refreshing flavour. Cells, roundish 
ovate or obovate ; axile, closed. 

A first-rate early dessert apple ; it is ripe in the beginning of August, 
but does not keep long, being very liable to become mealy. To have 
it in perfection, it is well to gather it a few days before it ripens on the 
tree, and thereby secure its juicy and vinous flavour. 

The tree does not attain a large size, being rather a small grower. 
It is a good bearer, more so than the Joaneting, and is quite hardy, 
except in light soils, when it is liable to canker. It is well adapted 
for growing as dwarfs, either for potting or being trained as an espalier, 
when grafted on the doucin and pomme paradis stock. 

This is a very old English apple. It is without doubt the Margaret of Rea, 
Worlidge, Kay, and all our early pomologists except Miller ; Mr. Liridley, how- 
ever, is of a different opinion, for he believes the Margaret of Miller to be identical 
with that of Ray. That this variety is the Margaret of Rea, his description is 
sufficient evidence. " The Margaret or Magdelen Apple is a fair and beautiful 
fruit, yellow, and thick striped with red, early ripe, of a delicate taste, sweet flavour, 
and best eaten off the tree." Ray gives no description of it, but it is only reason- 
able to suppose that it is this variety he refers to, seeing it is the Margaret of all 
authors both immediately preceding and subscqueut to him. And indeed in no 
instance is that of Miller noticed by any English author but himself anterior to 
Mr. Lindley. 

Margaret. See Madeleine, 
Marget. See Margaret, 

MARGIL (Margin ; Never Fail; Munches Pippin ; Small Ribston). 
— Fruit, small, two inches and an eighth wide, and the same in 
height ; conical, distinctly five-sided, with acute angles on the side, 
which terminate at the crowTi in five prominent ridges. Skin, orange, 
streaked with deep red, and covered on one side with patches of russet. 
Eye, small and closed, compressed as it were between the angles of 
the basin. Stamens, median ; tube, deep, conical. Stalk, half an inch 
long, slender, and rather deeply inserted in a round and russety cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, fu-m, juicy, rich, and sugary, with a powerful and 
delicious aromatic flavour. Cells, roundish ovate ; axile. 

One of the finest dessert apples, a rival of the Ribston Pippin, 



142 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

excelling it in juiciness, and being of a better size for the dessert ; it 
is in use from November to February. 

The tree is quite hardy, and generally an abundant bearer, except 
in seasons when the bloom is injured by frosts, to which it is liable. 
It is of a small and slender habit of growth, and is well adapted for 
growing as dwarfs or espaliers when grafted on the paradise stock. 

There seems to be no record of this variety before the publication of the Pomona 
Londinen.sis, although it was known for many years previously. Eogers says he 
saw a tree of it growing as an espalier in the garden at k>heen, which was planted 
by Sir William Temple. I find it was cultivated to a considerable extent in the 
Brompton Park Nursery so early as 1750 ; it must therefore have been well known 
at that period, but I cannot discover any trace of its origin. It may have been 
introdui ed from the Continent by George London, who was for some years in the 
gardens at Versailles under De La Quintinye, and afterwards in partnership with 
Henry Wise as proprietor of the Brompton Park Nursery, as the name seems to 
indicate more of French than English origin. 

Marguerite. See Margaret. 

MARK MARSHALL. — Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and two inches high ; conical or roundish ovate, frequently with one 
very prominent rib, but always angular. Skin, with an orange red 
cheek where exposed to the sun, yellow in the shade, strewed with 
russet dots. Eye, closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a 
somewhat angular and plaited basin. Stamens, median or marginal ; 
tube, conical, inclining to funnel-shape, wide and deep, out of all 
proportion to the size of the fruit. Stalk, very short, imbedded in 
the cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. Cells, 
obovate ; axile. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from October to December. 

MARMALADE PIPPIN {AWwrp Pippin ; Welsh Pi ppi7i).—FYmt, 
medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and three- 
quarters high ; oblong, with a prominent rib on one side, and flattened 
at the apex, where it terminates in several prominences. Skin, very 
thick, hard, and membranous ; deep yellow, with a brownish tinge next 
the sun, and strewed with numerous imbedded pearly specks. Eye, 
small and open, with long acuminate and reflexed segments, set in a 
deep and angular basin. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep 
and smooth cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm and tender, sweet, 
juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. 

A culinary apple, but only of second-rate quality ; it is in use from 
October to January. 

The tree is hardy and an abundant bearer. 

This was introduced in 1818 — the year in which the original tree first produced 
fruit — by a Mr. Stevens, of Stanton Grange, in Derbyshire, by whom it was raised 
from a seed of the Keswick Codlin. The Marmalade Pippin of Diel, which is 
described in vol. 22, and which he says is an English apple, is not the same as the 
above, for he describes it as " a true streaked apple, and ripe in August." 

MARRIAGE -MAKER. — Fruit, small, about two inches and a 



APPLES. 148 

quarter wide, aucl two inches high ; roundish, and somewhat depressed, 
even and regular in its outline. Skin, smooth, entirely crimson, even 
on the shaded side. Eye, small, with erect convergent segments, set 
in a basin, which is slightly plaited. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, short and slender, placed in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, 
slightly tinged with red at the eye and under the skin, pleasantly 
flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A very showy dessert apple, resembling Scarlet Pearmain ; in use 
from October till Christmas. It was sent me by Messrs. Hai'rison, of 
Leicester. 

Marrow-bone. See Tom Putt. 

MARTIN NON^PAREIL.— Fruit, below medium size ; ovate, and 
angular on the sides. Skin, pale yellow, sprinkled with yellowish 
brown russet, which is rather rough. Eye, small, half open, with 
segments which are convergent and reflexed at the tips, set in a plaited 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short, conical. Stalk, short and 
thick, sometimes a mere knob, with a swelling on one side of it. Flesh, 
yellow, firm, rich, juicy, and sugary. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

An excellent dessert apple, but not equal to the old Nonpareil ; 
consequently can only be regarded as a second-rate variety ; it is in 
use from December to March. 

The tree is a vigorous grower, hardy, and a good bearer. 

This apple was received from a nursery, as a crab stock, by the Eev. George 
"Williams, of Martin- Hussingtree, near Worcester, and after producing fruit, was 
communicated by him to the London Horticultural Society. 

MARTIN'S CUSTARD.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, ribbed 
on the sides, and with ridges round the crown which extend into the 
basin of the eye. Skin, greenish yellow, mottled with red on the 
shaded side, and considerably streaked with dark crimson and with a 
violet bloom on the side next the sun. Eye, small, quite closed, set 
in a narrow puckered basin. Stalk, very short, sometimes a mere 
fleshy knob, and sometimes woody, with a fleshy swelling on one side. 
Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, and briskly acid. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use from October to Christmas. 

This apple is much grown in the orchards conterminous with Northamptonshire 
and Leicestershire, and I am indebted for a knowledge of it to my friend the Kev. 
M. J. Berkeley, of Sibbertoft, near Market Harborough. 

MARVELLOUS. — Fruit, small and oblate. Skin, entirely covered 
with brilliant crimson, and which has a fine bloom upon it, like a 
plum. Eye, closed, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, short. Flesh, 
yellow, not very juicy, with a pleasant, but not rich flavour. 

The great merit of this apple is its appearance, and not its flavour. 
As an ornament in the dessert it will be valuable, but its season being 
in August, at that time its use in this respect is not much in request. 



144 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

Maudlin. See Margaret. 

MEAD'S BKOADING.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, 
and three inches high ; round, obtusely angular, and somewhat flattened. 
Skin, with a pale red cheek, marked with a few broken streaks of 
crimson, on the side next the sun, and greenish on the shaded side ; the 
surface strewed with large russet dots. Eye, closed, with flat con- 
vergent segments, set in a deep, wide, and plaited basin. Stamens, 
basal; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted all^its length in the 
rather shallow cavity, which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, tender, 
juicy, and mildly acid. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A large and handsome cooking apple, sent me by Messrs. J. R. 
Pearson & Son, nurserymen, Chilwell, near Nottingham ; it is in use 
during October and November. 

Megginch Favourite. See Golden Eeinette. 

MELA CARL A {Male Carle). — Fruit, medium sized, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and the same in height ; roundish, inclining 
to ovate, narrowing a little towards the eye, but generally of an ovate 
shape. Skin, thin and tender, pale green at first, changing as it ripens 
to fine delicate waxen yellow on the shaded side, but covered with fine 
dark crimson on the side next the sun. Eye, small and closed, w^ith 
long acuminate segments, and set in a pretty wide and deep basin, 
which is sometimes a little ribbed. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch 
long, inserted in a small and smooth cavity. Flesh, white, with a 
greenish tinge, very delicate, juicy, and tender, with a sweet and vinous 
flavour, and a perfume like that of roses. 

A dessert apple which, when in perfection, is of the most exquisite 
flavour ; but, being indigenous to a warmer climate, it does not attain 
its full maturity in this country. When grown in an orchard house, 
as I have received it from Mr. Rivers, it is equal to any specimens I 
have ever met with in Italy. By the aid of a south wall, in a warm and 
sheltered situation, it may, however, be brought to some degree of 
excellence. At Elvaston Castle, Mr. Barron successfully cultivated it 
upon earthen mounds, with an inclination to the sun of 45°. When 
in perfection, its flesh is as tender as a highly ripened Newtown Pippin ; 
it is in use from December to March. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an abundant bearer. 

This is of Italian origin, and is extensively cultivated about Turin. Its name is 
by some supj o<ed to have been given in honour of Charlemagne, who is said to 
have held this fruit in high estimation. 

MELCOMBE RUSSET.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and one 
inch high ; oblate, even and regular in its outline, except round the eye, 
where it is undulating. Skin, entirely covered with bright cinnamon- 
coloured russet, which has a warm orange tinge next the sun, and no 
trace of any ground colour is visible. Eye, half open, with erect, leafy, 
convergent segments, which are reflexed at the tips, and set in a wide 



APPLES. 145 

saucer-like and undulating basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, very shallow, 
conical. Stalk, very short, not extending beyond the base ; stout, and 
inserted in a narrow cavity. Flesli, yellowish, firm, not very juicy, 
agreeably flavoured. Cells, round ; axile, closed or slit. 

A second-rate dessert apple, which keeps well till January. It is a 
Dorsetshire apple. 

MELON APPLE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; roimdish, but narrowing 
a little towards the crown, and somewhat bluntly angular on the sides. 
Skin, smooth, lemon yellow tinged with green, veined with very delicate 
pale brown russet, on the shaded side ; on the side next the sun it is 
pale bright crimson, with broken streaks of diirker crimson and patches 
and veins of very thin smooth pale brown russet. Eye, small and half 
open, placed in a narrow, sometimes slightly angular basin. Stamens, 
marginal, median or basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, 
very slender, straight, and woody, inserted in an even, funnel-shaped, and 
rather deep cavity, which is lined with brown russet. Flesh, yellowish 
white, very tender and crisp, juicy, sweet, and vinous, with a delicate 
and very agreeable perfume. Cells, round ; axile, slit. 

A first-rate dessert apple ; in use in December. 

An American apple of great excellence. It was raised in the State of New 
York at a place called East Bloomfield, 

MELROSE (White Melrose). — Fruit, large, three inches and a 
quarter wide, and three inches high ; roundish ovate, inclining to 
conical, and broad at the base ; it has an irregularity in its outline, 
caused by prominent ribs, which extend from about the middle to the 
basin of the eye, where they form large and unequal ridges ; and also by 
several flattened pai'ts on the sides, giving it the appearance as if 
indented by a blow. Skin, smooth and shining, pale 3'ellow tinged 
with green on the shaded side ; but yellow tinged with orange, and 
marked with crimson spots and dots, on the side exposed to the sun. 
Eye, large and closed, with broad flat segments, and deeply set in a 
plaited and prominently ribbed basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, very short, not more than a quarter of an inch long, 
inserted in a deep, irregular cavity, in which are a few streaks and 
patches of rough russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, but tender and 
juicy, with a sweet and pleasantly sub-acid flavour. Cells, elliptical ; 
abaxile. 

A very valuable and fine-looking apple, of first-rate quality, suitable 
either for culinary purposes or the dessert ; it is in use from October 
to January. The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, and 
forms a large round head. It is also an abundant and free bearer. 

This is an oM Scotch apple, the cultivation of which is confined exclusively to 
the Border counties, where it was probably first introduced by the monks of Melrose 
Abbey. Though it is one of the most popular apples of the Twecdside orchards, 
it does not seem to have been ever known beyond its own district. It is without 
doubt the largest, and one of the most useful of Scotch apples, and requires onlr 

10 



146 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

to be more generally known, to be cultivated throughout the length and breadth of 
that country. Even in the south it is worthy of cultivation as being both in size 
and quality one of the most attractive market apples. I have known them sold at 
two shillings a dozen. 

MERE DE MENAGE [Comhermere Apple; Flanders Pippin).— 
Fruit, very large ; roundish ovate or conical, prominently ribbed, and 
with ridges round the eye. Skin, red, streaked with darker red all over, 
except a little on the shaded side, where it is yellow. Eye, closed, with 
flat convergent segments, or open, with short, narrow segments, which 
are reflexed or spreading at the tips, set in an angular basin. Stamens, 
basal ; tube, deep, conical. Stalk, very short and stout, inserted in a 
deep cavity, so much so as to be scarcely visible. Flesh, firm, crisp, 
brisk, and juicy. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

A valuable and very beautiful culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in 
use from October to January. 

Mere de Menage sometimes attains an enormous size. It is not 
unusual to meet with specimens four inches and a half wide and three 
inches and a half high. 

MICKLEHAM PEARMAIN. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
wide, and about the same high ; roundish, inclining to ovate. Skin, 
yellow on the shaded side, with orange red next the sun, marked with 
traces of russet, and specked with large russet dots on its surface. Eye, 
large and open, set in a wide, shallow basin. Stalk, half an inch long, 
inserted in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, 
sugary, and of good flavour. 

A good dessert apple, which keeps well till the end of February. 

This was raised at Mickleham, near Dorking, in Surrey. 

MILLER'S GLORY. — Fruit, about medium size, nearly three inches 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish and depressed, nar- 
rowing towards the crown, obtusely angular, and sometimes oblate. Skin, 
smooth, very much covered with dull livid red, of the same colour as 
Norfolk Beefing, except where shaded, and then it is yellowish green, 
covered with broken streaks of deep red. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, 
convergent segments, set in a shallow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a pretty deep cavity, but 
sometimes short with a swelling on one side of it. Flesh, greenish, very 
firm, solid, crisp, and very juicy, with a pleasant though brisk acidity. 
Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A soHd and very heavy kitchen apple of the first quality, which keeps 
till February without shrivelling. 

Milton Golden Pippin. See Golden Pippin, 

MINCHULL CRAB [Minshul Crab ; Mincham's Crab ; Lancashire 
Crab ; Lancaster Crab). — Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a half high ; roundish, and considerably flattened, 
almost oblate. Skin, green at first, changing to yellow, covered with 



APPLES. 147 

dark dots and a few veins of russet ; russety over the base, and 
marked with a few broken stripes and mottles of crimson on the side 
next the sun. Eye, hirge and open, like Blenheim Pippin, with short 
and ragged convergent segments, set in a wide, shallow, and plaited 
basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, 
inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, white, firm, crisp, and juicy, 
with a rough and sharp acid flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile, 
slit. 

A culinary apple, of excellent quality ; it is in use from November 
to March. 

The tree is very hardy, and is not subject to canker or the attacks of 
insects. It is an abundant bearer. 

This apple is extensively grown in the southern parts of Lancashire, and is a 
great favourite in the Manchester market, and all the other manufacturing towns 
of that district. It receives its name from the village of Minchull, in Ciieshire, 
where, according to Rogers, the original tree existed in 1777. 

MINIER'S DUMPLING.— Fruit, large, from three to three inches 
and a half wide, and nearly the same in height ; roundish, somewhat 
flattened, and angular on the sides. Skin, dark green, striped with 
darker green on the shaded side, but covered with dark red where 
exposed to the sim. Stalk, an inch long, rather thick, inserted in a 
rather deep cavity. Flesh, firm, juicy, sub-acid, and pleasantly 
flavoured. 

An excellent culinary apple, of first-rate quality ; in use from No- 
vember to May. 

The tree is a strong grower, hardy, and an excellent bearer. It is 
one of the varieties grown in Dr. Swainson's garden at Twickenham in 
1807. 

MITCHELSON'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, above the medium size ; 
somewhat ovate. Skin, of a fine deep yellow, thinly strewed with 
minute brown dots, interspersed with slight patches of very delicate; 
russet ; but faintly mottled with clear red on the side exposed to the 
sun. Eye, large and open, with short, stunted segments, and set in a 
rather deep and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a round 
and even cavity, which is tinged with green, and lined with fine, deli- 
cate grey russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, brisk, very juicy, and 
vinous, abounding in a rich and agreeable perfume. 

A very excellent apple, suitable either for culinary purposes or the 
dessert ; it is in use from December to February. 

This beautiful apple was raised by Mr. Mitchclson, a market gardener, at 

Kingston-on-Thames. 

MONKLAND PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and the 
same in height ; oval, even, and regularly formed, with five obscure 
ribs round the eye. Skin, gi*een, becoming yellow as it attains maturity, 
mai'ked with imbedded green specks and numerous very minute dots. 
Eye, half open, set in a round and plaited basin. Stalk, three-quarters 



148 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

of an inch long, slender, and inserted in a round, narrow cavity, which 
is lined with rough russet. Flesh, greenish white, soft and juicy, but 
with little or no flavour. 

An apple of which it is difficult to say to what use it is applicable, 
having nothing whatever to recommend it ; it is ripe in November. 

MONKTON. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches high ; oblate, slightly ribbed on the 
sides, and ridged round the eye. Skin, entirely covered with beautiful 
red, which is marked with spots, and broken stripes of deep crimson ; 
the colour on the shaded side is paler than on the side exposed to the 
sun ; it is strewed all over with russety dots, and round the stalk and 
in the basin of the eye it is of a clear waxen yellow. Eye, small 
and open, with broad, erect segments, set in a moderately deep basin. 
Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a rather shallow cavity, which is 
lined with thick grey russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and brisk. 

A beautiful cider apple, raised at Monkton, near Taunton, in Sumersetshirc. 

Monstrous Pippin. See Gloria Mundi. 

MOORE'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
wide, and three inches high ; conical and angular, flattened at the 
base. Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, and marked with 
broken streaks of red where exposed to the sun, interspersed with 
numerous large dark spots. Eye, small and open, set in a plaited 
basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a small, narrow cavity, and 
surrounded with a patch of russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, rather 
sweet and pleasantly flavoured. 

A good culinary apple ; ripe in October, and keeps till December. 

MORGAN'S SWEET.— Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
a half high, and the same in width ; conical, distinctly five-sided at the 
crown, and having a near resemblance to a small fruit of Keswick 
Codlin. Skin, pale lemon yellow, with a flush of pale red on the side 
next the sun, and the whole surface covered with large dots. Eye, 
closed, with long leafy segments, set in a narrow basin, which is angular. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch 
long, inserted in a deep cavity, which is lined with rough russet. 
Flesh, yellowish white, tender and marrow-like, juicy, sweet, and 
briskly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A cider apple much used in Somersetshire, and very good as a 
culinary variety ; in use in November and December. The tree is a 
very strong grower. 

MORNING PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish and depressed, even 
and pretty regularly formed, except towards the crown, where it is a 
little angular. Skin, smooth and shining, except where it is marked 
with patches and ramifications of pale brown russet, which is rather 



APPLES. 149 

rough ; wherever it is exposed to the sun it is covered with dark 
shining crimson, but on the shaded side it is deep yellow, washed 
with thin pale red, and marked with broken stripes of crimson. Eye, 
half open, with erect segments, which are reflexed at the tips, and 
which are frequently broken, leaving the eye open with stunted seg- 
ments, and placed in a rather shallow, somewhat angular basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about a quarter of an 
inch long, sometimes woody, sometimes a fleshy knob, inserted in a 
very shallow and narrow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, very firm and 
crisp, pretty juicy, with a brisk and agreeably perfumed flavour. Cells, 
ovate ; axile. 

A good culinary apple, which bakes well, and has a pleasant acidity ; 
in use from December to March. The tree is an excellent bearer. 

This, one of the hcst keeping apples of the Gloucestershire orchards, was sent 
me, with many others of that district, by G. S. Wintle, Esq., of Gloucester. 

MORRIS'S COURT OF WICK.— Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter broad, and an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish oblate, 
regularly and handsomely shaped, v^ery closely resembling its parent, 
the old Court of Wick. Skin, pale green on the shaded side, but 
washed with light red next the sun, which is covered with darker red 
spots, and marked with thin grey russet, round the eye. Eye, open, 
with reflexed segments, equally as characteristic as that of the old 
Court of Wick, and placed in a wide, shallow basin. Stamens, mar- 
ginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a 
round cavity. Flesh, firm but tender, with a profusion of rich, vinous, 
tmd highly flavoured juice. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A delicious dessert apple, exceeding even the old Court of Wick ; it 
is in use from October to February. 

Raised some years ago by Mr. Morris, a market gardener, at Brentford, near 
London. 

MORRIS'S NONPAREIL RUSSET {Nonpareil I{'US8et).—Fxmi, 
small ; conical and irregularly formed, being generally larger on one 
side than the other, and having the eye placed laterally. Skin, green, 
covered with large patches of thin grey russet, strewed with silvery 
scales, and marked with green dots. Eye, small and open, with seg- 
ments reflexed at the tips, and set in a plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, and deeply inserted in an oblique 
cavity. Flesh, greenish, firm, crisp, juicy, sugary, briskly flavoured, 
and charged with a pleasant aroma. Cells, quite closed, ovate ; axile. 

An excellent dessert apple, of the first quality ; in use from October 
to March, and will keep even as long as May and June. 

The Morris's Nonpareil Russet, of the Lcndon Horticultural Society's catalogue . 
which is said to be oblate, cannot be true. I know that the variety described above 
is the true one, the friend from whom I received it having procured it from Mr. 
Morris, of Brentford, by whom it was raised. 

MORRIS'S RUSSET. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches 



150 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

jind a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; round, regu- 
larly and handsomely shaped. Skin, covered with a coat of smooth, 
thin, brown russet, with occasionally a bright, fiery crimson flame 
breaking out on the side next the sun, sometimes so large as to form 
a fine, smooth, and varnished crimson cheek. Eye, large and open, 
set in a small and shallow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted in a rather small cavity. Flesh, 
firm, but tender, juicy, brisk, and sugary, charged with a very rich and 
powerful aromatic flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

This is a dessert apple of the highest excellence, and ought certainly 
to form one in every collection, however small ; it is in season from 
October to February. 

This, like the two preceding varieties, was raised by Mr. Morris, of Brentford. 

MOSS'S INCOMPARABLE.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter high ; roundish, in- 
clining to oblate, angular, knobbed round the crown, where the angles 
terminate. Skin, entirely covered with streaks of bright deep crimson 
on a deep yellow ground. Eye, small and closed, with erect short seg- 
ments, not quite connivent, set in a deep angular and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted in 
a deep, russet-lined cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, sweet, and 
of good flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A useful apple of first-rate quality, either for cooking or for the 
dessert ; it is a late keeper, being in use from January till April. 

Mother Apple. See American Mother, Cornish Mother, Oslin, and 
Sussex Mother. 

Motteux's Seedling. See Beachamwell. 

MR. GLADSTONE. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and an inch and three-quarters high ; oblate, even and regular in 
outline. Skin, very much covered with dull red, which is thickly 
striped with dark crimson, except only where it is shaded, and there 
it is yellowish. Eye, closed, with connivent segments, set in a rather 
wide basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch long, 
and slender, not deeply inserted. Flesh, tender, juicy, sweet, and well 
flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

An early dessert apple ; ripe in August. This originated in the 
neighbourhood of Kidderminst€r. It received a first-class certificate 
from the Royal Horticultural Society, August, 1883. 

MRS. WARD. — This in its outward appearance and form somewhat 
resembles the Court of Wick, with the beautiful scarlet flush of its parent, 
the Scarlet Nonpareil. Fruit, below medium size ; roundish ovate, com- 
pressed at both ends ; outline very even and regular. Skin, smooth, 
of a warm yellow or orange colour on the shaded side, flushed wdth 
deep scarlet on the side next the sun, with here and there slight patches 



APPLES. 151 

of russet, especially near to the eye and stalk. Eye, open, set in a 
shallow, evenly -formed cavity. Stalk, long, slender, and deeply set. 
Flesh, pale yellow, firm, juicy, with a fine, brisk, sprightly acid flavour. 

One of the pleasantest little dessert apples, and beautiful in appear- 
ance ; in use from November to March. 

Raised by Mr. N. Lawrence, nurseryman, Chatteris, Cambridgeshire. 

Munches Pippin. See Margil. 

MUNN'S RED. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches high ; round, inclining to ovate, even and regular 
in its outline. Skin, bright red, approaching scarlet, mottled and 
somewhat streaked with crimson over its whole surface. Eye, closed, 
with connivent segments, set in a pretty deep basin, which is either 
even and saucer-like or a little angular. Stamens, median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, long, curved, and rather stout and woody, 
inserted in a very deep round cavity. Flesh, yellowish, with a stain of 
red running from the base of the eye round the carpels. Cells, roundish 
elliptical ; abaxile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple, raised at Canon Pyon by a person of 
the name of Munn. 

Murdy. See Comey Norman. 

MURFITT'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches and three-quai'ters high ; round and depressed, 
rather angular in its outline. Skin, very greasy to handle, green, 
becoming yellowish towards ripening ; on the sun side it has a dull 
brown blush, and the surfiice is strewed with large russet dots. Eye, 
rather small, with flat convergent segments, set in a small plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, 
inserted in a deep round cavity, which is lined with russet extending 
over the base, and sometimes with a swelling on one side of it. Flesh, 
tender, crisp, and very juicj- , with a fine brisk flavour. Cells, ovate ; 
abaxile. 

A fine large apple for culinary use ; in use from October till Christ- 
mas. I received it from Messrs. Wood & Ingram, of Huntingdon. 

NANCY JACKSON. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, 
find two inches and a half high ; round, rather uneven and angular, 
and sometimes with prominent obtuse ribs towards the eye. Skin, 
bright crimson over one-half of its surface, where exposed to the sun, 
and yellow where shaded. Eye, open, with short and sometimes 
withered segments, and sometimes it is closed, set in a rather shallow 
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a close and narrow cavity. Flesh, 
firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a fine brisk acidity. 

A cooking apple of great excellence, which keeps in perfect condition 
till May. 

This is very much cultivated in the North Biding of Yorkshire, where it is 
greatly appreciated. 



152 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

NANNY. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- quarters 
wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, narrowing towards 
the apex, and somewhat angular on the sides. Skin, smooth, green- 
ish yellow, with broken streaks of red, on the shaded side, but bright 
red, streaked with dark crimson, on the side next the sun ; the whole 
strewed with russety dots. Eye, open, with divergent segments, placed 
in an angular basin, which is marked with linear marks of russet. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a 
rather deep, round cavity, thickly lined with rough russet, which extends 
in ramifications over the base. Flesh, yellow, rather soft and tender,, 
juicy, sugary, and highly flavoured. Cells, roundish ovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of excellent quality, and when in perfection a first- 
rate fruit ; it is in use during October, but soon becomes mealy. 

The tree attains the middle size and is a good bearer, much more so 
than the Ribston Pippin, to which the fruit bears some resemblance 
in flavour. 

This is met with about Havant and other districts in West Sussex, and on the 
borders of Hampshire. 

NATURAL POCKET APPLE.— Fruit, large, three inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; short, ovate, uneven 
in its outline, prominently ribbed, and with ridges round the eye. 
Skin, greenish yellow when ripe, with a tinge of red next the sun, which 
is also mottled with darker red, russety over the base. Eye^ closed, 
deeply set in an uneven puckered basin. Stamens, median, inclining 
to basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, deeply set in an uneven 
russety cavity. Flesh, white, tender, sweet, and with a slight astrin- 
gency. Cells, Codlin-like, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A large and handsome cooking apple ; in use from October till 
December. 

This is a Devonshire apple, and was received from Mr. Rendell, 
Netherton Manor. 

Neige. See JDe Neige. 

NELSON CODLIN {Nelsons Codlin; BacJcJiouse's Nchon ; Nelson). 
— Fruit, large and handsome, three inches wide, and three and a quarter 
high ; conical or oblong. Skin, greenish yellow strewed with russety 
specks on the shaded side, but where exposed to the sun of a fine deep 
yellow, covered with rather large dark spots, which are encircled with a 
dark crimson ring. Eye, open, with short segments, set in a deep, 
plaited, and irregular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, about a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a very deep and 
angular cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, delicate, tender, juicy, and 
sugary. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

A very excellent apple, of first-rate quality as a culinary fruit, and 
also valuable for the dessert ; it is in use from September to January. 
The tree is a strong, vigorous, and healthy grower, and a most abun- 
dant bearer. 



APPLES. 153 

This was first brought into notice by John Nelson, a noted "Wesleyan preacher 
in the early days of Wesleyanism, who during his journeys, while engaged in the 
work of evangelisation in Yorkshire, used to distribute grafts amonjx his friends ; 
from this circumstance it became known as the Nelson Apple. Mr. Hugh Ronalds, 
who received the sort from Mr. Backhouse, of York, published it in the Pyrus 
Mains Brentfordiensis as Backhouse's Lord Nelson, a name which the late Mr. 
James Backh(juse disclaimed, and, as he informed me, he preferred so excellent an 
apple should be a memorial of an equally excellent man. 

Nelson's Glory. See Warner's King. 

NETHERTON LATE BLOWER.— Fruit, large, <shree inches wide, 
«and three inches and a quarter high ; conical, frequently with a curved 
axis, which makes it larger on one side than the other ; even in its out- 
line. Skin, yellow where shaded, and with a pale red cheek where 
exposed to the sun, marked with a few short crimson streaks ; russety 
over the base. Eye, small and closed, with convergent segments, set 
in a narrow and puckered basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, imbedded in the russety cavity. 
Flesh, firm, woolly in texture, sweet, and with a pleasant acidit3\ Cells, 
open ; obovate. 

A Devonshire cider apple, which bears well, keeps late, and being 
thick in the skin the birds do not eat the fruit as they do many other 
late sweet sorts. It is in good condition up till December. 

Neverfail. See Margil. 

Newbold's Duke of York. See Uymer. 

NEW BESS POOL. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and 
two inches and a half high ;• roundish, depressed, and angular. Skin, 
yellow on the shaded side, where it is also streaked with short broken 
stripes of pale red, but on the side next the sun it is entirely covered 
with very dai'k red, almost approaching the colour of dark mahogany, 
and strewed with russet dots. Eye, large and closed, with connivent 
segments, set in a deep and angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, stout and straight, half an inch long, deeply in- 
serted in a russety cavity. Flesh, greenish white, crisp, juicy, sweet, 
and of good flavour. Cells, wide open, obovate. 

An excellent long-keeping apple, being in good condition up till 
February. 

This is supposed to be a seedling from Bess Pool, originating in Yorkshire. Dr- 
Bull informs me that it is widely grown in Herefordshire. The tree attains a large 
size, with a spreading habit of growth. It blooms late, after all the other sorts 
are almost over, and bears well. 

NEW BRO^ILEY. — Fruit, below medium size ; roundish, with a 
very narrow puckered crown. Skin, of a glossy bright crimson colour 
next the sun, and dappled with yellow and crimson on the shaded side. 
Stalk, very short, imbedded the whole of its length in a round, even, 
smooth cavity. Flesh, yellow, tinged with crimson, like the apple called 
Sops-in-wine. Juicy, and with an astringency peculiar to cider apples. 

An excellent cider apple, much esteemed in Gloucestershire. 



154 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

NEW COCKPIT. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and 
two inches and three-quarters high ; prominently angular, roundish and 
flattened, the angles forming bold ridges round the eye. Skin, deep 
rich yellow, streaked with bright crimson on the side next the sun, and 
only partially so on the shaded side. Eye, small, closed, with flat con- 
vergent segments, set in a deep angular basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, or sometimes three-quarters of 
an inch long, set in a deep angular cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
juicy, and with a fine perfume. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A fine culinary apple ; in use from October till Christmas. 

I do not know why this should be called the New Cockpit, as it has no relation 
whatever to the Cockpit, either in size, shape, colour, or quality ; and though 
called new, it is really a very old variety, which I can trace as far back as 1780. 
The fruit, when cut, has a fine perfume like Gravenstein. 

NEW GERMAN. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and five-eighths 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; conical, with somewhat 
of a waist near the crown, distinctly five-ribbed, with smaller interme- 
diate ribs, and on one or two of the most prominent the line of the 
suture is distinctly seen ; the apex is puckered. Skin, smooth and 
shining, dark mahogany next the sun, but striped with red and yellow 
on the shaded side. Eye, set in a narrow puckered basin, with erect 
convergent segments. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, long, inserted in a deep, wide, angular cavity. Flesh, very 
tender, with a greenish tinge, sweet, and with an agreeable perfume. 
Cells, open, obovate; axile. 

A good useful Herefordshire apple up till Christmas. 

NEW HAWTHORNDEN.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half 
wide, and two inches and a half high ; oblate, obtusely ribbed, and with 
several rather prominent ridges round the eye. Skin, pale green, be- 
coming straw or lemon yellow as it ripens, and sparingly strewed with 
russet dots. Eye, partially closed, with somewhat erect, connivent 
segments, set in a wide and finely plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch to an inch long, inserted nearly all 
its length in the wide open cavity. Flesh, tender, crisp, very juicy, 
and pleasantly acid. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A handsome early cooking apple, which has a close resemblance in 
form and colour to the old Hawthornden, but is very much larger. It is 
in use from the beginning of September till the middle or end of 
October, and then it becomes marked with fungoid specks, which indi- 
cate the condition of the flesh under the surface. When used early it 
is a fine fruit, but in the matter of lasting it does not equal the Winter 
Hawthornden, with which it is very frequently confounded, an error 
which I regret I helped to propagate by making them synonymous in 
the last edition of this work. 

It was introduced l)y Mr. Rivers in 1847 by the name of New Hawthornden only, 
and I am not aware how it became associated with the Winter Hawthornden. 



APPLES. 155 

NEWLAND SACK. —Fruit, medurn sized, three inches wide, and 
nearly the same high ; roundish oval, narrowing from the middle towards 
the stalk and the eye, obtusely ribbed and uneven both at the stalk and 
the eye. Skin, when ripe, gi'eenish j'ellow in the shade, slightly marked 
with russet, and with a more or less deep blush of red on the side next 
the sun ; the whole surface very russety and strewed with dark russet 
dots. Eye, closed, set in an irregular basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about three-quarters of an inch long, deeply 
inserted in an uneven cavity. Flesh, tender, sweet, and of good flavour. 
Cells, oblong, obovate, or elliptical ; axile, open. 

This is a Worcestershire orchard fruit, highly appreciated and exten- 
sively grown at Newland, near Malvern, and the surrounding villages. 
It keeps well even up till February, does not bruise in travelling, or if 
bruised will not decay. It is a great favourite with Mr. Baron Webster, 
at the fruit farm of Newland Court, who says ho wishes all his orchards 
were Newland Sacks and Blenheim Pippins. 

New London Pippin. See London Pippin. 

New Nonpareil. See Early Nonpareil. 

NEW ROCK PIPPIN. — Fruit, of medium size; round, even, and 
sometimes obscurely ribbed. Skin, dull green on the shaded side, and 
brownish red where exposed to the sun, very much covered with brown 
russet. Eye, closed, set in a round and plaited basin. Stamens, mar- 
ginal ; tube, deep, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep, round 
cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, sweet, rich, and perfumed with the flavour 
of anise. Cells, closed, obovate. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from January to Ma}'. 

Raised by Mr. William Plcasance, a nurseryman at Barnwell, near Cambridge, 
and was communicated by him to the London Horticultural Society in 1821. It 
belongs to the Nonpareil family, and is valuable as a late winter apple. 

NEWTOWN PIPPIN {Large Yellow Newton Pippin; American 
Newtown Pippin ; Green Newtown Pippin; Petersburgh Pippin; Green 
Winter Pippin). — Fruit, medium sized ; roundish, broadest at the 
base, with broad obscure ribs extending to the apex, which give it an 
irregularity in its outline. Skin, at first dull green, but changing as it 
ripens to a fine olive green, or greenish yellow, with a reddish brown 
tinge next the sun, and dotted all over with small grey russety dots. 
Eye, small and closed, set in a small and rather shallow basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, and inserted 
all its length in a deep round cavity lined with delicate russet, which 
extends over a portion of the base. Flesh, j^ellowish white tinged with 
green, firm, crisp, very juicy, with a rich and highly aromatic flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple, which, when in perfection, is not to be surpassed ; 
it is in use from December to April. This description being taken 
from an imported specimen, it must not be expected that fruit grown 



156 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

in this country will attain the same perfection ; for, like most of the 
best American apples, it does not succeed in this climate. Even with 
the protection of a wall, and in the most favourable situation, it does 
not possess that peculiarly rich aroma which characterises the imported 
fruit. 

The tree is a slender and slow grower, and is always distinguished, 
even in its young state, by the roughness of its bark. It prefers a 
strong, rich, and genial soil, and, according to Coxe, does not arrive at 
maturity till twenty or twenty-five years old. 

This is an old American apple. It originated at Newtown, on Long Island, U.S., 
and was introduced to this country about the middle of the last century. I find it 
was cultivated in the Brompton Park Nursery so early as 1768, under the name of 
" Newtown Pippin from New York." Forsyth remarks that it is said to have been 
originally from Devonshire, but if it were so, there would still have been some 
trace of it left in that county. It is extensively cultivated in New York, and all 
the middle states, and particularly on the Hudson, where the finest American 
orchards are. There are immense quantities produced, which are packed in barrels 
and exported to Britain and other parts. The month of January is generally the 
season they arrive in this country, and then they are the most attractive of all 
dessert apples in Covent Garden Market ; the name serving, in many instances, as 
a decoy for the sale of many other and inferior varieties. The Alfriston, in many 
collections, is erroneously cultivated under the name of Newtown Pippin. 

NEWTOWN SPITZENBEEG {Matchless ; Burlington Spitzenherg ; 
English Spitzenherg). — Fruit, above medium size, three inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches and a quarter deep ; roundish, regularly 
and handsomely formed, a little flattened, somewhat resembling a 
Nonesuch. Skin, smooth, at first pale yellow tinged with green, but 
changing to a beautiful clear yellow on the shaded side, but of a 
beautiful clear red, streaked with crimson, on the side next the sun, 
and strewed with numerous russety dots. Eye, open, set in a wide 
and even basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, short and 
stout, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, rich, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Cells, wide open, obovate. 

An American dessert apple, very pretty and handsome ; of good 
quality, but only second-rate ; it is in use from November to February. 

This originated at Newtown, on Long Island, U.S. It received the name of 
Matchless from the late William Cobbett, who sold it under that name. 

New York Gloria Mundi. See Gloria Mimdi. 

NEW YORK PIPPIN.— Fruit, rather large, of an oblong figure, 
somewhat pyramidal, rather irregular in its outline, and with five 
angles on its sides, three of which are generally much shorter than 
the other, forming a kind of lip at the crown ; from two inches and 
a half to three inches deep, and the same in diameter at the base. 
Eye, closed, rather deeply sunk in a very uneven, irregular basin. 
Stalk, half an inch long, slender, rather deeply inserted in a wide, 
uneven cavity. Skin, dull greenish yellow, with a few green specks, 
intermixed with a little thin grey russet, and tinged with brown on the 



APPLES. 157 

sunny side. Flesh, firm, crisp, tender. Juice, plentiful, sweet, with 
a slight aromatic flavour. 

A dessert apple ; in use from November to April. 

An American variety of excellence. The tree grows large, and bears 
well. It sometimes happens with this, as it does with Hubbard's Pear- 
main, that smooth fruit grow upon one branch, and russety ones upon 
another ; and in cold seasons the fruit are for the most part russety. 

It was named the New York Pippin by Mr. Mackie, and first propagated in his 
nursery at Norwicli about 1831. 

Never having seen this apple, I have here given Mr. Lindley's description 
verbatim, for the benefit of those who may meet with it, as it is no doubt still 
in existence in the county of Norfolk. 

NO CORE. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and 
three inches high ; roundish, narrowing towards the crown, imeven in 
its outline, with prominent blunt ribs on the sides. Skin, yellow 
where shaded, tinged with red where exposed to the sun, and strewed 
with numerous pearl specks and dots of russet. Eye, large, wide 
open, with reflexed segments, set in a deep angular basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, quite imbedded in the 
shallow narrow cavity, surroimded with a patch of rough brown russet. 
Flesh, yellowish white, tender, and soft, with a mild acidity, and soon 
becomes mealy. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

An early kitchen apple ; ripe in September. The core is small, but 
not more so than in many apples, and I sec no reason why it should 
have acquired the name of No Core. 

NONESUCH (Nonsuch; Langton Nonsuch). — Fruit, medium sized, 
two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; 
roundish oblate, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, smooth, 
pale yellow, mottled with thin pale red on the shaded side, and 
striped with broad broken stripes of red next the sun. Eye, small 
and closed, set in a wide, shallow, and even basin. Stalk, short and 
slender, inserted in a shallow cavity. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, sweet, and shghtly perfumed. 
Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

An excellent culinary apple, of first-rate quality, and, according to 
Mr. Thompson, excellent for apple jelly ; it is ripe in September, and 
continues during October. The tree is a free grower, attaining about 
the middle size, and is an abundant and early bearer ; young trees three 
years old from the graft producing an abundance of beautiful fruit. 

Altliough an old variety, I do not think this is the Nonesuch of Rea, Worlidge, 
or Hay, as all these authors mention it as being a long keeper, for which circum- 
stance it might otherwise have been considered the same. Rea says, " It is a middle 
sized, round, and red striped apple, of a delicate taste, and long lasting." Wor- 
lidge's variety is probal)ly the same as Rea's. He says, " The Nonsuch is a long 
lasting fruit, good at the table, and well marked for cider." And Ray also includes 
his " Non-such " among the winter apples. 

NONESUCH PARK. — Fruit, small, an inch and three-quarters 



158 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

wide, and an inch and a half high ; round, regularly formed, and de- 
pressed. Skin, green, even after having been kept, but eventually 
it becomes yellow, thinly covered with patches of russet, particularly 
on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, closed, with broad erect seg- 
ments, which are spreading at the tips, set in a shallow slightly plaited 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, im- 
bedded in a deep narrow cavity, sometimes it is half an inch long. 
Flesh, greenish, firm, crisp, juicy, and of good flavour. Cells, obovate ; 
axile, closed. 

A neat little dessert apple, resembling a Golden Pippin ; it is in 
use from November till February. 

NONPAREIL (Old Nonpareil; English Nonpareil; Hunt's Non- 
pareil ; Lovedon^s Pippin ; Reinette Nonpareil ; Nonpareil d'Angle- 
terre ; Due d'Arsel ; Grime Reinette). — Fruit, below medium size, 
two inches and a half wide, and two inches high ; roundish, broad at 
the base and narrowing towards the apex. Skin, yellowish green, 
covered with large patches of thin grey russet, and dotted with small 
brown russety dots, with occasionally a tinge of dull red on the side 
next the sun. Eye, rather prominent, very slightly if at all depressed, 
half open, with broad segments, which are reflexed at the tips. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, set in 
a round and pretty deep cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, 
greenish, delicate, crisp, rich, and juicy, abounding in a particularly 
rich, vinous, and aromatic flavour. Cells, ovate or roundish ; axile. 

One of the most highly esteemed and popular of all our dessert apples ; 
it is in use from January to May. The tree is a free grower, and 
healthy, scarcely attaining the middle size, and an excellent bearer. 
It prefers a light and warm soil, succeeds well on the paradise stock, 
and is well adapted for growing in pots, when grafted on the pomme 
paradis of the French. Bradley in one of his tracts records an 
instance of its being so cultivated. ** Mr. Fairchild (of Hoxton) has 
now (February) one of the Nonpareile apples upon a small tree, in a 
pot, which seems capable of holding good till the blossoms of this year 
have ripened their fruit." In the northern counties and in Scotland 
it does not succeed as a standard, and even when grown against a 
wall, there is a marked contrast in the flavour when compared with 
the standard grown fruit of the south. 

It is generally allowed that the Nonpareil is originally from France. Switzer 
says, "It is no stranger in England; though it might have its origin from France, 
yet there are trees of them about the Ashtons in Oxfordshire, of about a hundred 
years old, which (as ihey have it by tradition) was first brought out of France and 
planted by a Jesuit in Queen Mary or Queen Elizabeth's time." It is strange, 
however, that an apple of such excellence, and held in such estimation as the 
Nonpareil has always been, should have received so little notice fri)m almost all 
the early continental pomologists. It is not mentioned in the long list of the 
Jardinier Fran9ois of 1653, nor even by De la Quintinye, or the Jardinier 
Solitaire. Schabol enumerates it, but it is not noticed by Bretonnerie. It is first 
described by Duhamel, and subsequeatly by Knoop. In the Chartreux catalogue 



APPLES. 159 

it is said " elleest forte estim^e en Angleterre," but, among the writers of our own 
country, Switzer is the first to notice it. It is not mentioned by Rea, Worlidge, or 
Ray, neither is it enumerated in the list of Leonard Meager. In America it is 
little esteemed. 

Nonpareil d'Angleterre. See Nonpareil, 

Nonpareil Russet. See Morris's Nonpareil Russet, 

NORFOLK BEARER. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish and 
obtusely angular from the middle towards the crown, where it is rather 
narrow. Skin, smooth and shining, very much covered with lively 
crimson, which is marked with broken stripes and spots of darker 
crimson extending over one-half of the surface or wherever exposed to 
the sun ; on the shaded side it is green, with a yellowish tinge as it 
ripens, and with some dots and broken streaks of light crimson where 
it blends with the sunny side ; it is covered all over the surface with 
rather large russet dots, and altogether is much the same colour as 
Norfolk Beefing. Eye, half open, segments, erect convergent, placed in 
a shallow, narrow, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, very short, sometimes a mere knob, or over half an inch long, 
slender, inserted in a narrow and not very deep cavity. Flesh, green- 
ish, tender, crisp, with a brisk and agreeable flavour. Cells, obovate ; 
axile, slit. 

A culinary apple of very good quality ; in use during December and 
January. Its great recommendation is the productiveness of the tree. 
I find it an excellent variety for growing in the northern districts, such 
as the south of Scotland, where it succeeds remarkably well. 

NORFOLK BEEFING {Norfolk Beaujing ; Norfolk Beau-fin ; Nor- 
folk Beejin ; Reed's Baker; Catshead Beaufin; Taliesin). — Fruit, 
medium sized, three inches wide, and two inches and three-quarters 
high ; oblate, irregular in its outline, caused by several obtuse angles 
or ribs, which extend from the base to the basin of the eye, where 
they form prominent knobs or ridges. Skin, smooth, green at first, 
but changing to yellow, and almost entirely covered with dull brownish 
red, which is thickest and darkest next the sun ; sometimes it is 
marked with a few broken stripes of dark crimson, and in specimens 
where the colour extends over the whole surface, the shaded side is 
mottled with yellow spots. Eye, open, with flat or erect convergent 
segments, set in a rather deep and angular basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and 
russety cavity. Flesh, firm and crisp, with a brisk and pleasant flavour. 
Cells, roundish obovate ; axile. 

A well-known and first-rate culinary apple ; it is in use from January 
to June. The tree is vigorous in its young state, but unless grown in 
a rich soil and favourable nation, it is apt to canker, particularly if it 
is too moist. 



160 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

It is extensively cultivated in Norfolk, where, besides being applied 
to general culinary purposes, the apples are baked in ovens, and form 
the dried fruits met with among confectioners and fruiterers, called 
*' Norfolk Biffins." 

The name of this apple is sometimes written Beaufin, as if of Frencli origin ; but 
it is more correctly Beefing, with a good English ring, from the similarity the 
baked fruit presents to beef. 

Norfolk Colman. See Winter Caiman. 

NORFOLK PARADISE.— Fruit, medium sized ; oblong, irregularly 
formed. Eye, very large, deeply sunk in an uneven, oblique hollow. 
Stalk, rather short, not deeply inserted. Skin, greenish yellow ; on 
the sunny side of a brownish red, streaked with a darker colour. 
Flesh, white, very firm. Juice, abundant, and of a very excellent 
flavour. 

A dessert apple ; in use from October till March. 

Its name seems to indicate a Norfolk origin, but I never could find it 
in any part of the county. 

Norfolk Pippin. See Adams's Pearmain. 

NORFOLK STONE PIPPIN (Stone Pippin ; White Stone Pippin ; 
White Pippin). — Fruit, below medium size, two inches broad, and the 
same in height ; oblong, slightly angular on the sides, and narrowing 
a little towards the apex. Skin, smooth and very thin, pale green at 
first, but changing by keeping to pale yellow with a mixture of green ; 
sometimes it has a slight tinge of red next the sun. Eye, small, half 
open, with pointed segments,- set in a rather shallow and wide basin. 
Stalk, slender, half an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity, with a 
fleshy protuberance on one side of it. Flesh, white, firm, and breaking, 
brisk, sweet, and perfumed. 

An excellent long-keeping culinary apple, and useful also in the 
dessert ; it is in use from November to July. In the " Guide to the 
Orchard," Mr. Lindley says, " This is a valuable Norfolk apple, Imown 
in the Norwich market by the name of White Pippin. The fruit, when 
peeled, sliced, and boiled in sugar, becomes transparent, afi'ording for 
many months a most delicious sweetmeat for tarts." 

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and attains the middle size. 
It is a regular and abundant bearer. 

Norfolk Storing. See Winter Colman. 

Normanton Wonder. See Dumelow's Seedling. 

NORTH END PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; round, with obtuse 
angles on the sides, which extend to the crown, where they form corre- 
sponding ridges round the eye, as in London Pippin. Skin, smooth and 
shining, uniform dark gi'een all over, with imbedded pearly specks. 



APPLES. 101 

Eye, closed, with broad, flat, erect segments, reflexed at the tips. 
Stamens, mai'ginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch long, slender, in- 
serted in a deep narrow cavity. Flesh, greenish, very firm and crisp, 
remai'kably juicy, and intensely acid. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

This is a fine sauce apple, and indeed good for any cooking purposes, 
because of its briskness. It will keep till April or even May. 

NORTHERN GREENING (Walmer Court; Cowame Queening; 
John Apple). — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quarters 
broad, and about three inches high ; roundish, inclining to ovate, being 
narrowed towards the eye. Skin, smooth and tender, of a beautiful 
grassy green in the shade, and dull browTiish red, marked with a few 
broken stripes of a dai'ker colour, on the side exposed to the sun. 
Eye, small and closed, with long segments, set in a narrow, round, 
deep, and even basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a narrow and deep cavity, 
and generally with a fleshy swelling on one side of it. Flesh, greenish 
white, tender, crisp, and very juicy, with a brisk and somewhat vinous 
flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from Novem- 
ber to April. 

The tree is a very strong and vigorous grower, attaining the largest 
size, and is an abundant bearer. 

This is gometimes erroneously called Cowame Queening^ that being a very 
different variety. 

NORTHERN SPY.— Fruit, fragrant when ripe, large, ovate, inclin- 
ing sometimes to conical. Skin, thin, at first of a greenish yellow on 
the shaded side, and on the side next the Bun covered entirely with a 
thin, pale crimson cheek, which is covered with broken streaks of a 
darker crimson ; but as the fruit acquires maturity after being kept, 
the shaded side changes to a rich golden yellow, and the crimson 
becomes brilliant. The whole is covered with a thin bloom like a grape. 
Eye, small and closed, set in a very deep, narrow, and furrowed cavity. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters 
of an inch long, slender, deeply inserted in a wide hollow. Flesh, 
white, very tender, fine-grained, crisp, and very juicy. Juice, sprightly, 
sweet, and with a fine delicate aroma. Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

A valuable dessert apple ; in use from December till May. The tree 
is a fast and vigorous grower, and has an upright habit. When it 
acquires a little age it is an abundant bearer ; but it is apt to become 
bushy-headed, and therefore requires frequent attention to keep the head 
open and free of spray. 

This excellent apple originated about the year 1840 in the State of New York, 
on the farm of Oliver Chapin, of Bloomfieltl, near Rochester. It belongs to the 
Spitzenburgh race, and bears some resemblance to the Esopus Spitzenburgh. 
Gradually it became a favourite among American orchardists, and in 1843 we find 
it one of the sons which were recommended " for trial " at one of the pomological 
conventions. In 1847 the fruit was sold in New York at twelve and a half cents each. 

11 



162 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

NORTHEEN SWEET.— Fruit, large, over three inches wide, and 
two inches and a half high ; roundish and depressed, prominently 
ribbed, and the ribs extending to the apex, where they form ridges 
round the eye. Skin, smooth, clear lemon yellow, w^th a red cheek 
next the sun. Eye, small and open, with short, erect segments, set in 
a deep and angular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, long, and obliquely inserted in a wide and rather 
shallow cavity. Flesh, white, very tender, juicy, sweet, and with very 
little flavour. Cells, open ; obovate. 

An American dessert apple, with very vapid flavour ; in use during 
October and November. 

Northwick Pippin. See Blenheim Pippin. 

NOTTINGHAM PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters broad, and two inches and a half high ; ovate. Skin, 
smooth, pale yellow at first, but changing by keeping to lemon yellow, 
without any trace of red, but with slight markings of russet. Eye, 
closed, with long green segments, set in a wide and rather deeply 
plaited basin. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep, 
funnel-shaped, and russety cavity. Flesh, white, fine, and tender, 
juicy, sugary, and vinous. 

A second-rate dessert apple ; in use from November till February. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer. 

Nutmeg Pippin. See CochUs Pippin. 

OAKEN PIN. — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two inches and 
three-quarters high ; roundish ovate, bluntly angular, puckered at the 
apex, where it is narrow. Skin, dark mahogany colour, except on the 
parts that are shaded, and there it is yehowish, streaked with dark red, 
strewed all over with large russet freckles, and russety over the base. 
Eye, closed, with erect connivent segments, set in a narrow, puckered 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Flesh, yellowish, 
tinged with red in places under the skin, tender, soft, juicy, and 
remarkably sweet, with a distinct aroma. Cells, wide open, obovate. 

A useful apple, which keeps well till Christmas. It sells well in the 
Devonshire markets, and is mostly used for cooking, as it is not a rich 
cider apple. The tree is a good bearer. 

The Oaken Pin is a very old apple, but I do not think this the Oaken Pin of 
Evelyn and the other early writers. 

OAKLEY GROYE PIPPIN.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, and 
two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish or roundish ovate, even 
and somewhat ribbed, particularly round the crown. Skin, smooth and 
shining, of an uniform lemon yellow, with a tinge of orange next the 
sun, the surface being strewed with dark specks. Eye, half open, with 
erect convergent segments, reflexed at the tips, set in a deep and 
ribbed basin. Stamens, marginal; tube, funnel-shaped, deep and 



APPLES. 103 

slender. Stalk, stout and woody, inserted in a deep and uneven cavity, 
with a swelling on one side of it. Flesh, white, very tender and deh- 
cate, juicy, and with a fine ether-like perfume. Cells, closed, obovate. 
A fine tender-fleshed kitchen apple ; in use up till Christmas. It is 
common in some of the orchards about Hereford, where it is grown for 
the Midland markets. 

OLD MIDDLEMAS. — Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and two inches high ; roundish ovate, even and regular in its outline. 
Skin, completely encrusted with grey russet on the shaded side and 
over the base, with only here and there patches of the yellow ground 
visible ; on the side next the sun it is dull red, with a few scattered 
freckles of russet. Eye, closed, with flat convergent segments, which 
are reflexed at the tips, and set in a narrow, plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, long and slender, inserted in a round, 
wide, and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, and juicy, sweet, 
richly flavoured, and with a fine perfume. Colls, open, roundish. 

A very fine dessert apple ; ripe in January, and keeps well. 

This I received from Mr. Tliomas Moore, of the Botanic Garden, Chelsea, who 
obtained it from Chertsey, where it is much grown. It was raised in Sussex be- 
tween Scarlet Nonpareil and the Old Nonpareil by a gardener named Middlemas, 
who brought it thence to Chertsey, and it bears his name. The tree is a late 
bloomer and bears well. 

Oldaker's New. See Alfriston, 

Old English Pearmain. See Pearmain. 

Old Hawthomden. See Haicthomden. 

Old Maids. See Knobbed Russet, 

Old Nonpareil. See Nonpareil, 

Old Pearman. See Pearmain. 

OMAR PASHA. — Fruit, above medium size ; round, and sometimes 
inclining to oblate, even in its outline, but with angles near the eye, 
which terminate in ridges at the apex. Skin, smooth, of a clear bright 
and rather deep yellow, thickly dotted with russet, occasionally with a 
tinge of red next the sun. Eye, large and open, with long reflexed 
segments like Dumelow's Seedling, and set in a considerable depression. 
Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow and very contracted cavity. Flesh, 
pure white, firm, and crisp, tender, and very juicy ; the juice brisk and 
pleasantly acid, and not unlike that of Dumelow's Seedling. 

A valuable culinary apple ; in use till April. 

This fruit has all the appearance of having been raised from Dumelow's 
Seedling. 

ORANGE GOFF {Pork Apple).— This at first sight has a strong 
resemblance to Dumelow's Seedling. It is of medium size, three 
inches wide, and two and a half high ; round, and slightly flattened, 



164 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

pretty even in its outline. Skin, considerably covered with red, striped 
with broken streaks of crimson on the side next the sun, but rich 
yellow, tinged with green, where shaded ; it has some patches and 
traces of russet over the surface. Eye, wide open, with short, diver- 
gent segments, set in a wide, shallow, plaited basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted in a 
narrow cavity, which is often quite closed by prominent swellings, so 
tbat the base of the fruit is quite or nearly flat. Flesh, firm, crisp, and 
briskly acid, but not so much so as in Dumelow's Seedling. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, and slit open. 

A fine culmary apple ; much grown in the Kentish orchards, 
especially about Maidstone. 

OEANGE PIPPIN. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a 
half wide, and two inches and an eighth high ; round, inclining to oblate, 
even and regular in its outline. Skin, yellow, with a few broken stripes 
of pale crimson on the side exposed to the sun, and sparingly strewed 
with small russet dots. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, convergent 
segments, set in a narrow and shallow basin, which is slightly plaited. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, slender, about half 
an inch or a little more in length, inserted in a round, moderately deep 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, very juicy, and with an agreeable 
but not high flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A second-rate dessert apple ; in use during November and December. 

Orange Pippin. See Isle of Wight Pippin. 

ORD'S APPLE {Simpson's Pippin). — Fruit, medium sized, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, and the same in height ; conical or 
oblong, very irregular in its outline, caused by prominent and unequal 
ribs on the sides, which extend to and terminate in ridges round the 
eye. Skin, smooth and shining, deep grassy green, strewed with 
imbedded grey specks, and dotted with brown russety dots on the 
shaded side, but washed with thin brownish red, which is marked with 
spots or patches of darker and livelier red, and strewed with star-like 
freckles of russet, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, small and 
closed, placed in a rather deep and angular basin, which is lined with 
linear marks of rough russet. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, about half an inch long, somewhat obliquely inserted by the side 
•of a fleshy swelling, which is more or less prominent. Flesh, greenish 
white, tender, crisp, and brittle, abounding in a profusion of rich, brisk, 
sugary, and vinous juice, with a finely perfumed and refreshing flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent apple, of first-rate quality, and well deserving of more 
general cultivation ; it is in use from January to May, and keeps well. 

This excellent variety originated at Purser's Cross, near Fulham, Middlesex. It 
was raised in the garden of John Ord, Esq., Master in Chancery, by his sister-in- 
law, Mrs. Anne Simpson, from seed of a Newtown Pippin imported in 1777. 



APPLES. 1G5 

Orgeline. See Oslin. 
Orglon. See Oslin. 
Original Pippin. See Oslin, 
Ortley. See Woolman's Long. 

OSLIN {Orglon; Orgeline; Arbroath Pippin; Onginal Pippin; 
Mother Apple ; Gulden Apple ; Bur-Knot ; Summer Oslin). — Friiit, 
medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches high ; 
roundish oblate, evenly and regularly formed. Skin, thick and mem- 
branous, of a fine pale yellow colour, and thickly strewed with brown 
dots ; very frequently cracked, forming large and deep clefts on the 
fruit. Eye, scarcely at all depressed, closed, with broad, leafy, con- 
vergent segments, some of which are reflexed. Stamens, marginal or 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a 
very shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, rich and 
sweet, with a highly aromatic flavour, which is pecuhar to this apple 
only. Cells, round ; axile. 

A dessert apple of the highest excellence ; ripe in the end of August, 
and continues during September, but does not last long. Nicol says, 
*'This is an excellent apple ; as to flavour it is outdone by none but the 
Nonpareil, over which it has this advantage, that it will ripen in a 
worse chmate and a worse aspect." The tree is a free grower, of an 
upright habit, and an excellent bearer, but it is subject to canker as it 
grows old. The branches are generally covered with a number of knobs 
or burrs ; and when planted in the ground these burrs thi'ow out 
numerous fibres which take root and produce a perfect tree. 

This is a very old Scotch apple, supposed to have originated at Arbroath ; or to 
have been introduced from France by the monks of the abbey which formerly 
existed at that j)lace. The latter opinion is, in all probability, the correct one, 
although the name, or any of the synonymes quoted above, are not now to be met 
with in any modern French lists. But in the " Jardinier Fran9ois," which was 
published in 1651, I find an apple mentioned under the name of Urgeran, which is 
so similar in pronunciation to Orgeline, I think it not unlikely it may be the same 
name with a change of orthography, especially as our ancestors were not over- 
particular in preserving unaltered the names of foreign introductions. 

OSTERLEY PIPPIN.— Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches 
and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, flattened 
at the base and apex. Skin, yellowish green, strewed with thin russet 
and russety dots on the shaded side, but washed with thin red, and 
strewed with russety specks on the side next the sun. Eye, large and 
open, with short stunted segments, set in a wide and shallow basin. 
Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a wide and rather shallow cavity, 
which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, crisp, 
rich, juicy, and sweet, with a brisk and aromatic flavour, somewhat 
resembling, and little inferior to the Ribston Pippin. 

A handsome and very excellent dessert apple ; it is in use from 



166 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

October to February, and is not subject to be attacked with the grub as 
the Kibston Pippin is. 

Raised from the seeti of the Ribston Pippin at Osterley Park, the seat of the 
Earl of Jersey, near Isleworth, Middlesex, where the original tree is still in exist- 
ence. 

OSTROGOTHA. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches high ; oblato- cylindrical, even and regular 
in its outline, resembling Franklin's Golden Pippin in shape. Skin, 
almost entirely covered with thin pale brown russet, and with patches 
of the greenish ground colour. Eye, large and closed, with broad, flat, 
convergent segments, set in a wide, shallow, saucer-like basin. Stamens, 
basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deej) 
round cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, juicy, sweet, and richly 
flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of fine quality, which keeps till January, but shrivels 
before Christmas. 

Owen's Golden Beauty. See Joanetiiig. 

Ox Apple. See Gloria Mundi. 

Oxford Peach. See Scarlet Pearmain. 

OXNEAD PEARMAIN {Earl of Yarmouth's Pearmain),— Frmt, 
small and conical. Skin, entirely grass-green, always covered with a 
thin russet ; sometimes when highly ripened it is tinged with very 
pale brown on the sunny side. Eye, very small, surrounded with a 
few obscure plaits. Stalk, very slender, three-quarters of an inch 
long. Flesh, pale green, very firm and crisp, not juicy, but very rich 
and highly flavoured. 

A dessert apple ; in use from November to April. 

I liave never seen this apple. It was first noticed by Mr. George Lindley, whose 
descripdon of it I have given above. He says, " It is supposed to have originated 
at Oxnead, near Norwich, the seat of the Earl of Yarmouth. It has been known 
many years in Norfolk, no doubt prior to the extinction of that peerage in 1733, 
and I have never seen it out of the county. The tree is a very small grower ; its 
branches are small and wiry, and of a grass-green colour ; it is very hardy and an 
excellent bearer." 

PACKHORSE. — Fruit, small in shape, exactly resembling the old 
Nonpareil. Skin, yellow, covered with a coat of thin pale brown 
russet, which, however, exposes here and there patches of the clear 
ground colour, and with a brownish red tinge next the sun. Eye, 
closed, with large leafy segments, placed in a small angular and plaited 
basin. Stalk, long and slender, set in a deep, narrow cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, crisp, juicy, and briskly acid. 

A good dessert apple ; in use from November till March. 

This was raised in the garden of the Packhorse Inn at Turnham Green, Middle- 
sex, when it was held by a person of the name of Kobinson, who also raised 
Robinson's Pippin. 

PADLEY'S PIPPIN (Padlei/s Pioyal George Pippin). —Fxmi, small, 



APPLES. 167 

two inches wide, and an inch and a half high ; roundish oblate. Skin, 
pale greenish yellow, rather thickly covered with thin grey russet, and 
faintly tinged with orange next the sun. Eye, small and closed, set 
in a shallow and rather angular basin. Stalk, three-quarters of an 
inch long, slender, and inserted in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, juicy, sweet, brisk, and richly aromatic. 

A desseit apple of first-rate quality ; in use during December and 
January. 

The tree is of small dimensions, but healthy, and a prolific bearer. 
It is well adapted for dwarf training when grown on the paradise or 
doucLQ stock. 

It was raised by Mr. Padley, gardener to his Majesty George III. at Hampton 
Court. According to Kogers, Mr. Padley was a native of Yorkshire, and after 
coming to London, and filling a situation of respectability, he was appointed fore- 
man in the kitchen parden at Kew. " On the death of the celebrated • Capability 
Brown,' Mr. G. Ilaverfield was removed from Kew to Hampton Court, and took 
Mr. Padley with him as foreman. On the death of Haverfield, Padley's interest 
with his sovereign outweighed all the interests of other candidates, though urged 
by the most influential persons about Court. ' No, no, no,' said his Majesty, 'it is 
Padley's birthright.' " 

Paradise Pippin. See White Paradise, 

PARADISE (French Paradise; Pomme Paradis). — ^Fruit, below 
medium size, two inches and three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter 
high ; roundish oblate. Skin, pale yellow, becoming bright when quite 
ripe, and occasionally with a blush of pale rose on the side next the sun. 
Eye, large, with long, erect, leafy, convergent segments, set in a wide 
plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, three-quarters 
of an inch long, inserted in a deep wide cavity. Flesh, pale, firm, fine- 
grained, and juicy, of a pleasant brisk acid flavour. Cells, ovate, open. 

This is suitable either for dessert or cooking purposes. It is ripe 
and falls from the tree in the middle of August, and it does not keep 
beyond October. 

The tree is of a dwarf, miniatm-e growth, and has the peculiar pro- 
perty of rooting very near the surface of the soil, which has no doubt 
been the cause of its being adopted by the French nurserymen as a 
dwarfing stock for the apple. It comes very early into bearing. 

PARRY'S PEARMAIN.— Fruit, small ; oval, and regular in its 
shape. Skin, almost entirely covered with dark dull red, and striped 
with brighter red, except a portion on the shaded side, which is green ; 
the whole surface is thickly strewed with small russety dots, which give 
it a speckled appearance. Eye, small and open, set in a shallow basin. 
Stalk, sometimes short and fleshy, as represented in 'the accompanying 
figure ; and at other times about half an inch long, and woody, but still 
retaining the swollen boss at its union with the fruit. Flesh, firm in 
texture, crisp, very juicy, and pleasantly acid, with a sweet, brisk, and 
poignant flavour. 

A nice sharp-flavoured dessert apple, but considered only of second- 
rate quality ; it is in use from December to March. 



1G8 THE rnuiT manual. 

Passe Rose. See Api Gros. 

PASSE POMME D'AUTOMNE.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches^ 
and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; round and 
slightly flattened, with prominent ribs on the sides, which extend into 
the basin of the eye. Skin, pale straw-coloured, almost white, with 
a few stripes of red on the shaded side, but entirely covered with 
beautiful crimson, w^hich is striped with darker crimson, and strewed 
with small grey dots where exposed to the sun. Eye, large and closed, 
set in a rather shallow and ribbed basin. Stalk, fleshy, set in a wide 
and deep cavity. Flesh, very white, tinged with red, more so than 
the Passe Pomme Rouge, tender, juicy, rich, sugary, and vinous. 

An excellent autumn culinary apple ; ripe in September. The tree 
is vigorous and healthy, but does not attain a large size. It is a very 
abundant bearer, and well suited for dwarf training when grown on 
the paradise or doucin stock. 

PASSE POMME ROUGE.— Fruit, small ; roundish oblate, even 
and regularly formed. Skin, thick, red all over, pale on the shaded 
side, but of a deep and bright colour next the sun, and so sensitive of 
shade, if any portion of it is covered with a leaf or twig, a correspond- 
ing yellow mark will be found on the fruit. Eye, small, set in a 
narrow, even, and rather deep basin. Stalk, half an inch long, 
slender, set in a wide, deep, and even cavity. Flesh, white, tinged 
with red under the skin on the side exposed to the sun, crisp, juicy, 
and richly flavoured when first gathered, but soon becomes dry and 
woolly. 

An excellent early apple, suitable either for culinary purposes or 
dessert use ; it is ripe in the beginning of August, but may be used in 
pies before then. Bretonnerie says it may be used "en compote" in 
the beginning of July, and is preferable to the Calville Rouge d'Ete. 

The tree is rather a delicate grower, never attaining a large size, 
but healthy and hardy, and an excellent bearer. It succeeds well as a 
dwarf on the paradise or doucin stock. 

PATCH'S RUSSET.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; oval, and slightly 
angular on its sides. Skin, greenish yellow, entirely covered with thin 
grey russet. Eye, small, with long acuminate segments, set in a 
narrow and irregular basin. Stalk, an inch long, very slender, inserted 
in a round, even, and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, 
brisk, and aromatic. 

A good dessert apple of second-rate quality ; in use during November 
and December. 

PAWSAN. — Fruit, above the middle size, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; pretty round, with- 
out angles, but sometimes it is oval. Crown, but little hollow. Eye, 
small, with short reflexed segments of the calyx. Skin, dull muddy 



APPLES. 169 

olive green, a good deal reticulated with fine network. Stalk, three- 
quarters of an inch long, slender, causing the fruit to be pendant. 
Specific gravity of the juice, 1076. 

Many trees of the Pawsan are found in the south-east or Ryland district of 
Herefordshire, which have apparently stood more than a century. Its pulp is 
exceedingly rich and yellow, and in some seasons it affords cider of the finest 
quality. Its name cannot be traced to any probable source. 

Peach. See Fomeroy. 

PEARMAIN {Old Pearmain; Old English Pearmain). — Fruit, below 
medium size, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and five- 
eighths high ; abrupt conical or cylindrical, bluntly angular, slightly 
undulating at the crowTi ; sometimes it is only two inches and a quarter 
high, tmd consequently the shape is roundish. Skin, entirely covered 
with diirk crimson, except where shaded, and there it is yellow, tinged 
with red, and marked with broken streaks of pale crimson ; the surface 
is strewed with large fawn-coloured russet dots, like freckles. Eye, 
closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a wide, plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, not over 
a quarter of an inch, imbedded in a rather shallow cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. Cells, roundish 
or roundish obovate ; axile. 

A very excellent dessert apple ; in use till Christmas. 

This is the true Old Pearmain, for which I am indebted to the 
indefatigable research of my esteemed friend. Dr. Bull, of Hereford. 
The locality in which this is now grown is about Dymock, where some 
old trees exist, and the trees from which the fruit was gathered that 
enabled me to make this description were grafted thirty-five years ago 
from scions taken from old trees on the Grainge estates, a noted apple 
district on the borders of Herefordshire. 

The Pearmain is the oldest English apple on record. Its cultivation in Norfolk 
can be traced back to the year 1200, Biomefield, in his history of that county, 
giving an instance of a tenure by petty serjeantry and the payment of two 
hundred Pearmains and four hogsheads of cider of Pearmains into the Exchequer 
at the Feast of St. Michael yearly. 

The term Pearmain, which is now applied to so many varieties of apples, 
signifies the Great Pear Apple. In olden times it was variously written Pearemaine 
or Peare-maine, being the Anglicised equivalent of Pyrus Magnus, just as Charle- 
magne is of Carolus Magnus, A Pearmain, therefore, ought to be a long or 
pear-shaped apple. 

PEARSON'S PLATE.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
broad, and the same in height ; roundish ovate, or inclining to oblate, 
generally higher on one side of the apex than the other, regularly and 
handsomely formed. Skin, smooth, greenish yellow in the shade, but 
washed and mottled with red, and streaked with deeper red, on the side 
next the sun ; the whole surface much covered with very fine, thin, 
and smooth pale brown russet, and dotted with dark dots. Eye, open, 
with short segments, set in a shallow and plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a 



170 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

round and rather shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, crisp, 
and juicy, with a rich and brisk sugary flavour, somewhat resembling 
the old Nonpareil. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A most delicious little dessert apple of the first quality ; it is in use 
from December to March. 

In some specimens of the fruit there is no red colour, but altogether 
green, and covered with thin brown russet. 

PEASGOOD'S NONESUCH.— Fruit, large, three inches and a 
half wide, and three inches high ; roundish, somewhat oblate, and very 
handsome. Skin, yellow, overspread on the sunny side with red and 
copiously streaked with bright darker crimson streaks. Eye, with flat 
convergent segments, set in a deep, round, and even basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, deeply inserted. 
Flesh, yellowish, tender, very juicy, with an agreeable acid flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A fine culinary or dessert apple. It is like a very large and highly 
coloured Nonesuch, and keeps till Christmas. 

This handsome apple was presented before the Fruit Committee of the Royal 
Horticultural Society on September 18th, 1872, and received a first-class certificate. 
It was raised by Mr. Peasgood, of Stamford, and is one of the most handsome 
autumn apples in cultivation. 

PENHALLOW PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and two inches high ; oblate, even and regular 
in its outline, with sometimes undulations round the crown. Skin, 
yellowish green, becoming more yellow at maturity, and covered with 
mottles and veins of thin ash-grey russet, and strewed with rather large 
russet dots. Eye, closed, with connivent segments, set in a shallow 
saucer-like basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, short, inserted the whole of its length in a narrow cavity. 
Flesh, greenish, crisp, tender, very juicy, with a brisk flavour and 
pleasant aroma. Cells, closed, roundish. 

An excellent apple, either for dessert or cooking; sent me from 
Cornwall by Mr. Vivian, of Hayle. It keeps till Christmas. 

PENLEE PIPPIN. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and 
two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish, and bluntly angular. 
Skin, brilliant shining crimson extending over nearly the whole surface, 
and streaked with darker crimson except where it is shaded, and there 
it is clear lemon yellow with a few stains and streaks of pale crimson. 
Eye, rather large and open, with erect, somewhat divergent segments, 
set in a deep, round, and prominently plaited basin, which is sometimes 
angular. Stamens, basal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch or 
more long, inserted in a close, deep cavity, and rarely extending beyond 
the base. Flesh, white, sometimes deeply stained with red, tender, 
juicy, sweet, and finely flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, quite closed. 

A very handsome apple, suitable either for the dessert or cooking ; 
it is in use from November till April. 



APPLES. 171 

1 received this from my friend the Hon. and Rev. J. Townsend Boscawcn, of 
Lamorran, in Cornwall, who obtained it from Mr. Tyerman of Penlee. 

PENNINGTON'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, medium sized, three inches 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters deep ; oblato-ovate. Skin, 
green at first, changinj^ to yellowish gi-een, and covered with largo 
russety spots on the shaded side, but with rough brown russet and a 
tinge of brown on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with long and 
narrow pointed segments, or half open, with divergent segments, which 
are spreading at the tips, and set in a round, shallow, and undulating 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, 
stout and straight, inserted in a wide tmd shallow cavity. Flesh, yel- 
lowish, firm, crisp, juicy, sweet, and brisk, with an excellent aromatic 
flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of the highest excellence, either as a dessert or a 
culinary fruit ; it is in use from November to March. 

PENNOCK (Pmnock's Bed irmf^r).— Fruit, oblate, even and 
regular in its outline. Skin, golden yellow on the shaded side, marked 
with a few broken streaks of pale red ; on the sunny side it is covered 
with streaks of bright crimson. Eye, large and open, with distant 
segments, the centre filled with stamens set in a wide, shallow basin, 
which is sometimes russety. Stalk, a quarter to half an inch long, 
slender, inserted in a deep round cavity. Flesh, yellowish, very tender, 
with a fine flavour and agreeable perfume. 

A first-rate dessert apple, which keeps well till May. 

This is one of the few American apples which succeed well in this country. It 
was raised in the State of Fennsylvania. 

PENNY-LOAF. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and 
two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish, larger on one side of the 
axis, very uneven and irregular in outline, being prominently ribbed, 
and with bold ridges round the apex. Skin, greenish yellow where 
shaded, but on the side next the sun it has a dull red cheek mottled 
with deeper red. Eye, quite closed, with connivent erect segments, set 
in a deep, very irregular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, half an inch long, deeply inserted in a very irregular cavity. 
Flesh, tender, mildly acid, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, roundish 
ovate or elliptical ; abaxile. 

An early cooking apple, which is in use during September. 

Petersburg Pippin. See Neutown Pippin, 

Petit Api Rouge. See Api. 

PETIT JEAN.— Fruit, small ; oval, and flattened at the ends. 
Skin, almost entirely covered with brilliant red, but where shaded it 
is pale yellow mai'ked with a few stripes of red. Eye, small, set in a 
narrow basin. Stalk, very short, and inserted in a deep cavity. 
Flesh, very white and tender, with a mild and agreeable flavour. 



172 THE FKXJIT MANUAL. 

By some considered as a dessert apple, but of inferior quality. Mr. 
Thompson thinks it may, perhaps, do for cider ; it is in use from 
November to March. 

The tree is a very abundant bearer. 

A Jersey apple, which has for a long period been cultivated in the orchards of 
that island. It was transmitted to the gardens of the London Horticultural Society 
by Major-General Le Couteur, of Jersey, in the year 1822. 

PETWORTH NONPAREIL (Green Nonpareil).— Frnit, small, two 
inches and a half wide, and two inches high ; roundish ovate, even in 
its outline. Skin, quite green, covered in places with thin brown russet. 
Eye, small and closed, with flat convergent segments, sometimes erect. 
Stamens, marginal; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, 
slender, not deeply inserted. Flesh, greenish, firm, crisp, and juicy, 
with a good flavour, but not equal to that of the old Nonpareil. Cells, 
obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of second-rate quality ; in use from January till 
April. 

This was raised in the garden of the Earl of Egremont, at Pctworth, Sussex. 
Phillips' Reinette. See Cou7't of Wick. 

PHEASANT'S EYE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and the same in height ; conical and angular, widest in 
the middle and terminating at the apex in several prominent ridges. 
Skin, entirely covered with bright crimson stripes on a rich yellow 
ground, the colour being somewhat paler on the shaded side. Eye, 
small, with erect convergent segments, which are divergent at the 
points, set in a small, narrow, and somewhat puckered basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, inserted in a 
wide, rather angular cavity. Flesh, yellowish, stained with red in 
some parts, especially from the eye downwards ; firm and crisp, juicy, 
sweet, and briskly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A cooking apple ; in use from November till January. This is a 
very beautiful fruit, and was sent me by Messrs. John Jefiries & Son, 
nurserymen, Oxford. 

PHILIP MAUNDY. — Fruit, about medium size, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish oblate, sometimes inclining 
to ovate, ribbed on the sides and undulating round the eye. Skin, 
smooth and shining, lemon yellow in the shade, and with a bright red 
cheek on the side next the sun, the whole strewed with large russet dots. 
Eye, closed, with convergent segments, set in a deep angular basin. 
Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, not 
more than a quarter of an inch, set in a wide cavity. Flesh, very soft, 
not very juicy, and with a very rough astringent flavour. Cells, open ; 
obovate ; axile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 



APPLES. 173 

PICKERING'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, conical, rather uneven and 
angular, with several ribs causing a pucker round the eye, where it has 
a contracted appearance. Skin, smooth, pale greenish yellow, be- 
coming sometimes lemon yellow, streaked on the side next the sun 
with numerous broken lines and mottles of crimson. Eye, closed, set 
in a puckered basin. Stalk, half an inch long, rather slender, and 
deeply inserted in an uneven cavity. Flesh, yellowish, ver}- tender 
and delicate, with a pleasant perfume. 

This is an excellent apple, having flesh of the delicate texture of our 
imported Newtor.-n Pippin. 

This variety was brought to my notice by Mr. W. H. Caparn, of Newark, in 
1869. Its appearance is not unlike a small beauty of Kent 

PIGEON (Jerusalem ; Occur de Pitjeon ; Pigeon Eotige). — Fruit, 
medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and three- 
quarters high ; conical and angular. Skin, membranous, shining, pale 
yellow with a greenish tinge, which it loses as it attains maturity ; but 
covered with fine clear red on the side next the sun, and strewed all 
over with minute russety dots and imbedded white specks ; the whole 
surface is covered with a bluish bloom, from which circumstance it 
receives the name of Pigeon, being considered similar to the plumage of 
a dove. Eye, open, with erect segments, prominently set in a narrow 
and plaited basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a deep and russety 
cavity. Flesh, white, tender, soft, and juicy, pleasantly flavoured, but 
not at all rich. 

A dessert apple of second-rate quality, but excellent for all culinary 
purposes ; it is in use from November to January. It is necessary in 
storing this apple that care should be taken to prevent fermentation, 
by which its pleasant acidity is destroyed. The tree, though vigorous 
in its young state, never attains a great size. Its shoots are long, 
slender, and downy. It is an abundant and regular bearer. 

This apple is called Pomme de Jerusalem, from, as some fancy, the core having 
four cells, which are disposed in the form of a cross, but this is not a permanent 
character, as they vary from three to five. 

PIGEONNET.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and the same in height ; oblato-ovate. Skin, pale greenish 
yellow on the shaded side, but entirely covered with red on the side 
next the sun, and striped and rayed with darker red, some of the 
stripes extending to the shaded side. Eye, small and open, with erect 
segments, set in a slightly depressed basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and thick, inserted in a rather shallow 
cavity. Flesh, white and delicate, of an agreeable acid and perfumed 
flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A dessert fruit of second-rate quality ; in use during August and 
September. 

PIG'S NOSE PIPPIN.— Fruit, quite small, an inch and three-eighths 
wide, and an inch and a half high ; conical, even and regular in its 



11 i: THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

outline. Skin, smooth, lemon yellow on the shaded side, and with a 
bright red cheek on the side next the sun, strewed all over with 
numerous russet dots and various patches of thin cinnamon-coloured 
russet. Eye, open, set in a very shallow and plaited depression, with 
divergent segments, which are reflexed at the tips. Stamens, median ; 
tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, slender, a quarter of an inch long, 
inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, firm, crisp, very juicy, sweet, and 
with an agreeable delicate acidity. Cells, closed, obovate. 

A pretty little dessert apple, grown about Hereford, which keeps in 
use till Christmas. 

PIGEON'S HEART. — Fruit, above medium size, two inches and 
three-quarters high, and three inches wide ; roundish, inclining to 
ovate, with obtuse ribs on the sides. Skin, green, becoming yellowish 
green when ripe, with a brownish tinge on the side next the sun, which 
is covered with broken streaks of dull red, the whole streaked with large 
russet dots. Eye, closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a shallow, 
round, and plaited basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical, wide and 
deep. Stalk, short, inserted in a round, narrow, and shallow cavity. 
Flesh, tinged with gi'een, crisp, very juicy, and pleasantly sub-acid. 
Cells, open ; obovate. 

An excellent kitchen apple, which keeps well till May. 

I received this from Messrs. R. Smith & Co., Worcester. 

PILE'S RUSSET. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish oblate and 
obscurely ribbed on the sides. Skin, dull green, thickly covered with 
pale brown russet, which is strewed with greyish white dots, and pale 
green star-like freckles on the shaded side, but dull olive mixed with 
orange, with a tinge of brown, and strewed with scales of silvery russet, 
intermixed with rough dots of dark russet, on the side next the sun. 
Eye, closed, with long broad segments, set in a deep and plaited basin. 
Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and oblique cavity, which is lined with 
scales of rough russet. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, breaking, very 
juicy and sugary, with a brisk and very poignant juice. 

A very superior old Enghsh apple, particularly for culinary purposes ; 
it is in use from October to March. 

The tree is very healthy and vigorous, and attains the largest size. 
It is also an excellent bearer. 

Pile's Victoria. See Devonshire BiicUand. 

Pine Apple. See Liicombe's Pine-apple. 

Pine Apple Pippin. See Lucombe's Pine-apple. 

PINE APPLE. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and seven- 
eighths wide, and two and a half high ; ovate, inclining to conical, 
obtusely angular, pointed, and ribbed at the apex. Skin, lemon 



APPLES. 175 

yellow, "with an orange tinge next the sun, and strewed with large russet 
dots. Eye, open, with erect convergent segments, set in a rather deep 
and ribbed basin, which is sometimes liigher on one side than the other. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, deeply inserted in 
a wide, deep, and roughly russet cavity, from which lines of russet 
extend over the base. Flesh, yellowish, tender, with an agi'eeable sub- 
acid flavour. Cells, roundish or roundish elliptical ; abaxile. 
A Gloucestershire cider apple. 

PINE APPLE RUSSET {Hardimfhmns nusset).— Fruit, medium 
sized, two inches and three-quarters wide, and two inches and a half 
high ; roundish ovate, with broad obtuse angles on its sides. Skin, 
pale greenish yellow, almost covered with white specks on one part, 
and rough thick yellow russet on the other, which extends round the 
stalk. Eye, small, with short connivent segments, placed in a shallow, 
plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
an inch long, inserted half its length in an uneven cavity. Flesh, very 
pale yellow, tender, crisp, very juicy, sweet, brisk, and richly aromatic. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A very valuable dessert apple ; in use during September and 
October. Mr. Lindley says the juice of this apple is more abundant 
than in any he had ever met with. The oldest tree remembered in 
Norwich was growing in 1780, in a garden belongiog to a Mr. Hard- 
ingham. 

PINE GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an 
inch and three-quarters high ; roundish and somewhat flattened, with 
blunt ribs which make it rather uneven and irregular in its outline. 
Skin, entirely covered with a smooth coat of brown russet and marked 
with large light grey specks. Eye, small and open, with long and re- 
curved segments, set in a deep, narrow, and plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch to three- 
quarters long, deeply inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, yellowish 
white, very tender and juicy, with a fine, sprightly, and distinct pine- 
apple flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

One of the best dessert apples ; in use during October and November. 

I have been unable to trace the orifrin of this fine apple. The earliest record of 
it is at the Chiswick Garden of the Royal Horticultural Society, where it is stated 
to have been sent by Messrs. Dickson & Son, of Hassendean Bam, near Hawick, 
N.B. 

PINNER SEEDLING (CareVs Seedling).— Fimt, medium sized, 
roundish ovate, and shghtly angular on the sides. Skin, greenish 
yellow, nearly covered with clear yellowish brown rnsset, so much so 
that only spots of the ground colour are visible ; it has also a varnished 
reddish brown cheek next the sun, which is more or less visible accord- 
ing to the quantity of russet which covers it. Stalk, half an inch long, 
inserted in a narrow and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tinged with 
green, tender, crisp, juicy, sugary, and briiakly flavoured. 



176 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from December to 
April. 

This excellent apple was raised by James Carel, a nurseryman at Pinner, 
Middlesex, in 1810. The tree first produced fruit in 1818, and was introduced to 
the notice of the London Horticultural Society in 1820. 

PIPPIN. — The word Pippin is derived from the French Pepin, the 
seed of an apple, and in its earliest signification meant an apple tree 
raised from seed in contradistinction to one raised by grafting or from 
cuttings. Thus Leonard Mascal, writing in 1572, says, " Then shall 
you cover your seedes or pepins with fine erth so sifting al over them " ; 
and " when the winter is past and gone, and that ye see your Pepins 
rise and growe"; and again, "When so euer ye doe replante or 
change your Pepin trees from place to place, in so remouing often the 
stocke the frute there of shall also change ; but the frute which doth 
come of Grafiing doth always kepe the forme and nature of the tree 
whereof he is taken." 

It is evident from this last quotation that Pippin is synonymous with 
seedling, and is used to distinguish a tree raised directly from seed 
from one that has been raised from grafts or cuttings. The Golden 
Pippin, which, by the way, was raised in Sussex, where Mascal also was 
born, means simply Golden Seedling. 

But there was another meaning attached to the word. In "Henry 
IV.," Shallow says to Falstaff, "Nay, you shall see mine orchard; 
where in an arbour we will eat a last year's pippin of my own grafting." 
And this is interpreted by what Sir Paul Neile says in his Discourse 
of Cider, written in the time of the Commonwealth, wherein speaking 
of "pippin cider," he says, "For by that name I shall generally call 
all sorts of cider that is made of apples good to eat raw," and that is 
evidently the signification in the above quotation from Shakspeare. 

Coming to more modern times, we have the word kernel, which is the 
English equivalent of Pepin, also used to signify a seedling apple tree ; 
as, for example, Ashmead's Kernel, the seedling raised by Dr. Ashmead, 
of Gloucester ; Cook's Kernel, Knott's Kernel, and many others. 

PITMASTON GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, an inch and three- 
quarters wide, and an inch and a half high ; roundish oblate or Keinette- 
shaped, even and regular. Skin, rough to the feel, being entirely 
covered with a coat of rough pale brown russet, and here and there 
the smooth yellow ground colour of the skin shining through. Eye, 
small and wide open, with the short remains of a deciduous calyx, set 
in a wide saucer-like basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a narrow cavity. Flesh, deep 
yellow or safi'ron-coloured, crisp and tender, very juicy and sweet, and 
with a rich flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A very fine dessert apple of the first quality ; in use in December and 
February. 

This was raised by Mr. Williams, of Pitmaston, near Worcester. 



APPLES. 177 

PITMASTON GOLDEN WREATH.— Fruit, very small, half an 
inch wide, by half an inch high ; conical and imdulating round the eye. 
Skin, of a fine deep rich yellow, strewed with russety dots. Eye, large 
and open, with long, spreading, pointed segments, set in a shallow 
and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, very slender, inserted in a narrow 
and shallow cavity. Flesh, rich yellow, crisp, juicy, and sweet. 

A pretty little apple ; in use from September to Christmas. 

This beautiful variety originated with J. Williams, Esq., of Pitmaston, from the 
Golden Pippin, impregnated with the pollen of the Cherry apple, or what is usually 
called the Siberian Crab. 

PITMASTON NONPAREIL (St. John's Nonpareil; Pitmaston 
Russet ; Russet Coat Nonpareil). — Fruit, about medium size, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; 
roundish and flattened. Skin, pale green, almost entirely covered with 
russet, and with a liiint tinge of red on the side next the sun. Eye, 
open, set in a broad, shallow, and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, 
greenish yellow, firm, rich, and highly aromatic. Cells, roundish 
obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of the greatest excellence ; it is in use from 
December to February. 

Raised by John Williams, Esq., of Pitmaston, near Worcester, and was first 
communicated to the London Horticultural Society in 1820. 

PITMASTON PINE APPLE.— Fruit, small and conical, regularly 
formed, but sometimes more enlarged on one side than the other. 
Skin, rough to the feel, being almost entirely covered with a coat of 
pale yellowish brown russet, but here and there a smooth patch of the 
ground colour, which is yellowish. Eye, small and closed, set in a 
shallow, saucer-hke, plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, slender, inserted in 
a wide and rather deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, 
rich, and with a distinct pine-apple flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of the greatest excellence ; in use during December 
to January. 

This was raised by Mr. Williams, of Pitmaston, near Worcester. 
Pitmaston Russet. See Pitmaston Nonpareil, 

PIUS NINTH. — Fruit, below medium size ; round and somewhat 
oblate, very much resembliug in form and colour the Birmingham 
Stone Pippin. Skin, of an uniform lemon yellow colour, thickly dotted 
all over with large russet dots. Eye, small and open, with short 
pointed segments, set in a shallow narrow basin. Stalk, short and 
stout, inserted in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, crisp, and without any 
particular flavour. 

An apple of very ordinary merit, whose chief recommendation is that 
it will keep in good condition till May. 

12 



178 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

PLUM APPLE. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches long, and 
two and a half wide ; long oval, like a large egg plum ; even and 
symmetrical in its outline. Skin, dull brownish red on the side next 
the sun, and reddish orange on the shaded side, both sides being also 
streaked with dark crimson. Eye, small and closed, with erect con- 
vergent segments, set in a deep, narrow, plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, fleshy, obliquely inserted at right 
angles with the axis of the fruit. Flesh, greenish white, tender, juicy, 
sweet, and agreeably, though not richly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; 
axile, slit. 

A remarkable apple from its shape and colour, which are like the 
Pond's Seedling Plum ; it is in use up till Christmas. 

This I received from Messrs. Cranston, of Hereford. 

Polinia Pearmain. See Barcelona Pearmain. 

POMEKOY. — There are two or three very distinct varieties, which, 
in difi'erent parts of the country, are known by the name of Pomeroy. 
One is that which is cultivated in Somersetshire and the West of 
England, another is peculiar to Herefordshire and Worcestershire, and 
the third to Lancashire and the Northern counties. 

Pomeroy of Somerset, or The Old Pomeroy, is medium sized, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, and the same in height ; conical, and 
obtusely angular. Skin, greenish yellow, covered with thin grey russet, 
on the shaded side, but orange, striped with deep red, and marked with 
patches of russet, on the side exposed to the sun, and strewed all over 
with numerous large dark russety dots. Eye, half open, set in a 
plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, 
not extending beyond the base, inserted in a round, even, and russety 
cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, sweet, and highly flavoured. 
Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from October till December. 

Pomeroy of Herefordsliire [Kirke's Fame; Peach; Sussex Peach; 
Busset Pine). — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three-eighths 
wide, and two inches high ; roundish and depressed, angular, especially 
about the eye. Skin, greenish yellow, with traces of russet where 
shaded ; on the side next the sun it is covered with a large patch of 
dense cinnamon -coloured russet, and between this and the shaded side 
are a few broken streaks of bright crimson ; the whole surface is covered 
with large russet dots. Eye, closed, with convergent segments, which 
are reflexed at the tips, set in a pretty deep and angular basin. 
Stamens, median, inclining to marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, 
or half an inch long, rather deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
juicy, sweet, and of a delicious flavour. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile, 
open. 

A very richly flavoured dessert apple ; in use during September and 
the early part of October. 



APPLES. * 179 

PoMEROY of Lancaslure, is medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, slightly 
ribbed at the apex. Skin, smooth, pale yellow on the shaded side, 
but clear pale red next the sun, which blends with the yellow towards 
the shaded side, so as to form orange ; the whole covered with russety 
dots. Eye, small and closed, placed in a small and shallow basin. 
Stalk, short, imbedded in an angular cavity, with a swelling on one 
side of it, and from which issue a few ramifications of russet. Flesh, 
whitish, tender, crisp, juicy, and with a brisk flavour, a good deal like 
that of the Manks Codlin. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use during September and October. 

The tree is healthy, hardy, and an excellent bearer, well adapted for 
orchard planting, and succeeds well in almost all situations. 

The name is a corruption of Pomme du Roi (the King's Apple). 

Pomme d'Api. See Api. 
Pomme d'Api Gros. See Apt Gros. 
Pomme de Neige. See De Nei/je. 
Pomme de Paradis. See Paradise, 
Pomme de Prochain. See Borsdorfer. 
Pomme Etoillee. See Api Etoille. 

POMME GRISE. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch and 
three-quarters high ; roundish and inclining to ovate. Skin, rough, 
with thick scaly russet, green in the shade, and deep orange on the side 
next the sun. Eye, small and open, set in a narrow and shallow basin. 
Stalk, about half an inch long, inserted in a shallow and small cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish, crisp, very juicy and sugary, with a brisk and highly 
aromatic flavour. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from October to February. 

The tree is rather a weak grower, but an abundant bearer. 

This apple, according: to Forsyth, was first introduced to this country from 
Canada, by Alexander Barclay, Esq., of Brompton, near London. 

POM]\IE POIRE. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quai'ter wide, 
and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish and depressed, 
obtusely angular, and with a very contracted and shallow stalk cavity. 
Skin, uniform pale gi-eenish yellow, strewed with russet dots. Eye, 
half open, with broad, erect, convergent segments, which are divergent 
at the tips, and set in a wide uneven basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, quite an inch long, slender, inserted in a very narrow 
and shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, tender, rather sweet, and 
with a mild acidity. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A cooking apple of no great merit ; in use till January. It is in the 
garden of the Royal Horticultural Society, at Chiswick. 

Pomme Rose. See Api Gros. 



180 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

Poor Man's Friend. See Warner's King. 
Pope's Apple. See Cohham. 
Pork Apple. See Orange Goff. 
Portugal. See Iielnette de Canada. 
Postoplie d'Hiver. See Borsdorfer. 
Potter's Large. See Kentish Fillhasket. 

POTTS'S SEEDLING.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
wide, and three inches high ; roundish, depressed, angular, and very 
irregular in its outline, puckered and ribbed round the e^^e. Skin, 
smooth, shining, and unctuous, when ripe ; of an uniform greenish 
straw colour sprinkled with russet dots. Eye, large and closed, with 
connivent segments, set in an angular and ribbed basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, wide conical. Stalk, half an inch long, stout, inserted 
the whole of its length in a deep, irregular, and uneven cavity. Flesh, 
very tender, and pleasantly sub-acid, with all the character of the flesh 
of Codlins. Cells, obovate, pointed ; abaxile. 

An excellent early kitchen apple of the Domino and Lord Suffield 
class ; ripe during September and the early part of October. It was 
raised by Mr. Samuel Potts, of Eobinson Lane, Ashton-under-Lyne, 
about the year 1849. 

POWELL'S EUSSET.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch 
and three-quarters high ; roundish, and regularly formed, broad and 
flattened at the base, and narrowing a little towards the eye. Skin, 
almost entirely covered with pale brown russet, but where any portion 
of the ground colour is visible, it is greenish yellow on the shaded 
side, and tinged with brown where exposed to the sun. Eye, open, 
placed in a round, eveu, and shallow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, about half an inch long, inserted in a rather 
wide and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, very juicy and sweet, 
with a rich and highly aromatic flavour. Cells, closed, obovate ; 
axile. 

A dessert apple of the very first quality ; it is in use from November 
to February. 

This is a pretty little russet, like the old Nonpareil in shape, but with 
a very short stalk. 

PREMIER. — Fruit, small, two inches and an eighth wide, and an 
inch and three-quarters high ; round and depressed, ribbed, though not 
prominently, and rather knobbed at the apex. Skin, almost entirely 
covered with crimson except where shaded, and there it is yellow. 
Eye, rather large for the size of the fruit, with convergent leaf-like 
segments, set in a wide round depression. Stamens, median ; tube, 



APPLES. 181 

funnel-shaped, unusually largo and wide. Stalk, from a quarter to 
half an inch long, inserted in a rather shallow cavity, which is lined 
with russet. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly flavoured. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of good quality, which keeps till Christmas. It was 
sent to me by Mr. T. Francis Rivers, of Sawbridge worth. 

Pride of the Ditches. See Sielei/s Mir/nonne, 

Prince Albert. See Lane's Prince Albert. 

Prince Albert. See Smart's Prince Arthur. 

PRINCE BISMARK.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, 
by two inches and three-quarters high ; oblate, and rather prominently 
ribbed towards the crown, and flat at the base. Skin, rich yellow, 
speckled all over with short broken streaks of crimson, especially on 
the side exposed to the sun. Eye, rather closed, with flat convergent 
segments, which are slightly divergent at the points, set in a deep 
but not wide angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tjibe, short, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, nearly an inch long, slender, and inserted in a deep 
wide cavity, which is thickly lined with russet, and tinged with green. 
Flesh, white, tender, juicy, with a mild acidity and a fine perfume. 
Cells, roundish or roundish obovate ; axile. 

A handsome apple, very much resembling The Queen, sent out by 
Messrs. Saltmarsh, of Chelmsford, but not identical. It is of excellent 
quality as a cooking apple, and is in use from October till Christmas. 

This was raised in the province of Canterbury, New Zealand, and was sent home 
to ;Mr. Mclndoe, gardener to Sir Joseph Pease, Bart., Hutton Hall, Guilsboro', and 
the above description was taken from fruit obtained from Mr. Mclndoe, and which 
was tiiere grown in an orchard house. 

PRINCE OF WALES. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and two and an eighth high ; roundish and 
oblate, even and regular in its outline. Skin, smooth, bright lemon 
yellow tinged with orange on the side next the sun, where it is also 
marked with broken streaks of crimson. Eye, large and open, with 
long, broad, pointed, and spreading segments, set in a wide, shallow, 
and perfectly even basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, conical. 
Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, slender, inserted in a rather 
deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and agi'eeably, though not 
highly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

A second-rate tender-fleshed apple which I met with in the garden of 
the Royal Horticultural Society at Chiswick. 

Princess Noble. See Golden Eeinettc. 

Princess Noble Zoete. See Court Penclu Plat. 

PRINCESS ROYAL.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide* 
and an inch and seven-eighths high ; round, and somewhat oblate, even 



182 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

and regularly formed. Skin, green, covered with rough brown russet 
over the whole surface. Eye, open, with short, erect, convergent 
segments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a very shallow, even 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch 
long, stout, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish, crisp, juicy, 
briskly acid, and without any aroma. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 
A second-rate, very acid apple, which keeps till January. 

PROLIFEROUS REINETTE.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and the same in height ; oval, with ten 
obscure ribs, extending from the base to the apex, where they form 
five small crowns. Skin, of a dull yellow ground colour, marked with 
small broken stripes or streaks of crimson, and thickly covered with 
small russety specks. Eye, closed, placed in a shallow, plaited, and 
knobbed basin. Stalk, from half an inch to three-quarters long, deeply 
inserted the whole of its length in a round and smooth cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish white, very juicy and sugary, with a rich and brisk flavour. 

A very fine, briskly flavoured dessert apple ; in use from October to 
December. 

I received this variety from the garden at Hammersmith, formerly in the pos- 
session of the late Mr. James Lee. 

PUFFIN (Bear and Tear; Sweet Orcome). — Fruit, large, three 
inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; 
round and depressed, angular in its outline. Skin, smooth and shining, 
with a greasy feel when ripe ; on the side next the sun it is deep 
orange covered with broken streaks of crimson, and on the shaded side, 
deep yellow with a few faint streaks of pale crimson. Eye, closed, with 
connivent segments, set in a deep angular basin. Stamens, basal; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, long, deeply inserted in a russety cavity. 
Flesh, soft, tender, and sweetish, having rather a mawkish flavour. 
Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

This is one of the soft-fleshed cooking apples, in use in October, and 
of but little merit. I received it from Mr. Poynter, nurseryman, of 
Taunton. 

Putman's Russet. See Boston Busset. 

QUEEN. — Fruit, medium size to large, varying from three inches 
to three and three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter to two and 
three-quarters high ; oblate, even and regular in its outline, ribbed 
and five-knobbed round the eye. Skin, clear lemon-yellow, almost 
entirely covered with bright crimson, which is again marked with 
broken streaks and patches of darker crimson, and with a hning of 
russet in the stalk cavity. Eye, slightly open, with erect convergent 
and somewhat divergent segments, set in a deep and ribbed basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short, conical. Stalk, nearly three-quarters 
of an inch long, deeply inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which is 



APPLES. 183 

lined with russet. Flesh, white, tender, very juicy, with a mild acidity. 
Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A very handsome culinary apple in October and November. It has 
a strong resemblance to Cox's Pomona, but is larger. 

This was introduced in 1880 by Messrs. Saltmarsh & Son, of Chelmsford, and 
it received a First-class Certificate from the Royal Horticultural Society, Nov. 10, 
1880. 

Queen Anne. See American Mother. 

QUEEN CAROLINE. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a quarter high ; oblate, regular and symmetrical 
in its outline. Skin, smooth, greenish yellow, strewed with large russet 
dots, russety over the base. Eye, wide open, with short divergent 
segments, set in a wide, round, even, and pretty deep basin. Stamens, 
basal ; tabe, conical. Stalk, short, inserted all its length in the 
russety cavity. Flesh, tender, with a mild acidity. Cells, obovate ; 
axile, sHt. 

A cooking apple of no great merit ; in use during October and 
November. 

QUEENING, or more correctly QUOINING, is a class of apples 
which are prominently angular. The name has been in use for cen- 
turies, and is derived from the word coin or quoin, which signifies a 
corner or angle. Rea, in his Pomona, when speaking of the Winter 
Quoining, says, *' it succeeds incomparably on the Paradise Apple as 
the Colviele (Calville) and all other sorts of Queenings do." He 
evidently regarded the Calville as a Quoining on account of the angu- 
larity of its shape. 

QUEEN OF SAUCE.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
broad, and two inches and a half high ; obtuse ovate, broad and flat 
at the base, narrowing towards the crown, and angular on the sides. 
Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, but on the side exposed to 
the sun it is flushed with red, which is marked with broken streaks of 
deeper red ; it is strewed all over with patches of thin delicate russet, 
and large russety specks, those round the eye being linear. Eye, 
open, set in a deep and angular basin, which is russety at the base. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about a quarter of an 
inch long, deeply inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with coarse 
russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, and sugary, with a brisk 
and pleasant flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, and suitable also for the 
dessert ; it is in use from November till January. It is extensively 
grown in Herefordshire. 

QUEEN OF THE PIPPINS.— Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches high ; round, inclining to oblate, even 
and regular in its outline. Skin, sprinkled all over with a thin coat of 



184 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

grey russet on a green ground, which becomes yellowish at maturity. 
Eye, with divergent segments, open, set in a shallow basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, in a narrow cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, with a greenish tinge, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly though 
not highly flavoured. Cells, oblate ; axile, closed. 

A second-rate dessert apple, which shrinks before Christmas. 

Queen's Apple. See Borsdurfer, 

Quince. See Lemon Pippin. 

RABINE. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two 
inches and a quarter high ; roundish and much flattened, ribbed on 
the sides, and undulated round the margin and basin of the eye. Skin, 
greenish yellow, marked with a few faint broken streaks and freckles 
of red, and strewed with grey russety dots on the shaded side, but. 
dark dull red, marked and mottled with stripes of deeper red, on the 
side next the sun. Eye, partially open, with broad flat segments, and 
placed in an angular basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and 
uneven cavity, from which issue a few linear markings of russet. 
Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, very juicy and sugary, with a brisk and 
pleasant flavour. 

An excellent apple, suitable either for culinary purposes or for the 
dessert, but more properly for the former ; it is in use from October 
to Christmas. 

RADFOED BEAUTY. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, flattened, 
and obtusely angular. Skin, dark red, streaked with bright crimson, 
on the side next the sun, and greenish yellow, washed with thin red, 
on the shaded side. Eye, small and closed, with flat, slightly divergent 
segments, placed in a shallow, plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, conical. Stalk, very short, deeply set in a round funnel-shaped 
cavity. Flesh, crisp, juicy, sweet, and of good flavour. Cells, 
roundish obovate ; axile, closed. 

A Nottinghamshire apple, sent me by Messrs. J. R. Pearson & Sons, 
of Chilwell, near Nottingham. 

RAMBO. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two 
inches and a quarter high ; roundish oblate. Skin, smooth, pale 
yellow on the shaded side, but yellow, streaked with red, on the side 
next the sun, and strewed with large russety dots. Eye, closed, set 
in a wide, rather shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, and 
slender, inserted more than half its length in a deep, round, and even 
cavity. Flesh, greenish white, tender and delicate, with a brisk and 
pleasant flavour. 

An American apple, suitable either for the dessert or for culinary 
purposes, and esteemed in its native country as a variety of first-rate 
excellence, but with us of inferior quality, even as a kitchen apple ; it 
is in use from December to January. 



APPLES. 185 

Rambour Blanc d'Ete. See BrcitUng. 

RAMBOUR FRANC. — Fruit, very large, four inches broad, and 
three inches high ; roundish and flattened, with five ribs on the sides, 
which extend to the eye, forming prominent ridges round the apex. 
Skin, yellow, marked with thin pale russet on the shaded side, but 
streaked and mottled with red on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, 
and deeply set in an angular basin. Stalk, short, deeply inserted in 
a round, even, and regular cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, 
yellow, firm, and of a leathery texture, brisk and sugary, with a high 
flavour. 

A good culinary apple ; in use during September and October. The 
tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an abundant bearer. 

This is an old French apple which must have been lone; cultivated in this country, 
as it is mentioned by Ilea so early as 1665. It is supposed to take its name from 
the village of Rerabures, in Picardy, where it is said to have been first discovered. 

De Rateau. See Rdnette Blanche iVEspagne. 

RAVELSTON PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, irregular 
in its shape, caused by several obtuse ribs which extend into the basin 
of the eye, round which they form prominent ridges. Skin, greenish 
yellow, nearly covered with red streaks, and strewed with russety dots. 
Eye, closed, and set in an angular basin. Stalk, short and thick, 
inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, sweet, and pleasantly 
flavoured. 

A dessert apple of such merit in Scotland as to be generally grown 
against a wall ; but in the south, where it has to compete with the 
productions of a warmer chmate, it is found to bo only of second-rate 
quaUty. Ripe in August. 

Read's Baker. See Norfolk Beefing, 

RED ASTRACHAN {Anglesea Pippin; Waterloo; Hampei^s 
American). — Fruit, above the medium size, three inches and a quarter 
wide, and three inches high ; roundish, and obscurely angular on its 
sides. Skin, greenish yellow where shaded, and almost entirely covered 
with deep crimson on the side exposed to the sun ; the whole surface 
covered with a fine delicate bloom. Eye, closed, set in a moderately 
deep and somewhat irregular basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, deeply inserted in a russety cavity. 
Flesh, white, crisp, very juicy, sugary, briskly and pleasantly flavoured. 
Cells, open, obovate. 

An early dessert apple, but only of second-rate quality. It is ripe 
in August, and requires to be eaten when gathered from the tree, as it 
soon becomes mealy. 

The tree does not attain a large size, but is healthy and vigorous, 
and an abundant bearer. 



186 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

This was imported from Sweden by William Atkinson, Esq., of Grove End, 
Paddington, in 1816, and was sent out some years ago by Messrs. Sutton & Son, 
of Reading, under the name of Anglesea Pippin. 

Red Baldwin. See Baldwin. 

Red Borsdorfer. See Borsddrfer. 

Red Calville. See Calville Rouge d'Ete. 

Red Hawthornden. See Greenup's Pippin. 

REDDING'S NONPAREIL.— Fruit, small, an inch and seven- 
eighths wide, and an inch and a half high ; roundish or oblate, even 
and regular in its outline. Skin, quite covered with thin pale brown 
russet. Eye, wide open, hke that of Court of Wick, with broad, 
reflexed, pointed segments, set in a wide and deep cup-shaped basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an 
inch long, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, greenish, crisp, 
and juicy, agreeably but not highly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, 
very full of seeds, closed. 

A dessert apple of only second-rate quality, which is much shrivelled 
before Christmas. 

REDLEAF RUSSET.— Fruit, small, very much like the Golden 
Knob, two inches and a quarter wide, and two inches high ; roundish, 
even and regular in shape. Skin, entirely covered with bright cinna- 
mon-coloured russet, which is thinner on the shaded side, where a little 
of the yellow ground colour is exposed. Eye, partially open, with 
erect, flat, convergent segments, reflexed at the tips, set in a pretty 
wide and deep saucer-like basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, pretty stout, set 
in a round cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, very juicy and 
sweet, with a rich flavour and a fine aroma. Cells, obovate ; axile, 
closed. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from December till February. 

This was raised by Mr. John Cox, gardener at Redleaf, Penshurst, Kent. 

RED FOXWHELP. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, by 
two inches and seven-eighths high ; roundish ovate, even in its outline. 
Skin, very dark crimson over the whole surface, almost a mahogany or 
chestnut colour, except a small portion on the shaded side, which is a 
little, and very little, paler. Eye, small, somewhat open, with short, 
erect, convergent segments, set in a very shallow plaited basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, short conical. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch 
long, very slender, inserted in a wide, rather shallow cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, deeply stained with crimson both under the surface of the skin 
and at the core, very tender, pleasantly flavoured, with a slight acidity. 
Cells, ovale ; axile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 



APPLES. 187 

RED IXGESTRIE.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and 
two inches and a quarter high ; round, regularly and handsomely 
shaped, or short cylindrical, undulating at the apex. Skin, rich 
golden yellow, with an orange blush on the side next the sun, and 
strewed with russet specks. Eye, wide open, with reflexed segments, 
set in a shallow, plaited, saucer-like basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a close and not 
deep cavity, which is lined with greenish grey russet. Flesh, tender, 
yellow, juicy, and with a brisk, agreeable flavour. Cells, elliptical; 
axile. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use during October and 
November. It is very apt to be taken for Golden Winter Pearmain, 
the shape, colour, eye, and rather knobbed crown favouring the re- 
semblance ; but it is more oblate, and the stamens are always basal. 

This excellent little apple was raised by Thomas Andrew Knight, Esq., from 
the seed of the Orange Pippin impregnated with the Golden Pippin, about the year 
1800. It, and the Yellow Ingestrie, were the produce of two pips taken from the 
same cell ot an apple. The original trees are said to be still in existence at 
Wormsley Grange, in Herefordshire. 

Red Kentish Pippin. See Kentish Pippin. 

RED MUST. — Fruit, nearly, if not quite, the largest cider apple 
cultivated in Herefordshire. It is rather broad and flattened, a little 
irregular at its base, which is hollow. Stalk, slender. Crown, sunk. 
Eye, deep, with a stout erect calyx. Skin, greenish yellow on the 
shaded side, with a deep rosy colour where exposed to the sun, and 
shaded with a darker red (Lindley). 

The Red Must has at all periods been esteemed a good cider apple, 
though the ciders lately made with it, unmixed with other apples, have 
been light and thin, and I have never found the specific gravity of its 
expressed juice to exceed 1064 (Knight). 

RED NORMAN. — Fruit, small, two inches and an eighth wide, and 
the same in height ; conical, sometimes long conical, with a waist near 
the apex, whore it is puckered. Skin, smooth, lemon yellow, with a 
faint blush of red on the side exposed to the sun, the surface sparingly 
strewed with minute russet points. Eye, small, closed, with connivent 
segments, set in a shallow puckered basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
very deep, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, obliquely 
inserted, and curved, frequently with a swelling on one side of it. 
Flesh, greenish yellow, not very juicy, woolly, and sweet. Cells, very 
large, ovate, pointed ; axile, closed. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

Red Quarrenden. See Devonshire Quarrenden. 

Red Queening. See Crimson Queening. 

RED ROYAL. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, and two 



188 



THE FEUIT MANUAL. 



inches high ; roundish, inclining to oblate, and sometimes to ovate, 
angular. Skin, almost entirely covered with dark crimson, except on 
the shaded side, where it is yellow, the surface sprinkled with russet 
dots. Eye, quite closed, with convergent segments. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a rather 
deep cavitj'-. Flesh, v/hite, tender, and pleasantly sub-acid. Cells, 
open, obovate, small ; axile. 

A favourite cider apple of Gloucestershire. 

EED SPLASH [New Broynley). — Fruit, small, two inches and an 
eighth wide, and one inch and five-eighths high ; roundish oblate, and 
regularly formed. Skin, golden yellow, with a few streaks of crimson 
on the shaded side, and completely covered with crimson on the ex- 
posed side, where it is also splashed with broken streaks of dark 
mahogany colour. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, convergent segments, 
reflexed at the tips, set in a wide, saucer-like basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter to half an inch long, 
slender, set in a pretty wide cavity. Flesh, yellowish, juicy, sweet, 
and agreeably flavoured. Cells, roundish, inclining to obovate ; axile. 

This is grown very largely at Newland, near Slalvern, and all the 
surrounding parishes, and is sold to the pickle-makers to make chutney 
and apple jelly. 

EED-STREAK {Herefordshire Bed-streak : Scudamore's Crab). — 
Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quarters wide, and two 
inches and a quarter high ; roundish, or inclining to oblate, narrowing 
towards the apex, even and regular in outline. Skin, deep clear yellow, 
streaked with red, on the shaded side, but deep red, streaked with still 
deeper red, approaching dark mahogany colour, on the side next the 
sun ; the surface is strewed with specks and small patches of cinna- 
mon-coloured russet, and especially round the stalk there is a patch 
tinged with green. Eye, small and closed, with short convergent 
segments, set in a rather shallow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, sometimes a mere knob. 
Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, and rather dry, briskly acid, and with a 
rough flavour. Cells, slightly obovate, small ; axile. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 1079. 

A cider apple, which at one period was unsurpassed, but now com- 
paratively but little cultivated. 

Perhaps there was no apple which at any period was in such great favour, 
and of which so much was said and written during the 17th century, as of the 
Red-streak, Prose and verse were both enUsted in its praises. It was chiefly 
by the writings of Evelyn it attained its greatest celebrity. Philips, in his pjem, 
Cyder, says — 

** Let every tree in every garden own 
The Red Streak as supreme, whose pulpous fruit, 
"With gold irradiate, and vermilion, shines 
Tempting, not fatal, as the birth of that 
Primaeval, interdicted plant, that won 
Fond Eve, in hapless hour to taste, and die. 



APPLES. 18D 

This, of more bounteous influence, inspires 
Poetic raptures, and the lowly muse 
Kindles to loftier strains ; even I, perceive 
Hf r sacred virtue. See ! the numbers flow 
Easy, whilst, cheer'd with her nectareous juice, 
Hers, and my country's praises, I exalt." 

But its reputation began to decline about the beginning of the last century, for we 
Hnd Nourse saying, ** As for the liquor which it yields, it is highly esteemed for its 
noble colour and smell ; 'tis likewise fat and oily in the taste, but withal \cry 
windy, luscious, and fulsome, and will sooner clog the stomach than any other cider 
whatsoever, leaving a waterish, raw humour upon it ; so that with meals it is no 
way helpful, and they who drink it, if I may judge of them by my own palate, will 
tind their stomachs i>aird sooner by it, than warm'd and enliven'd." 

The Ked-streak seems to have originated about the beginning of the 17th century, 
for Evelyn says " it was within the memory of some now living surnamed the 
Scudamore's Crab, and then not much known save in the neighbourhood." It was 
called Scudamore's Crab from bemg extensively planted by the first Lord Scuda- 
more, who was son of Sir James Scudamore, from whom Spenser is said to have 
taken the character of Sir Scudamore in his " Faerie Queen." He was born in 
1600, and created by Charles I. Baron Dromore and Viscount Scudamore. He 
was attending the Duke of Buckingham when he was stabbdl at Portsmouth, and 
was so affected at the event that he retired into ])rivate life, and devoted his 
attention to planting orchards, of which the Red-streak formed the principal 
variety. In 1634 he was sent as ambassador to France, in which capacity he con- 
tinued for four years. He was a zenlous Royalist during the civil wars, and was 
taken prisoner by the Parliament party, while his property was destroyed, and his 
estate sequestered. He died in 1671. 

RED STREAKED RAWLING.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, 
by two and a quarter high ; roundish, and slightly angular. Skin, 
yellow, streaked with red on the shaded side, but entirely covered 
with clear dark red, and striped with still darker red, on the side 
exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow and 
plaited basin. Stalk, long and slender, inserted in a wide and deep 
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, sweet, 
juicy, and well flavoured, abounding in a sweet and pleasant juice. 

A culinary apple, well adapted for sauce ; it is iu use from October 
to Christmas. 

This is an old Devonshire apple, and no doubt the Sweet Bawling referred to 
in a communication to one of Bradley's " Monthly Treatises," from which the 
following is an extract : " "We have an apple in this country called a Rawling, 
of which there is a sweet and a sour ; the sour when ripe (which is very early) is 
a very fair large fruit, and of a pleasant taste, inclined to a golden colour, full of 
narrow red streaks ; the Sweet Bawling has the same coloturs but not quite so 
large, and if boiled grows hard, whereas the sour becomes soft. Now wliat I have 
to inform you of is, viz.: I have a tree which bears both sorts in one apple ; one 
side of the api)le is altogether sweet, the other side sour ; one side bigger than the 
other ; and when boiled the one side is soft, the other hard, as all sweet and sour 
apples are." 

RED STYRE. — Fruit, small, two inches to two and a half wide, 
and two inches high ; roundish ovate, inclining to oblate, even and 
regular in its outline. Skin, smooth and shining, entirely covered with 
very dark crimson, almost approaching mahogany, but paler on the 
shaded side, the whole mottled with broken bright yellow streaks ; round 



190 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

the stalk it is greenish and russety. Eye, set in a pretty deep and 
somewhat angular basin ; segments, broad and convergent, erect. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, 
set the whole of its length in a round and deep cavity. Flesh, yellow- 
ish, very tender and juicy, with a pleasant flavour, which makes it 
acceptable as a dessert fruit, the texture being equal in delicacy to that 
of an imported Newtown Pippin. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile. 
A celebrated Herefordshire cider apple. 

Red Winter Calville. See Calville Rouge cVHiver. 

REINETTE. — There are various opinions respecting the derivation 
of this word. At first sight it appears to have a French origin, and 
supposing it to be so, some have translated it Little Queen, though there 
is no such definition in any French dictionary I have consulted. Others 
say it is derived from Rainette, a kind of frog, because Reinettes are 
always, or ought to be, spotted with russet freckles, like the belly of the 

Thomas Fuller, the eminent historian and divine, says, *' When a 
pepin is planted {i.e., grafted) on a pepin stock, the fruit growing thence 
is called a Renate." This, I think, is the origin of the word, Reinette 
being derived from Renatus — renewed or reproduced. A Reinette is 
therefore a grafted apple, and a Pippin is a seedling. See Pippin. 

Reinette Baumann. See Baumann's Reinette. 

REINETTE BLANCHE D'ESPAGNE {Josephine; Belle Jose- 
pli'me ; Reinette d'Espagne ; Be Rateau ; Concomhre Ancien ; American 
Fall Pippin; Camuesar ; White Spanish Reinette). — Fruit, very large, 
three inches and a half wide, and three inches and three-quarters high ; 
oblato-oblong, angular on the sides, and uneven at the crown, where it 
is nearly as broad as at the base. Skin, smooth and unctuous to the 
feel, yellowish green in the shade, but orange tinged with brownish 
red next the sun, and strewed with dark dots. Eye, large and open, 
set in a deep, angular, and irregular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a narrow and even 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, juicy, and sweet. Cells, open, 
obovate. 

An apple of first-rate quality, suitable for the dessert, but particularly 
so for all culinary purposes ; it is in use from December to April. 

The tree is healthy and vigorous, and an excellent bearer. It 
requires a dry, warm, and loamy soil. 

REINETTE CARPENTIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches high ; roundish, or rather oblato-oblong. Skin, 
yellowish green on the shaded side, but striped, and washed with 
dark glossy red, on the side next the sun, and so much covered with 
a thick cinnamon-coloured russet that the ground colours are some- 
times only partially visible. Eye, set in a wide, saucer-like basin, 



APPLES. 191 

which is considerably depressed. Stalk, an inch long, thin, and 
inserted in a round and deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, delicate, 
tender, and juicy, with a brisk, vinous, and peculiar aromatic flavour, 
shghtly resembling anise. 

A first-rate dessert apple ; in use from December to April. 

The tree is a free grower, with long slender shoots, and when a little 
aged is a very abundant bearer. 

Reinette d'Allemagne. See Borsdorfer. 

REINETTE DE BREDA.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter high ; roundish and com- 
pressed. Skin, at first pale yellow, but changing as it ripens to fine 
deep golden yellow, and covered with numerous russety streaks and 
dots, and with a tinge of red and fine crimson dots on the side exposed 
to the sun. Eye, set in a wide and plaited basin. Stalk, half an 
inch long, inserted in a russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, 
and crisp, but tender and juicy, with a rich vinous and aromatic 
flavour. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to 
March. 

This is the Reinette d'Aizerna of the Horticultural Society's Cata- 
logue, and may be the Nelguin of Knoop ; but it is certainly not the 
Reinette d'Aizema of Knoop. 

REINETTE DE CANADA {Fortwjal; St. Helena Russet; Canada 
Fieinette). — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and three inches 
deep ; oblato-conical, with prominent ribs originating at the eye, and 
diminishing as they extend downwards towards the stalk. Skin, 
greenish yellow, with a tinge of brown on the side next the sun, 
covered with numerous brown russety dots, and reticulations of russet. 
Eye, large, open or closed, with short segments, and set in a rather 
deep and plaited basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, about 
an inch long, slender, inserted in a deep, wide, and generally smooth 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, juicy, brisk, and highly flavoured. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

An apple of first-rate quality, either for culinary or dessert use ; it 
is in season from November to April. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and attains a large size ; 
it is also an excellent bearer. The finest fruit are produced from 
dwarf trees. 

Reinette de Canada Grise. See Royal Russet. 

Reinette de Canada Plat. See Royal Russet. 

Reinette de Caux. See Dutch Mignonne. 

Reinette d'Espagne. See Reinette Blanche d'Espagne. 

Reinette de Misnie. See Borsdorfer, 



192 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

EEINETTE DIEL. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches wide, 
and two and a quarter high ; oblate, even and handsomely shaped. 
Skin, at first yellowish white, but changing by keeping to a fine yellow 
colour ; on the side next the sun it is marked with several crimson 
spots and dots, strewed all over with russety dots, which are large and 
brownish on the shaded side, but small and greyish on the other. 
Eye, open, with short segments, set in a wide and rather shallow basin. 
Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep and russety cavity, with 
sometimes a fleshy boss at its base. Flesh, white, firm, crisp, delicate, 
and juicy, with a rich sweet and spicy flavour. 

A beautiful and excellent dessert apple of the first quality ; it is in 
use from December to March. 

The tree is a strong, healthy, and vigorous grower, and an abundant 
bearer. 

This was raised by Dr. Van Mons, and named in honour of his friend Dr. Aug. 
Friedr. Adr. Diel. 

EEINETTE FBANCHE.— Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
and a quarter wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish oblate, 
slightly angular on its sides, and uneven round the eye. Skin, smooth, 
thickly covered with brown russety spots ; greenish yellow, changing 
as it ripens to pale yellow, and sometimes tinged with red when fully 
exposed to the sun. Eye, partially open, with long green segments, 
set in a wide, rather deep, and prominently plaited basin. Stalk, short 
and thick, deeply inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with greenish 
grey russet. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, delicate, crisp, and juicy, 
with a rich, sugary, and musky flavour. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality; in use from November to April. 
Roger Schabol says it has been kept two years in a cupboard excluded 
from the air. 

The tree is a free grower and an abundant bearer, but subject to 
canker, unless grown in light soil and a dry and warm situation. 

This is a very old French apple, varying very much in quality according to the 
soil in which it is grown; but so highly esteemed in France as to take as much 
precedence of all other varieties as the liibston and Golden Pippin do in this 
country. 

EEINETTE GRISE.— Fruit, medium sized, two and a half inches 
broad, and two and a half high ; roundish ovate, broadest at the base, 
and generally with five obscure angles on the sides, forming more or 
less prominent ridges round the crown. Skin, dull yellowish green in 
the shade, and with a patch of thin, dull, brownish red on the side next 
the sun, which is so entirely covered with brown russet that little colour 
is visible ; the shaded side is marked with large linear patches of rough 
brown russet. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, sharp-pointed segments, 
which are reflexed at the tips, and set in a deep and round basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, set 
in a deep and angular cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, rich, 
and sweet, with a brisk and excellent flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 



APPLES. 193 

A very fine dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use fi*om November 
to May. 

The tree is a healthy and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer. 

One of the finest old French apples; but considered inferior to the Reinette 

Franthe. 

REINETTE JAUNE SUCREE. — Fruit, rather above medium 
size, three inches broad, and two and a half high ; roundish, and very 
much flattened at the base* Skin, thin and tender, pale green at first, 
but changing as it attains maturity to a fine deep yellow, with a deeper 
and somewhat of an orange tinge on the side exposed to the sun, and 
covered all over with numerous large russety dots and a few traces of 
delicate russet. Eye, open, with long, acuminate, green segments, 
set in a wide, rather deep, and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch long, 
inserted in a deep round cavity, which is lined with thin russet. Flesh, 
yellowish, delicate, tender, and very juicy, with a rich sugary flavour, 
and without much acidity. 

Either as a dessert or culinary apple this variety is of first-rate 
excellence ; it is in use from November to February. 

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and a good bearer ; but it is 
very subject to canker, unless grown in a light and warm soil. 

Reinette Nonpareil. See Nonpareil. 

REINETTE VAN MONS {Van Mons' Reinette), — Fruit, rather 
below medium size, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a 
quarter high ; flattened, and almost oblate, having five rather obscure 
ribs, which terminate in distinct ridges round the eye. Skin, greenish 
yellow in the shade, but with a dull and brownish orange tinge next 
the sun ; the whole surface has a thin coating of brown russet. Eye, 
closed, set in a rather deep depression. Stamens, basal ; tube, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, half an inch long. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, 
juicy, sweet, and aromatic. Cells, roundish ovate or obovate; axile, 
slit. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to May. 

REINETTE VERTE.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two and a quarter high ; roundish, considerably 
flattened at the base, and slightly ribbed at the eye, handsome, and 
regularly shaped. Skin, thin, smooth, and shining, pale green at first, 
but becoming yellowish green as it attains maturity, with sometimes a 
reddish tinge, and marked with large grey russety dots and lines of 
russet. Eye, partially closed, with long pointed segments, set in a 
pretty deep and plaited basin. Stalk, about an inch long, inserted in 
a deep and round cavity, lined with russet, which extends in ramifica- 
tions over the whole of the base. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, and 
juicy, with a sweet, vinous, and highly aromatic flavour, ** partaking of 
the flavours of the Golden Pippin and Nonpareil." 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to May. 

13 



194 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

The tree is vigorous and healtli}^ and a good bearer ; but does not 
become of a large size. 

RHODE ISLAND GREENING (Green Newtown Pipjnn; Jersey 
Greening; Burlington Greening). — Fruit, large, three inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, and slightly 
depressed, with obscure ribs on the sides, terminating at the eye in 
ridges, like London Pippin. Skin, smooth and unctuous to the touch, 
dark green at first, becoming pale as it ripens, and sometimes with a 
faint blush near the stalk. Eye, small and closed, with long, pointed, 
spreading segments, set in a slightly depressed basin. Stamens, median 
or basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, slender, 
curved, thickest at the insertion, and placed in a narrow and deep cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish tinged with green, tender, crisp, juicy, sugary, with a 
rich, brisk, and aromatic flavour. Cells, open, obovate ; axile. 

An apple of first-rate quality for all culinary purposes, and excellent 
also for the dessert ; it is in use from November to April. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, hardy, and an excellent 
bearer ; succeeds well in almost any situation. 

This is of American origin, and was introduced to this country hy the London 
Horticultural Society, who received, it from David Hosack, Esq., M.D., of New 
York. It is extensively grown in the middle states of America, where the Newtown 
Pippin does not attain perfection, and. for which it forms a good substitute. 

RIBSTON PEARMAIN. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three 
quarters wide, and two inches high ; roundish oblate, even and regular 
in its outline, in shape resembling Blenheim Pippin ; sometimes it is a 
little angular. Skin, with a brownish orange blush and a few pale 
streaks of crimson where exposed to the sun, but where shaded it is 
greenish yellow ; it is strewed with russet dots, and here and there are 
patches of thin grey russet, especially over the crown and in the basin 
of the eye. Eye, partially open, with flat, convergent segments, set in 
a narrow, neat, saucer-like basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, inserted in a rather 
shallow cavity. Flesh, crisp, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. Cells, 
roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

A dessert apple of great excellence ; in use from November till 
January. 

RIBSTON PIPPIN (Glory of York; Travers' Pippin).— Fmit, 
medium sized ; roundish, and irregular in its outline, caused by several 
obtuse and unequal angles on its sides. Skin, greenish yellow, changing 
as it ripens to dull yellow, and marked with broken streaks of pale red 
on the shaded side, but dull red changing to clear faint crimson, 
marked with streaks of deeper crimson, on the side next the sun, and 
generally russety over the base. Eye, small aud open or closed, 
set in an irregular basin, which is generally netted with russet. 
Stamens, median or basal; tube, deep conical or funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, half an inch long, slender, and generally inserted its whole 



APPLES. ] 95 

length in a round cavity, which is surrounded with russet. Flesh, 
yellow, firm, crisp, rich, and sugary, charged with a powerful aromatic 
flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

An apple so well known as to require neither description nor 
encomium. It is in greatest perfection during November and Decem- 
ber, but with good management will keep till March. 

The tree is in general hardy, a vigorous grower, and a good bearer, 
provided it is grown in a dry soil ; but if otherwise it is almost sure to 
canker. In all the southern and middle counties of England it succeeds 
well as an open standard ; but in the north, and in Scotland, it requires 
the protection of a wall to bring it to perfection. Nicol calls it *' a 
universal apple for these kingdoms ; it will thrive at John O'Groat's, 
while it deserves a place at Exeter or at Cork." 

The Bibston Pippin did not become generally known till the end of the last 
century, and it is not mentioned in any of the editions of Miller's Dictionary, or 
by any other author of that period ; neither was it grown in the Brorapton Park 
Nursery in 1770. In 1785 I find it was in that collection, when it was grown to the 
exteiit of a quarter of a row, or about twenty-five plants ; and as this supply seems 
to have suflaced for three years' demand, its merits must have been but little known. 
In 1788 it extended to one row, or about one hundi-ed plants, and three years later 
to two rows ; from 1791 it increased one row annually, till 1794, when it reached 
five rows. From these facts we may pretty well learn the rise and progress of its 
popularity. In 1847, in the same nursery, it was cultivated to the extent of about 
twenty-live rows, or 2,500 plants annually. 

The original tree was first discovered growing in the garden at Kibston Hall, 
near Knaresborough, but how, when, or by what means it came there, has not been 
satisfactorily ascertained. One account states that about the year 1688 some apple 
pips were brought from Rouen and sown at Ribston Hall ; the trees produced from 
them were planted in the park, and one turned out to be the variety in question. 
The original tree stood till 1810, when it was blown down by a violent gale of 
wind. It was afterwards supported by stakes in a horizontal position, and continued 
to produce fruit till it lingered and died in 1835. Since then, a young shoot has 
been produced about four inches below the surface of the ground, which, with 
proper care, may become a tree, and thereby preserve the original of this favourite 
old dessert apple. The gardener at Ribston Hall, by whom this apple was raised, 
was the father of Lowe, who during the last century- was the fruit-tree nurseryman 
at Hampton Wick. 

RINGER. — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two inches and a 
half high ; roundish and depressed, obtusely angular, ribbed round the 
eye. Skin, yellow, with tinges and broken stripes of pale crimson 
here and there, and sometimes without colour ; the surface sprinkled 
with thin patches of pale brown russet. Eye, with erect connivent 
segments, reflexed at the tips, and set in a pretty deep and angular 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, yellowish green, 
three-quarters of an inch to an inch long, straight, deeply inserted in 
a round cavity. Flesh, yellow, very tender and juicy, with an agree- 
able acidity and good flavour. Cells, open, roundish obovate or 
roundish ovate ; axile, and with a fine perfume. 

A second-rate dessert apple, but excellent for kitchen use from 
November till February. 

It is a very fragrant apple, and with a very delicate flesh. 



196 , THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

EIVERS'S NONESUCH.— Fruit, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and not quite so much high ; ovate, inclining to conical, even in its 
outline, and with ridges round the apex. Skin, yellow on the shaded 
side, and almost entirely covered with red, which has broken dark crimson 
streaks on the side next the sun, the whole strewed with russet dots. 
Eye, closed, with convergent segments, which are reflexed at the tips, 
set in a narrow and furrowed basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, deep 
conical, and narrow. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, deeply inserted 
in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, sweet, and with 
a rich, brisk, perfumed flavour. Cells, closed, roundish obovate ; axile. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from November till January. 

This was selected by the late Mr, Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, from a quarter of 
seedling apple stocks. Along with one or two others it attracted his attention by 
the dwarf and peculiar habit of growth, and their tendency to throw out a mass of 
roots near the surface of the soil. He tried them all as dwarfing stocks for apple 
trees, and this, which he called the Nonesuch, proved the best of the three for the 
purpose. It is now produced every year by thousands, from stools and cuttings ; 
but it was not till I discovered the quality of the fruit, in 1875, that it was known 
to possess any merit. It is really a fine dessert apple. 

Robin. See Winter Greening. 

ROBIN HOOD. — Fruit, large, three inches and an eighth wide, and 
three and a half high ; oblong-conical, and so much resembling the 
Gloucestershire Costard that I am inclined to think it is the same 
sort. I met with this in a private garden at Great Malvern in 1871. 

ROBINSON'S PIPPIN. — Fruit, small ; roundish, narrowing towards 
the apex, where it is quite flat, and rather undulating. Skin, very 
much covered with brown russet, except on the shaded side, where it 
is greenish yellow, but sometimes tinged with brownish red where ex- 
posed to the sun, and strewed all over with minute russety dots. Eye, 
open, with flat pointed segments, set in a wide shallow basin. Stamens, 
median; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, stout, and 
inserted in a slight depression. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, sweet, 
and very juicy, with a fine, brisk, and slightly perfumed flavour, much 
resembling that of the Golden Pippin and Nonpareil. Cells, closed, 
obovate ; axile. 

A very excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from 
December to February. The fruit is produced in clusters of sometimes 
eight and ten, at the ends of the branches. 

The tree is of small size and slender growth, and not a free bearer. 
It is well adapted for dwarf and espalier training when grafted on the 
doucin or paradise stock, in which case it also bears better than on the 
crab stock. 

According to Mr. Lindley, this variety was grown for many years in the old 
kitchen garden at Kew ; and Rogers thinks it first originated in the Turnham 
Green Nursery, which was during a portion of the last century occupied by a 
person of the name of Robinson. The truth is, it was raised by a publican of the 
name of Robinson, who kept the Packhorse Inn at Turnham Green, and who also 
raised the Packhorse Pippin. 



APPLES. 197 

ROCKLEY'S. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and two 
inches and three-quarters high; ovate, angular and uneven in its 
outHne. Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, but covered with 
dark red, streaked with darker red, on the side exposed to the sun, and 
speckled with broken streaks of red where the red and yellow blend. 
Eye, large and closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a deep 
and ribbed basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, very wide, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, about three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a deep fur- 
rowed cavity. Flesh, remarkably tender, not very juicy, but sweet. 
Cells, round ; axile. 

A cooking apple, which I met with at the Hereford meeting of the 
Pomological Committee of the VVoolhope Naturalists Field Club. It is 
the softest and most tender-fleshed apple I have ever met with. 

Rolhmd. See Belle Bonne. 

RONALDS'S GOOSEBERRY mVl?m (Gooseberry Pippin).— Fruit, 
small, two inches and a quarter wide, and an inch and three-quarters 
high ; roundish and inclining to oblate, somewhat obscurely ribbed. 
Skin, smooth, of a fine uniform lemon -yellow colour, but of a deeper 
colour next the sun, thinly strewed with large russet dots, marked with 
russet flakes and frequently with a red blush next the sun. Eye, 
small and open, with small, erect, acute segments, placed in a wide, 
shallow, and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, small, conical, 
or rather cup-shaped. Stalk, very short, imbedded the whole of its 
length in a deep cavity, which is lined with pale brown russet and 
which extends in ramifications over the base. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
and fine-grained, very juicy, sweet, brisk, and vinous, with a pleasant 
perfume. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A very excellent dessert apple ; ripe in November, and continues in 
use till February, when it is quite plump and juicy. The tree is a very 
handsome grower of the smallest size, and an abundant bearer. 

The name Gooseberry Pippin, by which this is described in Ronalds' Pyrus 
MaluH breni/ordiensis, is not sufficient to distinguish it from the Gooseberry Apple, 
with which it is apt to be confounded ; and I have therefore adopted the specific 
name of Ronalds to avoid so great an inconvenience, for this admirable dessert 
apple ought not to be mistaken for the culinary one. This is now a very rare frait, 
and I doubt much if it is to be had true in an ordinary way, I am indebted to 
F. J. Graliam, Esq., of Cranford, Middlesex, for grafts and fruit, it havmg been 
grown extensively for many jears in his orchards at Cranford, for Covent Garden 
Market, 

Ronalds's Seedling. See Trumpinyton. 
Rook's Nest. See Bimitisland Spice. 

ROSE DE CHINE.— Fruit, medium sized, or rather below medium 
size ; roundish and flattened, almost oblate, regularly formed, aiid 
without angles. Skin, smooth and delicate, pale gi-eenish yellow, with 
a few broken streaks of pale red, intermixed with crimson, on the side 
exposed to the sun, and strewed with minute dark-coloured dots. Eye, 



198 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



partially closed, set in a shallow and slightly plaited basin. Stalk, an 
inch long, very slender, inserted in a round, deep, smooth, and funnel- 
shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tinged with green, firm, crisp, 
and juicy, with a sweet and pleasant flavour. 

A very good, but not first-rate, dessert apple ; it is in use from 
November to February. This does not appear to be the " Rose Apple 
of China" of Coxe, which he imported from England, and which he 
says is a large oblong fruit with a short thick stalk. 

ROSEMARY RUSSET.— Fruit, below medium size ; ovate, broadest 
at the base, and narrowing obtusely towards the apex, a good deal of 
the shape of a Scarlet Nonpareil. Skin, yellow, tinged with green on 
the shaded side, but flushed with faint red on the side exposed to the 
sun, and covered with thin pale brown russet, particularly round the 
eye and the stalk. Eye, small and closed, or half open, with erect 
segments, set in a narrow, round, and even basin. Stamens, marginal 
or median ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, very long, inserted 
in a round and wide cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, tender, very 
juicy, brisk, and sugary, and charged with a peculiarly rich and highly 
aromatic flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A most delicious and valuable dessert apple of the very first quality ; 
it is in use from December till February. 

ROSS NONPAREIL. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches high, and 
two inches and a half broad ; roundish, even, and regularly formed, 
narrowing a little towards the eye. Skin, entirely covered with thin 
russet, and faintly tinged with red on the side next the sun. Eye, 
small and open, with divergent segments, set in a shallow and even 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch 
long, slender, inserted half its length in a round and even cavity. 
Flesh, greenish white, firm, crisp, brisk, and sugary, charged with a 
rich and aromatic flavour, which partakes very much of that of the 
varieties known by the name of Fenouillet, or Fennel-flavoured apples. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

This is one of the best dessert apples ; it is in use from November 
to February. 

The tree is an excellent bearer, hardy, and a free grower, and 
succeeds well on almost any description of soil. 

This variety is of Irish origin, and was first brought into notice by Mr, Robert- 
son, a nurseryman at Kilkenny, who sent it to the Horticultural Society of 
London. 

ROSTOCKER. — Fruit, medium size, three inches wide, and two 
inches and a half high ; roundish ovate, angular, and with prominent 
ridges round the crown. Skin, almost entirely covered with bright 
crimson, which is streaked with darker crimson on the side next the sun, 
and bright yellow where shaded. Eye, closed, with erect, broad, con- 
vergent segments, and set in a rather deep, plaited, and angular basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, inserted all 



APPLES. 199 

its length in the cavity, and with a swelling on one side of it. Flesh, 
greenish white, crisp, tender, and with a fine brisk sub-acid flavour, 
CeUs, oblate ; axile. 

A very handsome cooking apple, very solid and heavv, which keeps 
till May. 

ROUGH PIPPIN. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and over two 
inches high ; conical, even and regular in its outline, longer on one 
side of the axis than on the other. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, 
and pale red on the side next the sun, the whole surface being more or 
less covered with patches of thin cinnamon-coloured russet. Eye, 
small, with erect convergent segments, set on a level with the surface. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, stout, inserted ob- 
liquely in a very shallow cavity by the side of a fleshy swelling. 
Flesh, firm, rather dry, and without much flavour. Cells, roundish 
elliptical ; axile, slit. 

A Somersetshire apple, which has a close resemblance to Adams's 
Pearmain, but very inferior to it ; in use up till January. 

Round Russet Harvey. See Golden Harvey. 

ROUNDWAY MAGNUM BONUM.— Fruit, large ; ovate, angular 
on the sides, having five prominent ribs, which extend into the basin 
of the eye and form ridges round the crown. Skin, lemon yellow, with 
a few broad broken streaks of pale crimson on one side ; it is here and 
there marked with several russet patches. Eye, half open, with flat 
convergent segments that are reflexed at the tips, and set in a narrow 
basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, about half an inch long, 
very stout, and inserted in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish 
white, tender, crisp, very juicy, and with a fine aroma. Cells, obovate ; 
axile. 

A first-rate culinary or dessert apple, very solid and heavy for its 
size ; in use till April without shrivelling. 

This was raised at Roundway Park, near Devizes, and was first exhibited at the 
Royal Horticultural Society in 1864, when it received a first-class certificate. 

ROUND WINTER NONESUCH.— Fruit, large, over three inches 
wide, and two and a half high ; roundish, and very considerably 
flattened, or somewhat oblate ; uneven in its outline, caused by several 
obtuse and unequal, though not prominent ribs on the sides. Skin, 
thick and membranous, smooth, pale yellow, slightly tinged with green 
on the shaded side, but on the side exposed to the sun it is marked 
with broken stripes and spots of beautiful deep crimson, thinly 
sprinkled all over with a few russety dots. Eye, large and closed, 
nearly level with the surface, and sometimes -so prominently set and 
raised above the surface as to appear pufi'ed up, and set on bosses. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, 
inserted in a shallow cavity, and not protruding beyond the base. 



200 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Flesh, greenish white, tender, sweet, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. 
Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from November to 
March. 

The tree is an excellent bearer, and the fruit being large and 
beautiful, this variety is worthy the notice of the market gardener and 
orchardist. 

KOYAL CODLIN. — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and three 
inches and a quarter high ; uneven in its outline, angular, and undu- 
lating, distinctly five-sided, especially towards the crown. Skin, pale 
yellowish green, or greenish yellow when it ripens, and with a pale 
thin red cheek on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, set in a narrow 
angular basin, with short, erect, connivent segments. Stamens, 
median ; tube, short conical. Stalk, thick and fleshy, obliquely 
inserted, with a fleshy knob on one side of it. Flesh, soft, tender, and 
mildly acid. Cells, elliptical or ovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent kitchen apple ; ripe in October. 

EOYALE [French Roy ale). — Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish ovate, bluntly 
angular. Skin, very much covered with ashy grey russet, with an 
orange cheek streaked with crimson on the side next the sun, and 
yellow on the shaded side. Eye, closed, with erect convergent seg- 
ments, set in a pretty deep and ribbed basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, over half an inch long, stout, inserted in a deep 
cavity, which is greenish. Flesh, yellowish, juicy, brisk, sweet, and 
wuth a good flavour. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A good cooking apple, grown in the orchards about Maidstone, and 
sent me by Mr. Killick, of Langley ; it keeps till Christmas. 

Eoyal Pearmain. See Summer Pearmain and Herefordsldre Pear- 
main. 

EOYAL KED-STREAK.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches and a half high ; oblate, prominently ribbed, and 
uneven. Skin, almost entirely overspread with bright red, covered 
with dark crimson stripes, and wherever the ground colour appears it is 
yellow, and the base is quite covered with russet. Eye, rather large, 
closed, with convergent segments, deeply set in an uneven angular 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, 
rather deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, sometimes tinged with red, 
tender, juicy, and with a pleasant acidity. Cells, small, obovate ; 
axile. 

A fine handsome cooking apple, sent from Devonshire by Mr. 
Rendell, of Netherton Manor ; it is in use in November. 

ROYAL REINETTE.— Fruit, large ; conical. Skin, yellow, smooth 
and glossy, strewed all over with russety spots, stained and striped 
with brilliant red on the side next the sun. Eye, large and open, set 



APPLES. 201 

iu an even and shallow basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a very 
narrow and shallow cavit}'. Flesh, pale yellow, firm and tender, juicy 
and sugary, with a brisk and pleasant flavour. 

A very good apple for culinary purposes, and second-rate for the 
dessert ; it is in use from December to April. 

The tree is an abundant bearer, and is extensively grown in the 
western parts of Sussex, where it is esteemed a first-rate fruit. 

ROYAL RUSSET {Reinette de Canada Grise ; Bdnette de Canada 
Platte; Leather Coat). — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and 
two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish, somewhat flattened and 
angular. Skin, covered with rough brown russet, which has a brownish 
tinge on the side next the sun ; some portions only of the ground 
colour are visible, which is yellowish green. Eye, small and closed, set 
in a narrow and rather shallow basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; 
tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a 
wide and deep cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, crisp, brisk, 
juicy, and sugary. Cells, roundish ovate ; axile, slit. 

A most excellent culinary apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from 
November to May, but is very apt to shrink and become dry, unless, 
as Mr. Thompson recommends, it is kept in dry sand. 

The tree is of a very vigorous habit, and attains the largest size. It 
is perfectly hardy and an excellent bearer. 

This has always been a favourite old English variety. It is mentioned by 
Lawson so early as 1597, and is much commended by almost every subsequent 
writer. It is not the true Leathercoat. See Leathercoat. 

ROYAL SHEPHERD. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
wide, and two and three-quarters high ; roundish, inclining to ovate, 
shghtly ribbed, and narrowing towards the eye. Skin, greenish-yellow 
in the shade, but covered with dull red next the sun, and strewed all 
over with minute russety dots. Eye, partially closed, with erect con- 
vergent segments, set in a round and rather deep basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep funnel- 
shaped cavity, which is lined with ramifications of russet. Flesh, 
greenish white, firm, crisp, brisk, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, 
round ; axile, slit. 

A very good culinary apple, grown in the neighbourhood of Lancaster ; 
it is in use during November and December, and will keep till March 
or April. 

ROYAL SOMERSET.— Fruit, rather above medium size, three 
inches wide, and rather more than two inches and a quarter high; 
roundish ovate, generally higher on one side than the other, handsome 
and regularly shaped. Skin, smooth, pale yellow, with a tinge of green 
on the shaded side, but brighter yellow, marked with faint broken 
streaks and mottles of crimson, on the side next the sun ; the whole 
strewed with russety dots, which are most numerous in the basin of the 
eye. Eye, large and open, with very short, stunted, erect, divergent 



202 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

segments, placed in a round, even, and pretty deep basin. Stamens, 
marginal or median ; tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, upwards 
of half an inch long, slender, and inserted almost the whole of its 
length in a deep, round, smooth, funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellow- 
ish, very tender and juicy, with a pleasant, delicate, sub-acid, but not 
brisk flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A very excellent culinary apple ; in use from November till March. 
Like the Dumelow's Seedling, this apple is translucent round the eye. 

The Royal Somerset of the Horticultural Society's Catalogue is London Pippin ; 
but the variety described above is a very distinct fruit, and has more the resem- 
blance of a medium-sized Blenheim Pippin, both in shape, colour, and the 
formation of the eye. I obtained this in 1847 from the late Mr. James Lake, 
nurseryman, of Bridgewater. 

ROYAL WILDING. — Fruit, small, two inches and three-eighths 
wide, and the same high ; conical, with obtuse ribs, which extend to the 
crown and form ridges round the eye. Skin, greenish yellow on the 
shaded side, and brownish red on the side next the sun ; sometimes the 
skin is entirely greenish yellow, with an orange tinge next the sun. 
Eye, small and closed, with erect convergent segments. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, deep conical. Stalk, very short, or a mere fleshy 
knob, deeply inserted in the shallow cavity. Flesh, woolly, not very 
juicy, sweet, and harshly flavoured. Cells, long, elliptical, pointed ; 
axile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

Roxbury Russet. See Boston Russet. 
Ruckman's Pearmain. See Golden Pearmain. 

RUSHOCK PEARMAIN.— Fruit, rather below medium size, two 
inches and a half wide, and the same in height ; conical, even and 
handsomely formed. Skin, of a fine deep yellow colour, almost entirely 
covered with cinnamon-coloured russet, with a brownish tinge on the 
side next the sun. Eye, large and open, with broad flat segments, 
which generally fall ofl" as the fruit ripens. Stalk, a quarter of an inch 
long, stout, and inserted in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, 
firm, crisp, and juicy, with a brisk, sub-acid, and sugary flavour. 

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality; it is in use from 
Christmas to April. 

This is frequently met with in the Birmingham markets. It was raised, accord- 
ing to Mr. Maund, by a blacksmith of the name of Charles Taylor, at Rushock, 
in Worcestershire, about the year 1821, and is sometimes known by the name of 
Charles's Pearmain. 

Russet-coat Nonpareil. See Pitmaston Nonpareil. 

Russet Golden Pippin. See Golden Pippin. 

Russet Pine. See Pomeroy. 



APPLES. 208 

RUSSET TABLE PEARMAIN.— Fruit, below medium size; oblong- 
ovate. Skin, very much covered with brown russet, except on the 
shaded side, where there is a little yellowish green visible, and on the 
side next the sun, where it is orange, with a flame of deep bright 
crimson breaking through the russet. Eye, open, with erect, rigid 
segments, and set in a wide, shallow, saucer-like, and plaited basin. 
Stalk, half an inch long, slender, and extending beyond the base. 
Flesh, yellow, firm, very rich, juicy, and sugary, with a fine aromatic 
and perfumed flavour. 

A beautiful and handsome little apple of first-rate excellence ; it is 
in use from November to February. 

Russian Apple. See Court Pendu Plat, 

Russian Emperor. See Emperor Alexander. 

RUSSIAN TRANSPARENT.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half 
wide, and three inches high ; roundish ovate, obtusely and prominently 
ribbed, with bold ridges round the eye. Skin,' bright grass green, with 
here and there a few traces of thin grey russet, and dotted with bold 
russet dots, becoming yellowish as it ripens. Eye, rather small, deeply 
set in a close ribbed basin, with connivent segments. Stamens, mar- 
ginal ; tube, conical, square at the base. Stalk, very short, inserted in 
a deep, irregular, and angular cavity, which is lined with coarse russet. 
Flesh, crisp, very juicy, and with a fine brisk flavour. Cells, round ; 
abaxile. 

A very fine culinary apple ; in use from November till January. 

It was introduced from Russia by General Boucherette, the representative of an 
old Lincolnshire family still existing in the county. During the occupation of 
Moscow by the invading army of the First Napoleon, General Boucherette noticed 
this apple growing freely, and, being attracted by its fine appearance, he brought 
with him a number of scions to Lincolnshire, and by this means the Kussian 
Transparent got a position in the county. 

RUSTY COAT. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches high ; somewhat oblate, even and regular 
in outline. Skin, yellow, with an orange cheek, thickly covered with 
large, coarse, russet dots and patches of rough russet. Eye, open, with 
erect convergent segments, reflexed at the tips, set in a deep, round, 
smooth basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, 
inserted in a deep, round, and russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, 
juicy, sweet, and well-flavoured. Cells, round ; axile. 

A Gloucestershire cider apple, and considered one of the best ; ripe 
during October and November. 

Rutlandshire Foundling. See Golden Xoble. 

RYMER (Caldwell; Green Cossings ; Ncwbold's Duke of York). — 
Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and three- 
quarters high ; roundish and flattened, with five obscure ribs on the 



204 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

sides, extending into the basin of the eye. Skin, smooth, thinly 
strewed with reddish brown dots, and a few faint streaks of pale red on 
the shaded side, and of a beautiful deep red, covered with yellowish 
grey dots, on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with broad convergent 
segments, set in a round and moderately deep basin. Stamens, median 
or marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, inserted ia a round and deep 
cavity, lined with rough russet, which extends in ramifications over the 
base. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and pleasantly sub-acid. Cells, round- 
ish obovate ; axile. 

A good culinary apple ; in use from October to Christmas. 

This was raised at Thirsk, in Yorkshire, by a person named Eymer. 

SACK [Spice Apjile). — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
five-eighths wide, and two inches and a half high ; conical, uneven in 
its outline, being ribbed on the sides somewhat in the way of Margil, 
and ridged round the eye. Skin, smooth and shining, as if varnished, 
almost entirely covered^ with deep bright crimson, which is streaked 
and mottled with darker crimson on the side next the sun, but where 
shaded it is yellowish, mottled with crimson. Eye, small and closed, 
with erect, pointed, connivent segments, set in a deep and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, thick, and 
fleshy, set in a shallow depression. Flesh, tender, crisp, fine-grained, 
sweet, and with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, elliptical, pointed ; 
axile, open. 

A Herefordshire apple ; in use during October. 

SACK AND SUGAR. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a quarter wide, and an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish, inclin- 
ing to oval, with prominent ridges round the eye. Skin, pale yellow, 
marked with a few broken stripes and streaks of bright crimson on the 
side next the sun. Eye, closed, with pointed segments, overlapping 
each other, and rather deeply set in a round, angular, and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median or basal ; tube, conical. Flesh, white, very soft and 
tender, very juicy, sugary, and with a pleasant, brisk, balsamic flavour. 
Cells, open, ovate or obovate. 

An excellent apple either for culinary or dessert use ; ripe in the end 
of July and beginning of August, and contuiuing during September. 
The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and an immense bearer. 

This apple was raised in the beginning of this century by Mr. Morris, a market 
gardener at Brentford, and is sometimes met with under the name of Morris s 
Sack and Sugar. 

Sack Apple. See Devonshire Quarrenden, 

SAINT JULIEN (Seigneur d'Orsay; Cnncombre des Chartreux). — 
Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and three- 
quarters high ; roundish, narrowing towards the eye, and angular on 
its sides. Skin, yellowish green, covered with large patches of ashy- 
coloured russet, and in dry warm seasons sometimes tinged with red. 



APPLES. 206 

Eye, open, set in a rather shallow and plaited basin. Stalk, an inch 
long, slender, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, 
firm, juicy, sugary, and richly flavoured, 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from December to 
March. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, and an excellent bearer. 

SAM'S CRAB. — Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and two 
inches high ; conical or roundish ovate, even and regular in its outline. 
Skin, beautifully streaked with crimson and yellow on the side next 
the sun, and less bo on the shaded side, where it is yellow. Eye, 
closed, with connivent segments, set in a pretty deep, round, and some- 
what plaited basin. Stamens, median; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
about an inch long, slender, inserted in a deep cavity, which is tinged 
with green. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and of good flavour. 
It is tinged with rose at the base of the eye, round the core, and at the 
base of the stalk. Cells, ovate, pointed ; axile, open. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

Sam's Crab. See Loru/ville's Kernel. 

SAM YOUNG (Irish Russet). — Fruit, small, an inch and three- 
quarters high, and about two inches and a half wide ; roundish oblate. 
Skin, light greenish yellow, almost entirely covered with grey russet, 
and strewed with minute russety dots on the yellow part, but tinged 
with brownish red on the side next the sun. Eye, large and open, with 
divergent segments, set in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, not deeply inserted. Flesh, 
yellow, tinged with green, firm, crisp, tender, juic}', sugary, and highly 
flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

A delicious little dessert apple of the first quality ; in use from 
November to February. 

This variety is of Irish origin, and was first introduced to public notice by Mr. 
Robertson, the nurseryman of Kilkenny. 

Scarlet Crofton. See Crofton Scarlet. 

SCARLET GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and 
an inch and three-quarters high ; of the same size and form as the old 
Golden Pippin, which is roundish oblate, sometimes incliniug to oblong, 
even and symmetrical. Skin, bright crimson, extending over the whole of 
that part exposed to the sun, and where shaded a deep rich yellow ; it 
is strewed with some minute russet dots and pearl specks. Eye, open, 
with segments which are erect and convergent, set in a shallow, even 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, from a 
quarter of an inch to three-quarters long, inserted in a rather shallow 
cavity, with frequently a slight swelling on one side of it. Flesh, deep 
yellow, crisp, very juicy, sweet, with a brisk and particularly fine 
flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A delicious dessert apple ; in use from November to April. 



206 THE FRUIT MANUAL,. 

This appeared as a bud sport on an old tree of the Golden Pippin in an orchard 
at Gourdie Hill, in the Carse of Gowrie, Perthshire, the property of Robert 
Mathew, Esq., who pointed it out to me when I was on a visit to him in 1846. 
At that time it was merely a small branch thickly set with fruit-bearing spurs. 

Scarlet Incomparable. See Duchess's Favourite. 

SCAKLET LEADINGTON.— Fruit, medium sized ; conical, even in 
its outline, broadest at the base, and narrowing towards the eye, where 
it is distinctly four-sided. Skin, smooth and shining, yellow on the 
shaded side, and the whole of the exposed side covered with brilliant 
dark crimson, shining as if varnished, and which shades oif in streaks 
of bright crimson. Eye, large and open, with long, broad, and ragged 
segments, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in 
a wide and shallow cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, 
tender, crisp, juicy, and sugary, with a brisk and pleasant flavour, 
slightly perfumed. 

An apple much esteemed in Scotland as a first-rate variety, both for 
the dessert and culinary purposes ; but it does not rank so high in the 
south ; it is in use from November to February. 

SCAKLET NONPAKEIL.— Fruit, medium sized; round, narrowing 
towards the apex, regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, yellowish 
on the shaded side, streaked with pale red, but covered with red, which 
is streaked with deeper red, on the side next the sun, and covered with 
patches of russet and large russety specks. Eye, open, with flat erect 
segments, reflexed at the tips, and set in a shallow and even basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch or more in 
length, straight, inserted in a small round cavity, which is lined with 
scales of silvery grey russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, juicy, rich, 
and sugary. Cells, elliptical or ovate ; axile, slit. 

A very excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from 
January to March, 

The tree is hardy, a good grower, though slender in its habit, and 
an excellent bearer. 

The Scarlet Nonpareil, according to one account, was discovered growing in the 
garden of a publican at Esher, in Surrey, and was iirst cultivated by Grimwood, 
of the Kensington Nursery, but according to Salisbury it was raised from seed at 
Kempton Park, near Sunbury, in the beginning of this century (1816). 

SCAELET PEARMAIN (BelVs Scarlet Pearmain ; BelVs Scarlet; 
Hood's Seedling ; Oscford Peach). — Fruit, medium sized, two inches 
and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; conical, regularly 
and handsomely shaped. Skin, smooth, tender, and shining, of a rich, 
deep, bright crimson, with stripes of darker crimson on the side next 
the sun, and extending almost over the whole surface of the fruit, 
except where it is much shaded, and there it is yellow, washed and 
striped with crimson, but of a paler colour, intermixed with a tinge of 
yellow, on the shaded side, and the whole surface sprinkled with 
numerous grey russety dots. Eye, open, with long reflexed segments. 



APPLES. 207 

set in a round, even, and rather deep basin, wliicli is marked with lines 
of russet. Stamens, basal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, from 
three-quarters to an inch long, deeph' inserted in a round, even, and 
funnel-shaped cavity, which is generally russety at the insertion of the 
stalk. Flesh, yellowish, with a tinge of rod under the skin, tender, 
juicy, sugary, and vinous. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile, open. 

A beautiful and handsome dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use 
from October to January. The tree is a free and vigorous grower, 
attaining about the middle size, and is an excellent bearer. It succeeds 
well on the paradise stock, on which it forms a good dwarf or espalier 
tree. 

This was called Bell's Scarlet Pcirmain from havinji^ been brouijht into notice 
by a Mr. Bell, land steward to the Duke of Northuiuberland, ut Sion Uouse, 
Middlesex, about the year 1800. 

Scarlet Queening. See Crimson Queening. 

SCARLET TIFFING.— Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, inclining to oblate, 
and irregularly angular. Skin, pale yellow, tinged with green on the 
shaded side and round the eye, but deep scarlet where exposed to the 
sun, extending in general over the greater portion of the fruit. Eye, 
small and closed, set in an irregular, ribbed, and warted basin. Stalk, 
flesh}', about half an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, 
pure white, very tender, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly acid. 

A valuable and excellent culinary apple, much grown in the orchard 
districts of Lancaster ; it is in use during November and December. 

SCHOOLMASTER. — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and two inches 
and three-quarters high ; obtusely ribbed, and terminating at the eye in 
broad ridges, as well as at the base. Skin, bright green, changing as 
it ripens to greenish yellow, covered all over with large russet 
freckles, and with a pale red tinge where it is exposed to the sun ; 
russety round the stalk. Eye, closed, with erect convergent segments, 
the tips of which are reflexed, set in a pretty deep basin. Stamens, 
marginal ; tube, long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short and slender, 
deeply inserted in a close cavity, with a swelling on one side of it. 
Flesh, white, crisp, tender, and mildly acid. Cells, obovate ; axile, 
open. 

A fine cooking apple, which received a first-class certificate from the 
Royal Horticultural Society. 

SCOTCH BRIDGET.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, broadest 
at the base, and narrowing towards the apex, where it is rather 
knobbed, caused by the terminations of the angles on the sides. Skin, 
smooth, greenish yellow on the shaded side, and almost entirely covered 
with bright deep red on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, set in 
an angular and warted basin. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long. 



208 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

straight, lliick, and stout, inserted in a very narrow and shallow cavity. 
Flesh, white, tender, soft, juicy, and briskly flavoured. 

An excellent culinary apple, much grown in the neighbourhood of 
Lancaster ; in use from October to January. 

Scotch Virgin. See White Virgin. 

SCREVETON GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, the size and shape of 
the old Golden Pippin, and little, if at all, inferior to it in flavour. 
Skin, green at first, changing to greenish yellow when it ripens, and 
considerably marked with russet patches and dots, sometimes entirely 
covered with russet. Eye, open, with long, pointed, reflexed segments, 
set level on the surface without depression. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, set in a shallow 
cavity. Flesh, yellow, tender, and with a pleasant flavour. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, open. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from December to 
April. 

Kaised in the garden of Sir John Thoroton, Bart., at Screveton, in Nottingham- 
shire, about the year 1808. 

Scudamore's Crab. See Red-streak. 

SEEK-NO-FARTHER.— Fruit, medium sized; conical, or Pear- 
main-shaped. Skin, yellowish green, streaked with broken patches of 
crimson, on the shaded side, and strewed with grey russety dots, but 
covered with light red, which is marked with crimson streaks, and 
covered with patches of fine delicate russet, and numerous large, 
square, and star-like russety specks like scales, on the side exposed to 
the sun. Eye, small and closed, with broad, flat, convergent segments, 
the edges of which fit neatly to each other, set in a rather deep and 
plaited basin. Stalk, about half an inch long, stout, and inserted in a 
deep, round, and regular cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, crisp, juicy, 
rich, sugary, and vinous, charged with a pleasant aromatic flavour. 

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality ; it is in use from 
November to January. 

This is the true old Seek-no-farther. 

Seigneur d'Orsay. See St. Julien. 

SELWOOD'S REINETTE.— Fruit, large, three inches wide, and 
about two inches and a half high ; round and flattened, angular on the 
sides, and with five prominent plaits round the eye, which is small, 
open, and not at all depressed, but rather elevated on the surfacQ. 
Skin, pale green, almost entirely covered with red, which is marked 
with broken stripes of darker red, those on the shaded side being paler, 
and not so numerous as on the side exposed to the sun. Stalk, about 
half an inch long, very stout, and inserted the whole of its length in a 
russety cavity. Flesh, greenish white, tender, brisk, and pleasantly 
flavoured. 



APPLES. 209 

A culinary apple of good, but not first-rate quality ; it is in use 
from December to March. 

The tree is a strong and healthy grower, and an abundant bearer. 

This is certainly a different variety from the Selwood's Reinette of the Horti- 
cultural Society's Catalogue, which is described as being small, Pearmain-shaped, 
greenish yellow, and a dessert apple. It is, however, identical with the Selwood's 
Keinette of Rogers, who, as we are informed in his ** Fruit Cultivator," received it 
upwards of ninety years ago from Messrs. Hewitt & Co., of Brompton. The 
tree now in my possession I procured as a graft from the private garden of the 
late Mr. Lee, of Hammersmith ; and as it has proved to be the same as Rogers's 
variety, I am induced to think that it is correct, while that of the Horticultural 
Society is wrong. It received its name from a person of the name of Selwood, 
who was a nurseiyman at the Queen's Elm, Little Chelsea, in the last century, 
where Selwood's Terrace now is. 

SEVERN BANK. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and 
two inches and a half high ; roundish, slightly depressed, and obtusely 
ribbed. Skin, smooth, deep yellow when ripe, and with a blush of 
thin crimson where exposed to the sun. Eye, closed, with convergent 
segments, which are sometimes reflexed at the tips, and set in an 
angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch 
long, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, tender, briskly acid. 
Cells, wide open, Codlin-like, obovate. 

An early cooking apple, in use in October. It is grown in large 
quantities in the Valley of the Severn for the supply of the markets in 
the manufacturing districts, and being thick-skinned, it travels well 
without bruising. 

SHAKE SPE RE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, narrowing 
a little towards the eye. Skin, dark green on the shaded side, and 
brownish red on the side next the sun, which is marked with a few 
broken stripes of darker red, the whole strewed with russety dots. 
Eye, small, and partially open, set in a narrow and irregular basin, 
which is ridged round the margin. Stalk, short and slender, inserted 
in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, firm, crisp, and juicy, 
with a brisk vinous flavour. 

An excellent dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from Christ- 
mas to April. 

This variety was raised by Thomas Hunt, Esq., of Stratford -on -Avon, from the 
seed of Hunt's Duke of Gloucester, and named in honour of the poet Sbakeepere. 

SHEEP'S NOSE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and the same high ; distinctly angular, broad at the 
base and tapering to two-thirds of its height, where it forms a con- 
tracted waist, and thence it narrows to the crown, where it terminates 
in five prominent knobs. Skin, bright crimson, striped with broken 
stripes of rich yellow, except where it is shaded, and there it is either 
yellow or marked with faint streaks. Eye, closed, with long erect 
segments, set in a very angular and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; 

14 



210 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

tube, long conical. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a wide 
and furrowed cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, sweet, and with a mild 
acidity. Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

A Somersetshire cider apple, and also good for cooking ; in use 
during October and November. It is a very handsome-looking apple, 
?,nd of remarkable shape. 

SHEPHERD'S FAME.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches and a half high ; obtuse-ovate, broad and flat- 
tened at the base, narrowing towards the eye, with five prominent ribs 
on the sides, and in every respect very much resembling a small speci- 
men of Emperor Alexander. Skin, smooth, pale straw-yellow, marked 
with faint broken patches of crimson, on the shaded side, but streaked 
with yellow and bright crimson on the side next the sun. Eye, open, 
with short, stunted segments, placed in a deep, angular, and plaited 
basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, imbedded in a 
round funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish, soft, and tender, trans- 
parent, sweet, and briskly flavoured, but rather dry. Cells, roundish ; 
axile. 

An apple of very ordinary quality ; in use from October to March. 

SHEPHERD'S NEWINGTON.— Fruit, rather large, three inches 
wide, and two inches and a half high ; round, inclining to oblate, 
obtusely ribbed and correspondingly ridged on the crown. Skin, 
yellow, with broken streaks of crimson on the side next the sun. Eye, 
closed, or half open, with broad, erect, convergent segments, which are 
reflexed at the tips. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
half an inch or more long, set in a wide and deep cavity. Flesh, 
tender and mellow, with a mild acidity and no flavour. Cells, round ; 
abaxile. 

A cooking apple, in use in October and November, which soon 
becomes mealy and insipid. 

Shepherd's Seedling. See Alfdston. 

Shippen's Russet. See Boston Russet. 

SHOREDITCH WHITE.— Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a quarter high ; oblate, even and symmetrical in 
its outline. Skin, pale straw-coloured with a slight orange tinge, 
with red freckles on the side next the sun, and in the basin of the eye. 
Eye, small and open, with short, erect, convergent segments, set in a 
round, smooth, and rather deep basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
conical, or rather cup-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted all its length in 
the deep russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and pleasantly 
sub-acid. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

A handsome early kitchen apple ; in use from September till 
November. 

This is a Somer set apple, and was received from Mr. Poynter, nurseryman at 
Taunton. 



APPLES. 211 

SIBERIAN BITTER SWEET.— Fruit, small, and nearly globular. 
Eve, small, with short connivent segments of the calyx. Stalk, short. 
Skin, of a bright gold colour, tinged with faint and deeper red on the 
sunny side. The fruit grows a good deal in clusters, on slender wing 
branches. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 1091. 

This remarkable apple was raised by Mr. Knight from the seed of the Yellow 
Siberian Crab, fertilised with the pollen of the Golden Harvey. I cannot do 
better than transcribe from the Transactions of the London Horticultural Society 
Mr. Knight's own account of this apple. " The fruit contains much saccharine 
matter, with scarcely any perceptible acid, and it in consequence affords a cider 
which is perfectly free from the harshness which in that liquor offends the palate 
of many and the constitution of more; and I believe that there is not any county 
in England in which it might not be made to afford, at a moderate price, a very 
wholesome and very palatable cider. This fruit differs from all others of its 
species with which I am acquainted in being always sweet and without acidity 
even when it is more than half igrown." 

When the juice is pressed from ripe and somewhat mellow fruit it contains a 
very large portion of saccharine matter; and if a part of the water it contains be 
made to evaporate in a moderately low temperature, it affords a large quantity of 
a jelly of intense sweetness, which, to my palate, is extremely agreeable, and which 
may be employed for purposes similar to those to which the inspissated juice of 
the grape is applied in France. The jelly of the apple, prepared in the manner 
above described, is, I believe, capable of being kept unchanged during a very long 
period in any climate; the mucilage being preserved by the antiseptic powers of 
the saccharine matter, and that being incapable of acquiring, as sugar does, a 
state of crystallisation. If the juice be properly filtered, the jelly will be perfectly 
transparent. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, a most abundant bearer, and a perfect 
dreadnought to the woolly aphis. 

Siberian Crab. See Cherry Apple, 

SIBERIAN HARVEY.— Fruit, produced in clusters, smaU ; nearly 
globular. Eye, small, with short connivent segments of the calyx. 
Stalk, short. Skin, of a bright gold colour, tinged with faint and 
deeper red on the sunny side. Juice, Tery sweet. Ripe in October. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 1091. 

A cider apple raised by T. A. Knight, Esq., and, along with the Foxley, con- 
sidered by him superior to any other varieties in cultivation. It was produced 
from a seed of the Yellow Siberian Crab, fertilised with the pollen of the Golden 
Harvey. The juice of this variety is most intensely sweet, and is probably very 
nearly what that of the Golden Harvey would be in a southern climate. The 
original tree produced its blossoms in the year 1807, when it first obtained the 
annual premium of the Herefordshire Agricultural Society. 

SIEGENDE REINETTE.— Fruit, about' medium size, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and two and a half high ; roundish and 
depressed, inclining to roundish ovate, even in outline, but slightly 
ribbed at the crown. Skin, rich yellow, tinged and streaked with red 
next the sun, and with a patch of russet round the stalk ; sometimes 
the colour is very faint or wanting. Eye, closed, with erect convergent 
segments, which are reflexed at the tips, and set in a shallow, some- 
what irregular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 



212 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

from a quarter to half an inch long; slender, pretty deeply inserted. 
Flesh, yellowish ; firm, juicy, and sweet. Cells, roundish, inclining to 
oblate ; axile, open. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from December to March. 

This is a German apple, and was received from Rev. Superintendent Oberdieck, 
of Jeinsen, in Hanover. 

SIELY'S MIGNONNE (Pride of the Ditches).— Fvuii, rather small, 
about one inch and three-quarters deep, and the same in diameter ; 
almost globular, but occasionally flattened on one side. Eye, small, 
with a closed calyx, placed somewhat deeply in a rather irregularly 
formed narrow basin, surrounded by a few small plaits. Stalk, half an 
inch long, slender, about one-half within the base, in a narrow cavity, 
and occasionally presssd towards one side by a protuberance on the 
opposite one. Skin, when clear, of a bright yellow, but mostly 
covered with a grey netted russet, rendering the skin scabrous. Flesh, 
greenish yellow, firm, crisp, and tender. Juice, saccharine, highly 
aromatic, and of a most excellent flavour. 

A dessert apple ; in use from November to February. The tree is a 
weak grower, and somewhat tender. It is therefore advisable to graft 
it on the doucin stock, and train it either as a dwarf or as an espalier 
in a garden. 

This neat and very valuable little apple was introduced to notice about the 
beginning of the present century by the late Mr. Andrew Siely, of Norwich, who 
had it growing in his garden on the Castle Ditches ; and, being a favourite with 
him, he always called it the " Pride of the Ditches." 

Simpson's Pippin. See Ord's Apple. 

Sir Walter Blackett's. See Edinburgh Cluster. 

SIR WILLIAM GIBBON'S.— Fruit, very large, three inches and 
three-quarters wide, and three inches high; Calville-shaped, being 
roundish oblate, with several prominent angles, which extend from the 
base to the apex, where they terminate in five or six large unequal 
knobs. Skin, deep yellow, tinged with green, and strewed with minute 
russety dots, on the shaded side, but deep crimson, streaked with dark 
red, on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, open, with short ragged 
segments, set in a deep, wide, and irregular basin. Stalk, very short, 
imbedded in a deep and angular cavity, which is lined with russet. 
Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, juicy, and slightly acid, with a pleasant 
vinous flavour. 

A very showy and excellent culinary apple ; in use from November 
to January. 

Sitchampton Pearmain. See Sitchampton Russet. 

SITCHAMPTON RUSSET {Sitchampton Pearmain).— Fmit, small, 
two inches and three-eighths wide, and two inches high ; roundish 
oblate, flattened both at the base and the crown. Skin, covered with a 



APPLES. 213 

coat of smooth grey russet, which has a brownish tinge on the side 
next the sun. Eye, large, and wide open, with reflexed segments Uke 
Wyken Pippin, set in a wide, saucer-hke basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, slender, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and stout, set in a deep 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, and juicy, with a somewhat 
aromatic flavour. Cells, small, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of good quality, which keeps well till February. 

I received this from Messrs. R. Smith & Co., of Worcester, in 1876, under the 
name of Sitchamptoii Pearmain, but as it is not of a Pearmain shape I have 
thought it better to give it its proper designation. 

SKYPtME'S KERNEL. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches to two inches and an eighth high ; conical, even 
and regular in its outline, and with somewhat of a waist towards the 
apex. Skin, smooth and shining, almost entirely covered with broken 
streaks of brilliant crimson on a thin, pale crimson cheek on the side 
next the sun, and lemon-yellow tinged with crimson, and marked with 
pale crimson stripes, on the shaded side ; the whole surface is strewed 
with distinct russet dots. Eye, small and closed, with erect convergent 
segments, set a narrow, roimd, and even basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, a fleshy knob set in a deep wide 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and not very juicy, acid, and with 
a rather harsh flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, quite closed. 

A favourite cider apple in Herefordshire ; quite in the first rank. 

SLACK MY GIRDLE. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter high ; round and 
somewhat flattened, obscurely angular. Skin, beautifully streaked with 
crimson on a yellow ground on the side next the sun, and where shaded 
it is greenish yellow when ripe. Eye, small and closed, with connivent 
segments, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, set in a shallow basin, some- 
what russety. Flesh, tender, sweet, and mawkish. Cells, small, 
round ; axile. 

A Devonshire cider apple ; in use from October to Christmas. 

SLEEPING BEAUTY.— Fruit, medium sized ; roundish and some- 
what flattened, slightly angular on the sides, and undulating roimd the 
eye ; in some specimens there is an inclination to an ovate or conical 
shape, in which case the apex is narrow and even. Skin, pale straw- 
coloured, smooth and shining, occasionally washed on one side with 
delicate lively red, very thinly sprinkled with minute russety dots. 
Eye, large, somewhat resembling that of Trumpington, with broad, 
flat, and incurved segments, which dove-tail, as it were, to each other, 
and set in a shallow, uneven, and plaited basin. Stalk, from a quarter 
to half an inch long, slightly fleshy, inserted in a narrow, round, and 
rather shallow cavity, which is tinged with green, and lined with delicate 
pale brown russet. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, tender, and juicy, 
with a fine poignant and agreeably acid flavour. 



214 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

A most excellent and very valuable apple for all culinary purposes, 
and particularly for sauce ; it is in use from November till the end of 
February. 

The tree is a most excellent bearer, and succeeds well in almost 
every situation. 

This excellent apple bears such a close resemblance to Dumelow's 
Seedling, that at first sight it may be taken for that variety ; from 
which, however, it is perfectly distinct, and may be distinguished by 
the want of the characteristic russet dots on the fruit, and the spots on 
the young wood of the tree. It is extensively cultivated in Lincoln- 
shire for the supply of the Boston markets. 

Small Eibston. See Margil. 

SMALL STALK. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, 
andtwo inches high; roundish, slightly angular on the sides, and knobbed 
at the apex. Skin, dull greenish yellow, with a tinge of orange on the 
side next the sun, and thickly covered with reddish brown dots. Eye, 
small and closed, with long flat segments, and placed in an angular 
basin. Stalk, about an inch long, slender, inserted in a wide and 
rather shallow cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and well-flavoured. 

A good apple for ordinary purposes, much grown about Lancaster ; 
it is in use during September and October. 

SMALL'S ADMIRABLE. — Fruit, above medium size ; roundish 
ovate and flattened, obtusely angular on the sides. Skin, of an uniform 
lemon-yellow colour. Eye, small, partially open, with segments re- 
flexed at the tips, and set in a rather deep basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, slender. Flesh, yellowish, 
firm, crisp, sweet, and agreeably acid, with a delicate perfume. Cells, 
open, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent kitchen and dessert apple ; in use during November 
and December. The tree is an immense bearer, and is well adapted 
for dwarf culture. 

This apple was raised by Mr. F. Small, nurseryman, of Colnbrook, near 
Slough, 

SMALL'S GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and 
an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish and flattened, even and 
symmetrical in shape. Skin, clear lemon-yellow, covered with numerous 
speckles and traces of russet in thin patches. Eye, open, with short 
segments, set even with the surface. Stamens, marginal ; tube, long 
conical, very slender. Stalk, short and stout, inserted in a shallow 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and briskly flavoured. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, closed. 

A dessert apple ; in use from December till January. 

Raised by Mr. Small, a nurseryman, at Colnbrook, near Slough. 

SMART'S PRINCE ARTHUR {Lady's Finger in Kent).— Fruit, 



APPLES. 215 

large, two inches and three-quarters wide, and three inches and a 
quarter high ; conical, with a sHght waist towards the crown, obtusely 
ribbed, and with ridges round the eye, quite of a Codlin shape. Skin, 
orange-yellow, with a gi-eenish tinge in some parts, with broken streaks 
of crimson. Eye, somewhat open, with erect convergent segments, 
deeply set in an angular basin. Stamens, mai'ginal or median ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted all its length in a deep cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, firm, juicy, sweet, and of excellent flavour. Cells, 
obovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent late-keeping kitchen apple, which lasts in good condition 
till March. It is grown in the Kentish orchards about Maidstone. 

SOMERSET LASTING.— Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter 
wnde, and two inches and a quarter high ; oblate, irregular on the 
sides, and with undulating ridges round the eye. Skin, pale yellow, 
streaked and dotted with a little bright crimson next the sun. Eye, 
large and open, with short stunted segments, placed in a wide and 
deep basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which is 
lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, very juicy, with a 
poignant and somewhat harsh flavour. 

A culinary apple ; in use from October to February. 

SOPS IN WINE {So]js of Wtju).— Fruit, rather above medium 
size, two inches and three-quarters broad, and the same in height; 
roundish, but narrowing a little towards the eye, and slightly ribbed on 
the sides. Skin, covered with a delicate white bloom, which when 
rubbed off exhibits a smooth, shining, and varnished rich deep chestnut, 
almost approaching to black, on the side exposed to the sun, but on the 
shaded side it is of a light orange-red, and where very much shaded 
quite yellow, the whole strewed with minute dots. Eye, small, half 
open, with long, broad, and reflexed segments, placed in a round and 
slightly angular basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, 
red, as if sopped in wine, tender, sweet, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. 
Cells, round ; axile, slit. 

A very ancient English culinary and cider apple, but perhaps more 
singular than useful ; it is in use from October to February. 

The tree is vigorous and spreading, very hardy, an excellent bearer, 
and not subject to canker. 

SOUTH QUOINING. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and two and a half high ; conical, distinctly ribbed, the ridges ter- 
minating prominently round the eye. Skin, deep yellow, covered with 
broken crimson streaks, and overspread with crimson next the sun. 
Eye, small, and deeply set in a furrowed basin, with erect convergent 
segments. Stamens, median ; tube, short conical. Stalk, slender, 
from half an inch to an inch long, inserted in a close and shallow cavity. 
Flesh, white, pleasantly acid. Cells, open, obovate ; abaxile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 



216 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Speckled Golden Reinette. See Barcelona Pearmain. 
Speckled Pearmain. See Barcelona Pearmain. 
Spice. See Herefordshire Spice. 
Spice Apple. See Aromatic Russet. 
Spice Apple. See B'Arcy Spice. 
Spice Apple. See Sack. 

SPICE APPLE. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half broad, 
and two and a quarter high ; roundish, but narrowing towards the eye. 
Skin, deep yellow, marked with broad streaks of crimson on the side 
next the sun. Eye, open, with long, broad, reflexed, downy segments^ 
set in a narrow, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, short, inserted in 
a round cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, 
brisk, and perfumed. 

A good second-rate dessert apple ; in use from November to February. 

It is not the Spice Apple of the Horticultural Society's Catalogue, but one which 
was cultivated by Kirke, of Brompton, under that name, and so described by Diel. 
— See Aromatic Russet. 

SPITZEMBERa.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half 
broad, and two inches high ; roundish, flattened at the base, and 
narrowing a little towards the eye. Skin, deep yellow, with an orange 
tinge on the side exposed to the sun, and strewed with large stelloid 
russety specks. Eye, partially open, with long, broad, and erect 
segments, set in a narrow and shallow basin. Stalk, short and stout,, 
inserted in a small narrow cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, sweet, and 
pleasantly flavoured. 

An apple of second-rate quality ; in use from November to Christmas. 

This is the Spitzemberg of the German nurseries. 

SPREADING NORMAN.— Fruit, small, an inch and three-quarters 
wide, and two inches high ; conical, even and regular in its outline. 
Skin, smooth and shining, of a clear lemon-yellow on the shaded side, 
and with a bright red cheek on the side next the sun ; the surface 
strewed with russet dots. Eye, closed, with erect convergent segments, 
set in a narrow round basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, short, inserted in a shallow cavity, surrounded with brown 
russet, and with a fleshy swelling on one side of it. Flesh, soft, not 
very juicy, and with a bitter-sweet flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, 
quite closed. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

Spring Ribston. See B'Arcy Spice. 

SPRINGROVE CODLIN.— Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
wide at the base, and two inches and three-quarters high ; conical, and 
slightly angular on the sides. Skin, pale greenish yellow, tinged with 
orange on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, closed, with broad con- 



APPLES. 217 

nivent segments, and set in a narrow plaited basin . Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, short, inserted in a rather deep 
cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, juicy, sugary, brisk, and 
slightly perfumed. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxile. 

A first-rate culinary apple. It may be used for tarts as soon as the 
fruit are the size of a walnut, and continues in use up to the beginning 
of October. 

It was raised by T. A. Knight, and named after Springrove, the seat of Sir 
Joseph Banks, near Hounslow, Middlese;e. 

SQUIRE'S PIPPIN. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
a half wide, and two inches high ; roundish and flattened, irregular in 
its outline, having sometimes very prominent, unequal, and obtuse 
angles on the sides, which terminate in undulations round the eye. 
Skin, of a fine clear grass-green colour, covered with dull brownish red 
where exposed to the sun, thinly strewed all over with minute dots. 
Eye, quite open, like that of Blenheim Pippin, placed in a saucer-like 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and 
slender, inserted in a round, narrow, and deep cavity, which is lined 
with rough scaly russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm and crisp, with 
a brisk, somewhat sugary flavour, and when kept till spring becomes 
rich and balsamic. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A good culinary apple, and useful also for the dessert ; it is in use 
from Christmas till April or May. 

Raised on the property of Mrs. Squires, of Wigtoft, near Sleaford, and has mnch 
the appearance of a small Blenheim Pippin, 

Stagg's Nonpareil. See Early Nonpareil. 

ST. ALBAN'S PIPPIN.— Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two and a quarter high ; roundish, depressed, 
and inclining to oblate, even and handsome in its outline, smooth and 
Reinette-shaped. Skin, almost entirely covered with red, and broken 
streaks of darker red ; on the shaded side it is yellow, tinged with green. 
Eye, closed, with flat convergent segments, set in a wide, shallow, and 
saucer-like basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very 
slender, deeply inserted. Flesh, tender and fine-grained, yellowish, 
juicy, and with a pleasant flavour. Cells, very small, round ; axile, slit. 

A very fine dessert apple ; ripe in the end of October. 

This is grown about Brenchley, in Kent, and was brought to my notice by my 
friend Mr. Harrison Weir, the artist. 

ST. EDMUND'S PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half 
wide, and two inches high ; roundish, even and symmetrical in its out- 
line, narrowing slightly towards the eye. Skin, entirely covered with 
pale greenish brown russet, with here and there small patches of 
greenish yellow ; on the side next the sun it has a pale thin brownish 
red tinge, with a few streaks of dark crimson. Eye, small and closed, 
with flat convergent segments, set in a pretty deep, narrow, and plaited 



218 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, conical. Stalk, from a 
quarter of an inch to three-quarters long, slender, and set in a deep, 
round, funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, very juicy, with 
a rich aromatic flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 

An excellent early dessert apple ; ripe in October. It was raised by 
Mr. R. Harvey, of Bury St. Edmunds, and received a first-class certi- 
ficate from the Royal Horticultural Society, October 6, 1875. It has 
a strong resemblance to Golden Russet, but is quite distinct from that 
variety. It is the earliest russet apple with which I am acquainted, 
and it soon shrivels. 

St. Helena Russet. See Beiyiette de Canada. 

St. John's Nonpareil. See Fitmaston Nonpareil. 

ST. SAUVEUR. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and 
the same high ; conical, prominently ribbed, and with prominent 
ridges round the crown. Skin, smooth, greenish yellow, with a dull 
red cheek on the side next the sun, the surface sprinkled with russet 
dots. Eye, closed, with erect, pointed, connivent segments, which are 
spreading at the tips, and set in a deep, angular, and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, slender, about half an inch 
long, inserted in a deep angular cavity. Flesh, white, very tender and 
juicy, sweet, and with an agreeable mild acidity. Cells, elliptical or 
ovate, pointed ; abaxile. 

An excellent cooking apple, in use in October, the flesh of which 
is not inferior to that of White Calville. 

STAMFORD PIPPIN.— Fruit, above medium size ; roundish, in- 
clining to ovate. Skin, bright yellow, with a slight tinge of orange 
on one side, and strewed with russet dots. Eye, half open, with 
long, broad, pointed segments, which are convergent, and rather flat. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, 
deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, firm, but quite tender, crisp, and 
very juicy, with a sweet, brisk flavour, and pleasant aroma. Cells, 
axile, open. 

A first-rate dessert and kitchen apple; in use from December to 
March. 

STEAD'S KERNEL.— Fruit, a little turbinate, or top-shaped, 
somewhat resembling a quince. Eye, small, flat, with a short truncate 
or covered calyx. Stalk, short. Skin, yellow, a little reticulated with 
a slight greyish russet, and a few small specks intermixed. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 1074. 

As a cider apple, this appears to possess great merit, combining a 
slight degree of astringency with much sweetness ; it ripens in October, 
and is also a good culinary apple during its season. 

It was raised from seed by Daniel Stead, Esq., Brierly, near Leominster, Here- 
fordshire (Knight and Lindley). 



APPLES. 219 

Stem Apfel. See Api Etoille. 
Stettin Pippin. See Dutch Mlgnonne. 
Stibbert. See Summer Stibbert. 

STIRZAKER'S EARLY SQUARE.— Fruit, below medium size ; 
roundish, with prominent ribs which run into the eye, forming sharp 
ridges at the crown. Skin, of an uniform pale yellow, freckled and 
mottled with very thiu dingy brown russet on the shaded side, and 
completely covered with the same on the side next the sun. Eye, 
small, half open, set in an irregular and angular basin. Stalk, very 
short, imbedded in a deep cavity. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and 
pleasantly flavoured. 

An early apple, gi'own in the neighbourhood of Lancaster ; it is ripe 
in August, and continues in use during September. 

STIRLING CASTLE.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; round and oblate, 
even and regularly shaped. Skin, clear pea-green, which becomes 
pale yellow or straw-coloured when it ripens, with a blush and 
broken stripes of pale crimson on the side next the sun, and 
several large dots sprinkled over the surface. Eye, half closed, with 
erect convergent segments, set in a pretty deep, wide, and saucer-like 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, from half an inch to 
an inch long, slender, inserted in a deep and wide cavity, from which 
are branches of russet. Flesh, white, very tender, juicy, and of the 
character of that of Hawthornden. Cells, wide open, obovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent eai'ly culinary apple ; in use in August and September. 
The tree is an immense bearer, and is well adapted for bush culture. 

It was raised at Stirling by John Christie, a small nurseryman at Causeyhead, 
on the road to Bridge of Allan, about the year 1830. 

STOKE EDITH PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches wide at the 
base, and two inches high ; tapering Pearmain-shaped, and even in its 
outline. Skin, yellow when ripe, with a tinge of orange on the side 
next the sun, marked all over the surface with traces of grey russet. 
Eye, large and closed, set in a round, saucer-like, plaited basin. Stalk, 
short, imbedded the whole of its length in a deep round cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, brisk, and juicy, sweet, and with a nicely 
perfumed flavour. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from November till February. 

Stone Pippin. See Gogar Pippin. 

Stone Pippin. See Noifolk Stone Pippin. 

Stone Pippin. See Birmingham Pippin. 

Stone's Apple. See Loddington. 



220 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Stone's Blenheim. See Hambledon Deux Ans. 

STOUP LEADINGTON.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a 
half wide, and three inches high ; tall and angular like the Catshead 
and Dutch Codlin. It is distinctly five-sided, with five corresponding 
angles. Skin, quite green, becoming yellowish as it ripens. Eye, 
with divergent segments, set in a deep, angular, and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical, very wide and deep. Stalk, short, 
inserted by the side of a large and prominent growth, which projects 
from the fruit in the form of the spout of a jug. Flesh, greenish, 
juicy, very acid. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A kitchen apple of singular appearance, peculiar to Scotland. It 
receives its name from the likeness of the fruit to a stoup, or pitcher 
for holding liquids, which it certainly resembles when stood upon the 
eye, the stalk being upwards ; it is in use from November till January. 
See Grey Leadington. 

This is much grown in the orchards on the borders of Scotland, and it has a 
good deal of resemblance to Winter Codlin, but is smaller. 

STRAWBERRY NORMAN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and an inch and three-quarters high ; round and de- 
pressed, uneven in its outline, being angular and considerably ribbed 
about the eye, which is deeply sunk. Skin, with a lemon-yellow 
ground, covered with light crimson, which is thickly marked with 
broken streaks and mottles of a bright and darker crimson on the side 
next the sun, and these extend for a considerable space to the shaded 
side, but much paler ; the base and cavity of the stalk are covered 
with cinnamon russet. Eye, open, with somewhat divergent seg- 
ments, set in a very deep and ribbed basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, 
short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, imbedded in a very deep 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, close-grained and spongy, with a sweet, 
mawkish juice, stained with red at the base of the tube, and nowhere 
else. Cells, small and obovate ; axile, quite closed. 

A valuable Herefordshire cider apple. 

STRIPED BEEFING (Striped Beau/in).— Fruit, of the largest 
size ; beautiful and handsome, roundish, and somewhat depressed, 
obscurely ribbed. Skin, bright lively green, almost entirely covered 
with broken streaks and patches of fine deep red, and thickly strewed 
with russety dots ; in some specimens the colour extends almost 
entirely round the fruit. Eye, closed, with short, erect, convergent 
segments, which are reflexed at the tips, set in a deep, irregular, and 
angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, halt an inch 
long, imbedded its whole length in the cavity, sometimes very short, 
or a mere knob with a fleshy swelling on one side. Flesh, yellowish, 
firm, crisp, juicy, and pleasantly acid. Cells, obovate ; axile or 
abaxile. 

One of the handsomest and best culinary apples in cultivation ; for 
baking it is unrivalled ; it is in use from October till May. 



APPLES. 221 

The tree is very hardy, and an excellent bearer. 

This noble apple was introduced by Mr. George Lindley, who found it growing 
in 1794 in the garden of William Crowe, Esq., ut Lakenham, near Norwich. He 
measured a specimen of the fruit, and found it twelve inches and a half in circum- 
ference, and weighing twelve ounces and a half avoirdupois. Through the kind- 
ness of George Jefferies, Esq., of Marlborough Terrace, Kensington, who procured 
it from his residence in Norfolk, I had the good fortune, in 1847, to obtain grafts, 
which, when propagated, I distributed through several of the principal nurseries of 
the country. Till then it does not seem ever to have been in general cultivation, 
as it was not mentioned in any of the nursery catalogues, nor in that of the London 
Horticultural Society. I am glad to see that it is now not unfrequently met with 
in good gardens. 

Striped Holland Pippin. See Lincolnshire Holland Pippin. 

Striped Joaneting. See Margaret. 

STRIPED MONSTROUS REINETTE.— Fruit, large, three inches 
and a half broad, and three inches high ; roundish, and a little flat- 
tened, irregular in its outline, having prominent angles on the sides, 
which extend from the base to the apex. Skin, smooth, of a deep 
yellow ground colour, which is almost entirely covered with pale red, 
and streaked with broad stripes of dark crimson. Eye, closed, with 
long acuminate segments, set in a narrow, angular basin. Stalk, an 
inch long, slender, deeply inserted in a round and russety cavity. 
Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and pleasantly flavoured. 

A culinary apple of second-rate quality ; it is in use during Novem- 
ber and December. 

Striped Quarrenden. See Margaret. 

Stubbard. See Summer Stibbert. 

STURMER PIPPIN. — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a 
quarter broad, by one inch and three-quarters high ; roundish, and 
somewhat flattened, and narrowing towards the apex, a good deal 
resembling the old Nonpareil. Skin, of a lively green colour, changing 
to yellowish green as it attains maturity, and almost entirely covered 
with brown russet, with a tinge of dull red on the side next the sun. 
Eye, small and closed, with segments reflexed at the tips, set in a 
shallow, irregular, and angular basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, straight, in- 
serted in a round, even, and russety cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, 
crisp, very juicy, with a brisk and rich sugary flavour. Cells, obovate ; 
axile, closed. 

This is one of the most valuable dessert apples of its season ; it is 
of first-rate excellence, and exceedingly desirable both on account of 
its delicious flavour, and arriving at perfection at a period when the 
other favourite varieties are past. It is not fit for use till the Ribston 
Pippin is nearly gone, and continues long after the Nonpareil. The 
period of its perfection may be fixed from February to June. 



222 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

The tree is hardy, and an excellent bearer, and attains about the 
middle size. 

The Sturmer Pippin was raised by Mr. Dillistone, a nurseryman at Sturmer, 
near Haverhill, in Suffolk; and was obtained by impregnating the Ribston Pippin 
with the pollen of NonpareiL 

STYRE {Forest Styre). — Fruit, small, an inch and three-quarters 
wide, and an inch and a half high ; roundish ovate, narrowing a little 
towards the crown, even and regular in its outline. Skin, rich yellow 
on the shaded side, with a few pale broken streaks of red, and on the 
side next the sun it is completely covered with red, striped with dark 
crimson. Eye, closed ; segments, erect convergent, which are recurved 
at the tips, set in a shallow, narrow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
very short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter to half an inch long, 
inserted in a narrow russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, very 
juicy. Cells, roundish elliptical ; axile, slightly open. 

One of the oldest Herefordshire cider apples. 

STYRE WILDING. — Fruit, small, a little over two inches wide, and 
two inches and a quarter high ; conical, bluntly angular, and irregular 
in its outline. Skin, smooth and shining, lemon-yellow on the shaded 
side, and with a red cheek on the side exposed to the sun. Eye, 
closed, with erect convergent segments, which reflex at the tips, set in 
a pretty deep, narrow, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
conical. Stalk, very short, deeply imbedded in the cavity, which is 
russety, and generally with a fleshy swelling on one side of it. Flesh, 
soft and woolly, sweetish. Cells, open, obovate ; axile. 

A favourite Herefordshire cider apple. 

Sudlow's Fall Pippin. See Franldin's Golden Pippin. 

SUGAR AND BRANDY. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters broad at the bulge, and the same in height ; conical, and 
angular, with a very prominent rib on one side, forming a high ridge 
at the apex, and also a number of knobs round the eye, which are the 
continuations of the side angles. Skin, deep dull yellow, freckled with 
pale red on the shaded side, the remaining portion entirely covered 
with bright orange-red. Eye, small and closed, set in a deep and 
furrowed basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a round and shallow 
cavity, which is lined with rough russet. Flesh, deep yellow, spongy, 
juicy, very sweet, so much so as to be sickly. 

A Lancashire apple ; in use in the end of August and September. 

SUGAR-LOAF. — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and 
three inches and a quarter high ; roundish, ribbed on its sides, and 
undulating round the eye, where it is higher on one side than the other. 
Skin, uniform deep straw-colour, without any trace of russet or colour 
of any kind, but thinly sprinkled with small russet dots. Eye, large 
and closed, with erect, narrow, convergent segments, set in a deep 



APPLES. 223 

angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, deeply inserted. 
Flesh, soft, not very juicy. Cells, open, roundish elliptical or oval ; 
abaxile. 

A fine Devonshire cider apple. The tree is an abundant bearer, and 
the fruit suflfers much from the attacks of birds, who are very fond of it. 

This was sent me by Mr. Rendell, of Nethcrton Manor, near Newton Abbot. 

SUGAR-LOAF PIPPIN (Hutchings' Seedling). — Fruit, above 
medium size, two inches and three-quarters wide, and three inches 
high ; conical or oblong. Skin, clear pale yellow, becoming nearly 
white when fully ripe. Eye, set in a rather deep and plaited basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, an inch long, inserted in a 
deep and regular cavity. Flesh, white, firm, crisp, juicy, brisk, and 
pleasantly flavoured. Cells, wide open, elliptical. 

An excellent early culinary apple of first-rate quality ; ripe in the 
beginning of August, but in a few days becomes mealy. 

This is called Hatchings' Seedhng, from being grown by a market gardener of 
that name at Kensington. 

SUMMER BROAD-END (Summer Cohnan).— Fruit, above the 
middle size, above two inches and three-quarters in diameter, and two 
inches and a quarter deep ; slightly angular on the sides. Eye, small, 
with a closed calyx, in a rather narrow basin, surrounded by some 
angular plaits. Stalk, short, slender, deeply inserted, not protruding 
beyond the base. Skin, dull yellowish green, tinged on the sunny 
side with pale dull brown. Flesh, greenish white, not crisp. Juice, 
sub-acid, with a pretty good flavour. 

A culinary apple; in use in October and November. This is a 
useful Norfolk apple, and known in the markets by the above name. 
The trees are rather small growers, but great bearers (Lindley). 

I have never seen the Summer Broad-End, and have therefore here 
introduced the description of Mr. Lindley, for the benefit of those under 
whose observation it may fall. 

Summer Colman. See Summer Broad-End. 

SUMMER GILLIFLOWER.— Fruit, large, rather over three inches 
wide, and three inches high ; conical, or Codlin-shaped, with acute and 
irregular angles, which extend to the crown, and form prominent unequal 
ridges. Skin, pea-green, mottled and streaked with dull red on the 
side next the sun, which extends to the shaded side of a paler colour, 
where it is mottled ; round the crown and in the stalk cavity it is 
covered with pale brown russet. Eye, quite closed, with erect connivent 
segments, set in a deep and very angular basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, long conical. Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, slender, 
and with a fleshy swelling on one side. Flesh, with a greenish yellow 
tinge, very tender and juicy, and a fine delicate aromatic flavour. Cells, 
elliptical, abaxile, Codhn-like. 



224 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

A large, handsome, and very fine dessert apple, sent to me from 
Cornwall by Mr. J. Vivian, of Hayle. 

PtSUMMER GOLDEN PIPPIN (Summer Pippin; White Summer 
Pippin). — Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a quarter broad 
at the base, and two inches and a quarter high ; ovate, flattened at the 
ends. Skin, smooth and shining, pale yellow on the shaded side, but 
tinged with orange and brownish red on the side next the sun, and 
strewed over with minute russety dots. Eye, open, with divergent 
segments, set in a wide, shallow, and slightly plaited basin. Stamens, 
basal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, thick, a quarter of an inch 
long, completely imbedded in a moderately deep cavity, which is lined 
with russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, very juicy, with a rich, vinous, 
and sugary flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed. 

This is one of the most delicious summer apples, and ought to form 
one of every collection, however small ; it is ripe in the end of August, 
and keeps about a fortnight. 

The tree is a small grower, and attains about the third size. It is 
an early and abundant bearer, and succeeds well when grafted on the 
doucin or paradise stock. When grown on the pomme paradis of the 
FrcDch, it forms a beautiful little tree, which can be successfully culti- 
vated in pots. 

Summer Oslin, See Oslin, 

SUMMER PEARMAIN {Autumn Pearmain).—FTmt, medium 
sized, two inches and three-quarters wide at the base, and the same 
high ; conical, or abrupt Pearmain-shaped, round at the base, and 
tapering towards the apex. Skin, yellow, streaked all over with large 
patches and broken streaks of red, mixed with silvery russet, strewed 
with numerous russety dots, and covered with large patches of rough 
russet on the base. Eye, closed, half open, with long erect segments, 
placed in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, obliquely inserted under 
a fleshy protuberance on one side of it, which is a permanent and 
distinguishing character of this apple. Flesh, deep yellow, firm, crisp, 
juicy, richly and highly perfumed. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An excellent apple, long cultivated, and generally regarded as one of 
the popular varieties of this country ; it is suitable either for culinary 
purposes or the dessert, and is in use during September and October. 
The tree is a good grower, and healthy, of an upright habit of growth, 
and forms a fine standard tree of the largest size ; it siicceeds well 
grafted on the paradise stock, when it forms handsome espaliers and 
open dwarfs. 

This is what in many nurseries is cnltivated as the Rot/al Pearmain, but erro- 
neously. It is one of the oldest English varieties, being mentioned by Parkinson 
in 1629. It is the Autumn Pearmain of the Horticultural Society's Catalogue. 

Summer Pippin. See Madeleine. 



APPLES. 225 

Summer Pippin. See Summer Golden Pippin, 
Summer Queening. See Crimson Queening. 

SUMMER STIBBERT {Stuhbard).—Frmt, small, conical, and 
Codlin-likc, distinctly five-ribbed, one of the ribs occasionally very 
prominent. Skin, clear lemon-yellow in the shade, but covered on 
the side next the sun with bright crimson. Eye, small and closed, set 
in a puckered basin. Stalk, slender, rather deeply inserted. Flesh, 
very tender, with an agreeable mild acidity. 

An early kitchen apple, which comes into use in the middle and end 
of August. 

This is a very popular apple in the West of England, especially in Cornwall, 
Devon, and Somerset. 

SUMMER STRAWBERRY.— Fruit, rather below medium size, 
two and a half inches broad, and an inch and three-quarters high ; 
oblate, even and regularly formed. Skin, smooth and shining, striped 
all over with yellow and blood-red stripes, except on any portion that 
is shaded, and there it is greenish yellow, mingled with faint red 
streaks. Eye, not much depressed, closed, with long, flat, connivent 
segments, and surrounded with plaits, set in a wide and very shallow 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an inch to 
three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a round, narrow cavity, 
which is lined with russet. Flesh, white, tinged with yellow, soft, 
tender, juicy, brisk, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, roundish elliptical ; 
axile, open. 

A dessert apple, ripe in September, but when kept long becomes dry 
and mealy ; it is much cultivated in all the Lancashire and northern 
orchards of England. 

Summer Thorle. See WJiorle Pippin. 

Summer Traveller. See Margaret. 

SURREY FLAT-CAP. — Fruit, above medium size, three inches 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; oblate, even and regularly 
formed. Skin, of a pale bluish green, or verdigris colour, changing as 
it ripens to a yellowish tinge, and marked with dots and flakes of 
rough veiny russet on the shaded side, but deep red, which is almost 
obscured with rough veiny russet, on the side next the sun. Eye,, 
open, with broad segments, reflexed at the tips, set in a wide, shallow, 
and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. Stalk, half an 
inch long, inserted in a round and deep cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, 
not very juicy, but rich and sugary. Cells, roundish ; axile. 

A very excellent dessert apple, remarkable for its singular colour, but 
is rather void of acidity ; it is in use from October to January. 

SUSSEX MOTHER. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a 
half wide, and the same in height ; conical, angular on the sides, and 

15 



226 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



ribbed round the eye. Skin, bright grass-green, with russet dots and 
pearly specks over the surface. Eye, half open, with erect convergent 
segments, which are divergent at the points, set in an irregular ribbed 
basin. Stamens, quite basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, slender, about 
half an inch long, inserted in a small russety cavity. Flesh, very soft 
and tender, sweet and agreeably acid. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

An early dessert apple of no great merit ; ripe in September. It is 
much grown in East Sussex, about Heathfield. 

Sussex Peach. See Pomeroy. 

Sussex Scarlet Pearmain. See Winter Pearmain. 

SWEENY NONPAREIL. — Fruit, above medium size, two inches and 
three-quarters broad, and two inches high ; very similar in form to the 
old Nonpareil. Skin, of a fine lively green colour, which is glossy and 
shining, but almost entirely covered with patches and reticulations of 
thick greyish brown russet, which in some parts is rough and cracked ; 
sometimes tinged wdth brown where exposed to the sun. Eye, very 
small, half open, with short, flat, ovate segments, and set in a small, 
narrow, and rather shallow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, inserted in a rather shallow and 
russety cavity. Flesh, greenish white, firm, crisp, sugary, and with a 
very powerful yet pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, 
open. 

An excellent culinary apple, admirably adapted for sauce, but too 
acid for the dessert ; it is in use from January to April. 

The tree is a vigorous grower and an excellent bearer. 

This was raised in 1807 by Thomas Netherton Parker, Esq., of Sweeny, in 
Shropshire, and twenty specimens of the fruit were exhibited at the London 
Horticultural Society in 1820, the aggregate weight of which was seven pounds 
thirteen ounces. 

Sweet Bough. See Large Yellow Bough. 

Sweet Harvest. See Large Yellow Bough. 

SWEET LADING. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a 
half wide, and about the same high ; roundish, pretty even in its out- 
line, and slightly ribbed tow^ards the crown. Skin, greenish yellow on 
the shaded side, but becoming bright yellow when ripe, and with 
streaks and mottles of bright crimson next the sun. It is marked here 
and there with traces of thin cinnamon-coloured russet. Eye, half 
open, with erect segments, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short and fleshy, sometimes 
a mere knob, and sometimes with a fleshy swelling connecting it with 
the fruit. Flesh, whitish, firm, not very juicy, but sweet and without 
any briskness ; the flavour is rather sickly. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A culinary and cider apple ; in use from October to December. 



APPLES. 227 

In the orchards of East Sussex and West Kent this is a very common variety. 
I should imagine it would make a sweet cider, and it seems more adapted for that 
purpose than any other. 

SYKE HOUSE RUSSET.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a quarter broad, by one inch and three-quarters high ; roundish 
oblate. Skin, yellowish green, but entirely covered with brown russet, 
strewed with silvery grey scales ; sometimes it has a brownish tinge on 
the side which is exposed to the sun. Eye, small and open, set in a 
shallow basin. Stamens, marginal or median ; tube, short, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a rich, sugary, and very high 
flavour. Cells, small, obovate ; axile. 

One of the most excellent dessert apples ; it is in use from October 
to February. 

The tree is a free grower, hardy, and an excellent bearer ; it attains 
about the middle size, and is well adapted for growing as an espalier, 
when grafted on the paradise stock. 

This variety originated at the village of Syke House, in Yorkshire, whence its 
name. 

Diel's nomenclature of the Syke House Russet affords a good example of the 
change the names of fruits are subject to when translated from one language to 
another. He writes it Englische Spitalsreinette, which he translates Sik-House 
Apple, because, as he supposed, it received this appellation either from the brisk- 
ness of its flavour being agreeable to invalids, or from its having originated in the 
garden of an hospital. He says he finds it only in Kirke's Fruit Tree Catalogue, 
where it is erroneously printed Syke House ! He calls it English Hospital Eeinette. 

Taliesin. See Xorfolk Beefiivj. 

TARVEY CODLIN.— Fruit, large and conical. Skin, dull olive 
green, with an imperfect mixture of yellow on the shaded side, and 
yellowish red, much spotted, with broken rows of large blood-red dots 
next the sun. Flesh, white and juicy, somewhat resembling the 
English Codlin. 

A good culinary apple for a northern climate ; in use during Novem- 
ber and December. 

This was raised from seed of the Manks Codlin, impregnated with the Nonpareil, 
by Sir G. S. Mackenzie, Bart., of Coul, in Rosshire. 

Taunton Black. See Black Taunton. 

TAUNTON GOLDEN PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two 
inches and a quarter wide, and the same in height ; oblato-cylindrical, 
regularly and handsomely shaped. Skin, deep rich yellow, strewed 
with markings and freckles of russet on the shaded side, but covered 
with a cloud of red, which is marked with deeper red streaks on the 
side next the sun. Eye, open, set in a wide, rather deep, and plaited 
basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a narrow and rather shallow cavity. 
Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, and delicate, with a brisk, sugary, and par- 
ticularly rich vinous flavour. 



228 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to 
March. 

The tree is hardy, healthy, and an abundant bearer, attaining about 
the middle size ; it is well adapted for growing on the paradise 
stock. 

TEN COMMANDMENTS. — Fruit, small, about two inches and a 
half wide, and two inches high ; roundish and angula-r. Skin, dark 
mahogany red, streaked with dark red, except on the shaded side, 
where it is yellowish streaked with pale red. Eye, closed, with con- 
nivent segments, set in a puckered basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a close shallow 
cavity. Flesh, tender, sweet, and agreeably acid. It is very much 
stained with red, and when cut latitudinally the ten carpel threads will 
be found also red, and this gives rise to the name Ten Commandments. 
Cells, ovate ; axile. 

A Herefordshire apple of no great merit ; in use in November. 

TEN SHILLINGS. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half 
broad, and two inches high ; roundish oblate, with obtuse angles on 
the sides. Skin, greenish yellow, almost entirely covered with pale 
brown russet, but bright red streaked with darker rod on the side next 
the sun. Eye, large, with long narrow segments, which are convergent, 
set in an angular basin. Stamens, median or basal ; tube, short conical, 
inclining to funnel-shape. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a 
moderately deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, sweet, and 
slightly acid. Cells, ovate ; axile, closed or slit. 

A second-rate dessert apple ; ripe in November. 

TENTEEDEN PARK. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and 
a half broad, by two inches high ; roundish, inclining to ovate. Skin, 
smooth and glossy, as if varnished, yellowish green where shaded, and 
entirely covered with deep red, which is marked with streaks of still 
deeper red, where exposed to the sun. Eye, large, half open, with 
broad, flat segments, set in a rather shallow, round, and saucer-like 
basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a round and shallow cavity, 
which is slightly marked with russet. Flesh, greenish white, tender, 
crisp, brisk, and juicy, but with no particular richness of flavour. 

A second-rate dessert apple, of neat and handsome appearance ; in 
use from October to February. 

TEUCHAT'S EGG {Chucket Egg). — Fruit, below medium size, 
varying in shape from ovate to conical, and irregularly ribbed on the 
sides. Skin, pale yellow, washed with pale red, and streaked with 
deep and lively red. Eye, partially closed, with long, broad segment^, 
placed in a narrow and angular basin. Stalk, very short, imbedded in 
a close, shallow cavity, with a fleshy protuberance on one side of it, 
and surrounded with rough russet. Flesh, tender, juicy, and pleasantly 
flavoured. 



APPLES. 229 

A second-rate dessert apple, peculiar to the Scotch orchards of 
Clydesdale and Ayrshire ; ripe in September. 
Teuchat signifies the Pee-wit or Lapwing. 

Thickset. See Cluster Golden Pippin, 

Thorle Pippin. See Whorle Pippin. 

TIBBETT'S PEARMAIN.— Fruit large, three inches and a half 
wide, and over three inches high ; coukal and angular, so as to appear 
somewhat five-sided towards the crown, where it is narrow and ribbed. 
Skin, smooth and shining, bright grass-green where shaded, and which 
becomes yellowish at maturity, and reddish brown streaked with dark 
crimson on the side next the sim, and which eventually becomes bright 
red with bright crimson streaks. Eye, small, with erect convergent 
segments, set in a narrow ribbed basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, very short and slender, imbedded all its length in a wide deep 
cavity. Flesh, tender, very juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 
Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A very handsome culinary apple ; in use from October till Christmas, 
and well worth growing. 

This was sent me by Mr. George Bunyard, of Maidstone. 

TOREK'S INCOMPARABLE.— Fruit, very large, three inches and 
three-quarters broad, and two inches and three-quarters high ; in shape 
very much resembling the Gooseberry Apple ; ovate, broad and 
flattened at the base, and with five prominent ribs on the sides, which 
render it distinctly five-sided. Skin, smooth and shining, of a beautiful 
dark green, which assumes a yellowish tinge as it ripens, and with a 
slight trace of red, marked with a few crimson streaks, where exposed 
to the sun. Eye, large, and nearly closed, with broad flat segments, 
set in a saucer-like basin, which is surrounded with knobs, formed by 
the termination of the ribs. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, a 
quarter of an inch long, inserted in a wide cavity, which is lined with a 
little rough russet. Flesh, j-ellowish, firm, crisp, tender, juicy, and 
with a brisk and pleasant acid. 

A first-rate culinary apple, grown in the Kentish orchards about 
Sittingbourne and Faversham ; in use from November to Christmas. 

TOM PUTT [Coalbrook; iVarrou'-ion^).— Fruit, large, three inches 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish ovate, ob- 
scurely ribbed. Skin, deep brilliant crimson, variegated with streaks 
of brighter crimson and clear yellow over the whole surface. Eye, 
open, with short, erect, convergent segments set in a pretty deep and 
plaited basin. Stamens, mai'ginal ; tube, short, wide conical. Stalk, very 
short, or a mere knob set on a level with the base of the fruit, or accom- 
panied with a fleshy mass on one side of it. Flesh, yellowish, stained 
with red for some depth under the skin, tender, not very juicy, and with 
a brisk, sweet flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile, open. 

A very handsome cooking apple ; in use in November. 



230 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

It is a native of Devonshire, where it is very popular, and where it 
is said to have been raised by a clergyman whose name was " Tom 
Putt." 

TOWER OF GLAMMIS [Glammis Castle; Carse of Gowrie ; 
Oowrie). — Fruit, large ; conical, and distinctly four-sided, with four 
prominent angles, extending from the base to the apex, where they 
terminate in four corresponding ridges. Skin, deep sulphur yellow, 
tinged in some spots with green, and thinly strewed with brown russety 
dots. Eye, closed or open, with broad, erect^ spreading segments, set 
in a deep and angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, 
an inch long, inserted in a deep, funnel-shaped cavity, and only just 
protruding beyond the base. Flesh, greenish white, very juicy, crisp, 
brisk, and perfumed. Cells, roundish obovate ; abaxilc. 

A first-rate culinary apple, peculiar to the orchards of Clydesdale 
and the Carse of Gowrie ; it is in use from November to February. 

The tree is an excellent bearer. 

Transparent Apple. See White Astrachan. 

TOWERS' S GLORY.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and two and a quarter high ; roundish, with obtuse 
angles on the sides. Skin, smooth, bright grass-green, with a 
brownish tinge on the side next the sun. Eye, large and open, 
deeply set. Stalk, very short, deeply inserted. Flesh, yellowish, 
tender, juicy, and crisp. 

A cooking apple of good quality ; in use from November till 
January. 

TRANSPARENT CODLIN.— Fruit, large and ovate. Skin, smooth, 
clear yellow, tinged with pale crimson on the side exposed to the sun. 
Eye, small and closed, with short connivent segments, placed in a 
deep and angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical. Stalk, very 
short, inserted in a deep, round, and wide canity. Flesh, firm and solid, 
tender, almost transparent, juicy, sugary, and well-flavoured. Cells, 
ovate ; abaxile. 

A fine culinary apple ; in use from September to November. 

Transparent Pippin. See Court of Wick. 

Travers' Pippin. See Bibston Fippin. 

Treadle -hole. See Trumpeter. 

True Spitzenburg. See Esopus Spitzenhurgh. 

TRUMPETER [Treadle-hole). — Fruit, large, two inches and three- 
quarters wide, and three inches high ; oblong, irregularly shaped, 
angular on the sides, and prominently ribbed round the eye. Skin, 
pale green, with a tinge of yellow on the side exposed to the sun. 
Eye, small, closed, and set in a deep and angular basin, surrounded 



APPLES. 231 

with four or five prominent knobs. Stalls, about five-eighths of an inch 
long, slender for the size of the fruit, and inserted in a deep irregular 
cavity, which is lined with rough cracked russet. Flesh, greenish 
white, crisp, very juicy, and sweet, with a brisk and pleasant sub-acid 
flavour. 

A very excellent apple either for the dessert or culinary purposes, 
much esteemed in the orchards about Lancaster ; it is in use from 
October to January. 

TRUMPINGTON {Dekiware; Bonalds' Seedlimj ; Eve's Apple].— 
Fruit, small, two inches and three-eighths wide, and one inch and five- 
eighths high ; oblate, even and handsomely shaped. Skin, of a fine 
deep golden yellow, tinged and mottled with pale red, on the shaded 
side, but of a fine bright red, which extends over the greater part, where 
exposed to the sun. Eye, large and closed, with broad, flat, convergent 
segments, set in a wide and somewhat undulating basin. Stamens, 
basal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, a quarter of an inch long, 
inserted in a wide and deep cavity, which is tinged with green, and 
lined with russet. Flesh, white, firm, and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, slit. 

A pretty dessert apple of second-rate quality ; in use from Septem- 
ber to Christmas. 

Tudball Russet. See Warelmm Russet. 

TULIP. — Fruit, rather below medium size, two inches and a half at 
the widest part, and two inches and a half high ; ovato-conical, regularly 
and handsomely shaped, ridged round the eye. Skin, fine deep purple, 
extending over the whole surface of the fruit, except on any part which 
may be shaded, and then it is yellow. Eye, open, with short, ovate 
segments, set in a furrowed and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal; 
tube, very short conical, or cup-shaped. Stalk, about half an inch 
long, straight and slender, inserted in a deep and rather angular cavity. 
Flesh, greenish yellow, crisp, juicy, sweet, and slightly sub-acid. Cells, 
obovate ; axile. 

A beautiful and handsome dessert apple, but only of second-rate 
quality ; in use from November to April. 

TURK'S CAP. — Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, by two 
inches and a half high ; roundish, and very much flattened, or oblate ; 
irregularly and prominently ribbed. Skin, smooth, fine deep golden 
yellow, covered with grey dots, and a few ramifications of russet, and 
with a brownish red tinge on the side next the sun. Eye, large and 
open, placed in a deep, wide, and angular basin. Stalk, an inch long, 
deeply inserted in an angular cavity, which is lined with thick scaly 
russet, extending over the margin. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, and 
juicy, with a pleasant sub-acid but slightly astringent flavour. 

An excellent apple for culinary purposes, and also for the manufac- 
ture of cider ; it is in use from November to Christmas. 



232 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Twin Cluster Pippin. See Cluster Golden Pippin. 

TWINING'S PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, roundish, and somewhat 
oblate. Skin, greenish yellow, with a considerable coating of thin 
brown russet. Eye, open. Stalk, short. Flesh, tender, juicy, firm, 
crisp, and richly flavoured. 

A late dessert apple of excellent quality ; in use during March and 
April. 

TYLER'S KERNEL. — Fruit, large, three inches and a quarter wide, 
and three inches high ; conical, prominently angular. Skin, brilliant 
red, streaked with darker red, but on the shaded side it is paler and less 
striped, and with a greenish tinge. Eye, half open, with flat convergent 
segments, which are divergent at the tips, set in a deep, irregular, 
angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, conical or cup-shaped. Stalk, 
very short, or half an inch long, deeply inserted in a round and russetj^ 
cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and juicy, with a pleasant acidity. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, open, or abaxile. 

A handsome large cooking apple ; in use from October till January. 
It was exhibited before the Royal Horticultural Society, October, 1883, 
and received a first-class certificate. 

UELLNER'S GOLD REINETTE.— Fruit, below medium size, 
two inches and a quarter broad, and two inches and an eighth high ; 
round or Reinette-shaped. Skin, of a fine clear lemon-yellow, sprinkled 
with a little russet on the shaded side, but entirely covered on the side 
next the sun with beautiful vermilion, which is strewed with cinnamon- 
coloured russet. Eye, open, with short segments, set in a rather wide, 
round, even, and moderately deep basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
deep conical. Stalk, slender, half an inch long, inserted in a deep 
cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, very 
juicy, rich, and sugary, and with a fine aromatic flavour. Cells, 
obovate ; axile. 

A most delicious dessert apple of the very first qualit}^ ; " small, but 
handsome and rich." It is in use from January till May. 

The tree is a free and excellent grower, and a great bearer. 

UPRIGHT FRENCH. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and two inches 
high ; roundish oval or short conical. Skin, yellow on the shaded 
side, occasionally covered with a network of russet ; on the side next 
the sun it is pale dull red, mottled with brighter red, and also marked 
with russet. Eye, very small, set quite on the surface. Segments, 
erect, connivent. Stamens, marginal ; tube, narrow, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, stout, deeply inserted. Flesh, with a greenish tinge, and a bitter- 
sweet flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, quite closed. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

VALE MASCAL PEARMAIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two 
inches broad, by two inches high ; round or ovate, regularly and hand- 



APPLES. 233 

somely shaped. Skin, greenish yellow on the shaded side, but bright 
red next the sun, and covered with spots of russet. Eye, closed, with 
broad flat segments, and set in a round, shallow, and plaited basin. 
Stamens, marginal ; tube, short conical. Stalk, half an inch long, 
inserted in a narrow and shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, crisp, sugary, 
and richly flavoured. Cells, oblate ; axile, slit. 

A dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use from December to 
February. 

This was raised at Vale Mascal, near Bexley, Kent. 

Van Dyne. See Woolman's Long. 
Van Mons' Reinette. See lieinette Van Mons. 
Vaughan's Pippin. See Kmtish Pippin. 
Vaun's Pippin. See Kentish Pippin. 

VEINY PIPPIN. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter broad, and 
an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish oblate. Skin, greenish 
yellow, covered with veins and reticulations of russet. Eye, open, 
set in a round and deep basin. Stalk, short, inserted in a round and 
slightly russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, juicy, but 
wanting both sugar and acidity. 

An indiflerent and worthless apple ; in use from December to 
February. 

The tree is a great bearer. 

Victoria. See HolherVs Victoria. 

VINEYARD PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and one and three-quarters high ; round, and somewhat depressed, even 
and regular in its outline. Skin, deep yellow on the shaded side, and 
bright red on the side next the sun, marked with lines and patches of 
thin russet, and strewed with russet dots. Eye, closed, with flat con- 
vergent segments, set in a shallow, angular basin. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, slender, inserted 
in a deep, funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, sweet, juicy, 
briskly and highly flavoured. Cells, round ; axile. 

A good dessert apple, which is in use till Christmas. 

VIOLETTE. — Fruit, above medium size ; roundish ovate or conical, 
even and regularly formed. Skin, smooth and shining, covered with a 
fine violet-coloured bloom, and yellow striped with red on the shaded 
side, but of a dark red, approaching to black, on the side exposed to 
the sun. Eye, closed, set in a rather deep and plaited basin. Stalk, 
three-quarters of an inch long, stout, and inserted in a deep cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish white, tinged with red under the skin, which is filled 
with red juice, leaving a stain on the knife with which it is cut ; firm, 
juicy, and sugary, with a vinous and pleasant flavour. 



231 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

A culinary apple of good, but not first-rate quality ; in use from 
October to March. 

Duhamel, and, following him, almost all the French, pomologists, attribute the 
name of this apple to the perfume of violets being found in the flavour of the 
fruit, a peculiarity I could never detect. It is more probable that it originated 
from the fruit being covered with a beautiful blue-violet bloom, a characteristic 
which was observed by Rivinius and Moulin, who wrote in the 17th century. 

WADHURST PIPPIN. — Fruit, above medium size, sometimes very 
large, but generally averaging three inches wide, and two inches and 
three-quarters high ; ovate or short Pearmain-shaped, and angular on 
the sides. Skin, yellow tinged wdth green on the shaded side, and 
brownish red streaked with crimson on the side next the sun, and 
strewed with minute grey dots. Eye, closed, set in a wide, deep, and 
angular basin. Stamens, basal ; -tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an 
inch long, stout, placed in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, 
juicy, and briskly flavoured. Cells, ovate ; axile, slit. 

A culinary apple of excellent quality ; in use from October to 
February. 

It originated at Wadhurst, in Sussex. 

WALSGROVE WONDER.— Fruit, large, three inches and a half 
wide, and two inches and three-quarters high ; roundish ovate, being 
wide at the base and narrowing abruptly towards the crown, obtusely 
angular, and bluntly ribbed about the eye. Skin, deep rich yellow on 
the shaded side, and with an orange -red cheek on the side next the sun, 
and a thin crust of cinnamon-coloured russet spread here and there 
over the surface. Eye, small, set in an angular and plaited basin, with 
connivent segments. Stamens, median ; tube, conical, inclining to 
funnel-shape. Stalk, very short and slender, imbedded in the deep 
funnel-shaped cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and with a 
pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, roundish or oblate ; axile, wide open. 

A very handsome culinary apple ; in use from October to Christmas. 
It bears a strong resemblance to Greenup's Pippin externally, but the 
internal characters are so marked as to constitute them distinct varieties. 

This was sent to the National Apple Congress at Chiswick in 1883 by Mr. 
Twinberrow, of Walsgrove, Stourport. 

WALTHAM ABBEY SEEDLING.— Fruit, large ; roundish, inclin- 
ing to ovate, in which respect it difi'ers from Golden Noble, which is 
quite round. Skin, pale yellow, assuming a deeper tinge as it attains 
maturity, with a faint blush of red where exposed to the sun, and 
strewed all over with minute russety dots, and occasionally a few 
patches of thin russet. Eye, large and open, with erect, somewhat 
divergent segments, set in a shallow and even basin. Stamens, mar- 
ginal or median ; tube, short conical. Stalk, short, deeply inserted, 
and surrounded with rough russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, 
sweet, and pleasantly flavoured, and when cooked assuming a clear pale 
amber. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 



APPLES. 235 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, requiring scarcely any sugar 
■when cooked ; in use from September to Christmas. The tree is 
remarkable for its very small foliage, notwithstanding which the fruit is 
of good size, and the tree a good bearer. I know of no apple tree 
which bears fruit so large and has foliage so small. 

This apple was raised about the year 1810, from seed of Golden Noble, by Mr. 
John Barnard, of Waltham Abbey, in Essex, and was introduced by him at a 
meeting of the London Horticultural Society in 1821. It is quite distinct, 
though somewhat resembling Golden Noble, with which it is sometimes made 
synonymous. 

WANSTALL (Wa7istall Jack; Jack-in-the-Wood). — Fruit, medium 
sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; 
roundish, but narro's\'ing a little towards the eye, with five prominent 
angles on the sides, which terminate in ridges round the apex, render- 
ing the shape distinctly five-sided. Skin, deep golden yellow on the 
shaded side, but red, which is striped and mottled with darker red, on 
the side next the sun ; marked with patches and veins of thin grey 
russet, and strewed all over with russety dots. Eye, half open, with 
broad, flat segments, set in an angular and plaited basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, deeply 
inserted in a round cavity. Flesh, yellow, firm, crisp, juicy, rich, 
sugary, and highly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple of the very first quality, equal in flavour to the 
Ribston Pippin, and will keep till May and June. 

Originated at Green Street, near Sittingbourne, in Kent, with a tailor of the 
name of Wanstall, about the beginning of the present century. 

WAREHAM RUSSET (Tudball FiHsset).—FimU medium sized, two 
inches and three-quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; 
roundish, obtusely angular, and terminating at the crown in four or five 
more or less prominent ridges. Skin, greenish yellow, becoming more 
yellow at maturity, with a brownish red cheek where exposed to the 
sun ; on the shaded side it is more or less marked with dull grey russet. 
Eye, rather closed, with erect convergent segments, which are diver- 
gent at the points, set in a rather deep basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, about half an inch long, deeply imbedded 
in the cavity. Flesh, firm, crisp, juicy, sweet, and with a pleasant 
sub-acid flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, closed or slit. 

A dessert apple, in use from October till Christmas, much grown 
in Cheshire, and which derives its name from the village of Waverham 
(pronounced Wareham) in that county. 

WARNER'S KING (Kimj Apple; David T. Fish; KilUck's Apple; 
Nelson's Glory ; Weaverimj Apjde ; Poor Man's Friend). — Fruit, very 
large, four inches wide, and three inches and a half high ; roundish and 
depressed or ovate, obtusely angular, broad at the base. Skin, grass- 
green, changing to uniform clear deep yellow as it ripens, strewed with 
russety dots and patches of pale brown russet. Eye, small and closed, 



286 THE FRUIT MANUAJL. 

with long convergent segments, and set in a narrow, deep, and slightly 
angular basin. Stamens, median, or basal inclining to median ; tube, 
conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, about half an inch long, deeply 
inserted in a round, funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined with thin 
yellowish brown russet. Flesh, white, tender, crisp, and juicy, with a 
fine, brisk, and sub-acid flavour. Cells, roundish ovate ; abaxile. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from November to 
March. 

The tree is a free and vigorous grower, and a good bearer; very 
hardy, and not subject to disease. 

The original name of this was simply Kinrr Apple, by which it was known to 
Forsyth and others at the end of last century. The name Warner's King was 
given to it by the late Mr. Rivers, of SaAvbridgevvorth, who some years ago received 
it from Mr. Warner, a small nurseryman, of Gosforth, near Leeds, as the King 
Apple, and by way of distinguishing it he called it Warner's King. It is a noble 
apple, and it is not surprising that it .should have acquired so many synonymes. 
It was found at Weavering, in Kent, under the name of VVeavering, and being grown 
by Mr. Killick, an orchardist at Langley, it obtained his name ; while a nursery- 
man at Chester called it David T. Fish. 

Warter's Golden Pippin. See Golden Fippi7i. 

Warwickshire Pippin. See Wyken Pippin. 

WASHINGTON. — Fruit, large, three inches wide, and the same 
high ; conical, even, regular, and handsome. Skin, rich yellow, very 
much covered with broken stripes, and mottled with crimson. Eye, 
small, closed, with erect connivent segments, set in a plaited and rather 
deep basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, varying 
from half an inch to an inch long, slender, deeply inserted in a funnel- 
shaped cavity, which is lined with russet. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
very juicy, sweet, richly flavoured, and with a fine perfume. Cells, 
elliptical ; axile. 

A very fine dessert apple, introduced by Mr. Kivers from America ; 
it is in use from October till Christmas. When ripened under glass it 
is a delicious fruit. 

Watch Apple. See Cambusnethan Pippin. 

Waterloo. See Red Astra chan. 

WATSON'S DUMPLING.— Fruit, large; roundish ovate and 
bluntly angular, especially on the side next the sun. Skin, smooth, 
yellowish green, and striped with dull red. Eye, large, not deeply sunk. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a round 
and rather deep cavity. Flesh, tender, juicy, and sugary, with a 
pleasant sub-acid flavour. Cells, obovate ; axile, open. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from October to 
February. 

Watson's New Nonesuch. See Whorle Pippin. 



APPLES. 237 

Week Pearmain. See Wickhanis Pearmain. 
Weeks' Pippin. See Court of Wick. 
Wellington. See Dumelow's Seedling. 

WELFORD PARK NONESUCH.— Fruit, large and handsome, 
three inches and a quarter wide, and two inches and a half high ; 
roundish and oblate, even and regular in its outline. Skin, fine lemon- 
yellow on the shaded side, and on the side next the sun it is quite 
overspread with bright crimson, which is mottled and streaked with 
darker crimson, the colour gradually becoming paler as it extends to 
the shaded side. Eye, open, with short rudimentary segments, set in 
a saucer-like basin. Stalk, an inch or more long, slender, and deeply 
inserted in a wide cavity. Flesh, white, very tender, as much so as 
that of an American Newtown Pippin, with an excellent flavour and 
tine aroma. 

A fine showy apple for culinary or dessert use, during October and 
November. 

This was raised by Mr. Charles Ross, gardener, at Welford Park, near Newbury, 
from Golden Harvey, fertilised, it is supposed, by Lamb Abbey Pearmain, as the 
fruit from which the seed was taken grew en a tree half Golden Harvey and half 
Lamb Abbey Pearmain. The seed was sown in 1864, and in 1865 grafts were put 
on a Blenheim Pippin tree, which fruited for the first time in 1871. 

Weisser Somer Rambour. See BreitUng, 

Welsh Pippin. See Marmalade Pippin. 

WEST GRINSTEAD PIPPIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches 
and three-quarters broad, by two inches and a half high ; roundish, 
and slightly ribbed about the eye. Skin, light green, striped and 
mottled with light red on the side next the sun, and strewed all over 
with greyish white dots on the exposed, and brown dots on the shaded 
side. Eye, open, set in a plaited basin. Stalk, a quarter of an inch 
long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, soft, tender, 
juicy, and briskly acid. 

A good second-rate apple for the dessert ; in use from November to 
April, and keeps well without shrivelling. 

A Sussex apple, raised at West Grinstead, in the western division of that county. 

Westmoreland Longstart. See Lovgstart. 

WHEELER'S EXTREME.— Fruit, small, nearly two inches wide, 
and one inch and a quarter high ; oblate, much resembling the Api in 
shape. Skin, pale greenish yellow, considerably marked with russet, 
particularly round the e3^e, and covered with fine clear red, which is 
mottled with deeper red, on the side next the sun. Eye, small, and 
closed, set in a shallow basin. Stalk, very short, inserted in a small 
shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, crisp, tender, sweet, and 
delicately perfumed. 



238 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

A pretty little dessert apple, but not of first-rate quality ; it is in use 
from November to February. 

This was raised by James Wheeler, nurseryman, of Gloucester. The original 
tree is still existing in the nursery of his great-grandson. The late Mr. J. Cheslin 
Wheeler informed me that the name of " Extreme " is supposed to have been 
applied to this variety, from the circumstance of producing its fruit on the 
extremities of the last year's shoots. 

WHEELER'S RUSSET.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters broad, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish 
ovate, and somewhat irregular in its outline. Skin, entirely covered 
with pale yellowish grey russet, with reddish brown where exposed to 
the sun, strewed with russety freckles. Eye, small and closed, with 
short segments, set in a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; 
tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, from half an inch to an inch long, slender, 
inserted in a round, narrow, and deep cavity. Flesh, greenish white, 
firm, juicy, brisk, and sugary, with a rich, vinous, and aromatic 
flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile, closed. 

A valuable and highly flavoured dessert apple of the first quality ; it 
is in use from November to April ; and as Mr. Lindley says, when 
ripened and begins to shrivel, it is one of the best russets of its season. 

The tree is a free grower, healthy, and hardy, but does not attain 
above the middle size. It is generally a good bearer, and succeeds well 
in almost any soil, provided it be not too moist. 

This was long supposed to have been raised by James Wheeler, the founder of 
the Gloucester Nursery, now in the occupation of his great-grandson. He pub- 
lished, in 17G3, "The Botanist's and Gardener's New Dictionary," and died 
about the beginning of the present century, having attained over ninety years of 
age. I am doubtful, however, if this apple was raised by him, for I have dis- 
covered in an old day-book dated 1717, which belonged to Smith and Carpenter, 
of the Brompton Park Nursery, that it was cultivated there at that period, when 
James Wheeler must have been a mere child. 

WHITE ASTRACHAN {Transparent J^j;?/^).— Fruit, medium sized, 
two inches and a half wide, and nearly the same in height ; roundish 
ovate, or rather conical, flattened at the base, with obtuse angles on the 
sides, which extend and become more prominent and rib-like round the 
eye. Skin, smooth, pale yellow, with a few faint streaks of red next 
the sun, and covered with a delicate white bloom. E3^e, closed, set in 
a narrow and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, thick and short, inserted in a small and very shallow cavity. 
Flesh, pure white, semi-transparent, with somewhat gelatinous-like 
blotches, tender, juicy, with a pleasant and refreshing flavour. Cells, 
ovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple, but not of first-rate quality ; ripe in August and the 
early part of September. The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, 
and an excellent bearer. 

The Transparent Apple of Rogers, and the Muscovy Apple of Mortimer, can- 
not be identical with this, for they are described by both as winter apples ; may 
they not be the Russischer Glasapfel or Astracanischer Winterapfel of Diel? 



APPLES. 239 

Respecting this apple, a correspondent in the Gardener's Chronicle for 1845 
has the following remark: "When at Revel many years ago, I made particular 
inquiries as to the mode of cultivation of the Transparent Apple; I learned that 
the soil of the apple orchards there is almost a pure sand, but that it is customary 
to add to it so much stable manure, that half the bulk of ground may be said to 
consist of manure. The friend with whom I was staying had some of these apples 
at dessert; they were transparent, not in blotches, but throughout, so that held to 
the light the pips may be seen from every part; these apples were juicy as a peach, 
about the size of a large one, and of a very agreeable flavour and texture." 

"White Calville. See Calville Blanche d'Hiver. 

White Codlin. See Earli/ Almond. 

White Codlin. See Keswick Codlin. 

White Lily. See Devonshire Buckland. 

White Melrose. See Melrose. 

WHITE MUSK.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, by two 
inches high ; roundish oblate, even and regular. Skin, smooth and 
shining, pale straw-colour, which is a little deeper when it is more 
exposed. Eye, small, set in a narrow, rather deep basin, open, with 
divergent segments. Stamens, basal ; tube, short conical. Stalk, 
short, in a deep cavity, which is lined with rough russet, and which 
extends over the base. Flesh, yellowish, very tender, juicy, and 
pleasantly sub-acid. Cells, closed, roundish obovate ; axile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. After being gathered, its skin becomes 
quite imctuous, and the fruit gives off a powerful odour of ether. 

WHITE NONPAREIL.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and the same high ; roundish, and flattened, much resembling the 
old Nonpareil. Skin, greenish or yellowish green on the shaded side, 
and with a brownish red tinge on the side next the sun, the whole 
sprinkled with russet dots, and a thin coat of grey russet, especially 
round the eye. Eye, closed, with broad, flat, convergent segments, 
which are a little recurved at the tip, set in a rather deep basin, which 
is plaited and angular. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, 
half an inch to three-quarters long, slender, straight, and inserted in a 
deep wide cavity. Flesh, greenish, tender, crisp, very juicy, sweet, 
and with a rich flavour, but not so much so as in the old Nonpareil. 
Cells, ovate ; axile, closed. 

A dessert apple ; in use from December till February. 

WHITE NORMAN. — Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch 
and a half high ; round, with obtuse angles, which are sometimes 
rather prominent. Skin, perfectly white, or rather a very pale straw- 
colour, with only a few large russet dots distantly sprinkled over the 
surface ; the hollow of the stalk is lined with russet, which extends a 
little way over the base. Eye, very small, with neat little convergent 
segments, set in a deep basin, which is plaited, or slightly ribbed. 



240 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Stamens, marginal ; tube, deep conical or cylindrical. Stalk, long, 
very slender, deeply inserted. Flesh, snow-white, soft and spongy, 
with an astringent and sweet flavour. Cells, elliptical ; axile. 
A pretty little Herefordshire cider apple. 

WHITE PARADISE [Lady's Finger; Egg; Paradise Pippin),— 
Fruit, medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and three inches high ; 
oblong, broader at the base than the apex. Skin, smooth, thick, and 
tough, of a fine rich yellow, thinly and faintly freckled with red on the 
shaded side, but covered with broken streaks and dots of darker red, 
interspersed with dark brown russety dots, on the side exposed to the 
sun. Eye, open, with long, pointed, reflexed segments, set in a shallow 
basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, an inch long, 
fleshy at the insertion, and inserted in an even, round cavity, with a 
swelling on one side of it. Flesh, yellowish, tender, crisp, juicy, 
sugary, and pleasantly flavoured. 

A second-rate, but beautiful and handsome dessert apple ; in per- 
fection the beginning of October, but towards the end of the month 
becomes dry and mealy. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

It is, I believe, a Scotch apple, and much grown in some districts, particularly 
in Clydesdale, where it is known by the name of Egg Apple, and where the fruit 
lasts longer than when grown in the warmer climate of the south. 

The Lady's Finger of Dittrich, vol. i. p. 505, is a flat apple of a Calville shape, 
and must be incorrect. 

White Pippin. See Norfolk Stone Pippin. 

WHITE ROSING.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and an inch and three-quarters high ; roundish and somewhat flattened, 
angular on the side, and ribbed on the crown. Skin, smooth and 
unctuous, of a clear lemon-yellow colour, and with a flush of red next 
the sun. Eye, small, and quite closed, in a shallow and puckered 
basin. Stalk, very short, quite imbedded in the shallow cavity. Flesh, 
quite white, tender, soft, not very juicy, and slightly acid. 

An early culinary apple ; ripe in September. The tree is a great 
bearer. 

A Sussex apple, much grown in the eastern division of the county, but it is not 
of any great merit, and is not worthy of much cultivation. In apjearance it 
resembles Manks Codlin, but is much inferior to that excellent variety. The name 
has evidently arisen from the rosy cheek which it has on one side of the fruit. 

White Spanish Reinette. See Peinette Blanche d'Espagne. 

White Stone Pippin. See Norfolk Stone Pippin. 

WHITE STYRE.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and 
two and a quarter high ; round, obscurely ribbed. Skin, uniform lemon- 
colour, with patches and lines of russet over the surface, especially on 
the side next the sun and in the stalk cavity, the surface strewed with 
small russet dots. Eye, closed, with erect connivent segments, set in a 



APPLES. 241 

pretty deep depression. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, half an inch long, slender, set in a deep russety cavity. Flesh, 
yellowish, soft and tender, sweet, and with a brisk flavour. Cells, 
open, ovate ; axile. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

"White Summer Calville. Sec CalvUle Blanche iVEte, 

White Summer Pippin. See Summer Golden Pippin. 

WHITE VIRGIN (Scotch Virgin),— 'Frmi, medium sized, two inches 
and three-quarters wide, and two inches high ; oblate. Skin, smooth 
and shining, pale yellow on the shaded side, but thin orange-red 
streaked with deep red on the side next the sun, and strewed with 
dark dots and a few veins of russet. Eye, large and closed, with 
broad ovate segments, set in a wide, shallow, and plaited basin. Stalk, 
a quarter of an inch long, inserted in a narrow and shallow cavity. 
Flesh, white, soft, tender, juicy, and briskly acid. 

An excellent culinary apple ; in use from October to February. 

WHITE WE STLING.— Fruit, rather below medium size, two 
inches and a half broad at the middle, and two inches and a half high ; 
roundish, inclining to oval towards the eye; angular on the sides, 
and ribbed round the apex. Skin, yellow, tinged with green, and 
strewed with reddish brown dots, on the shaded side, but deep yellow, 
with large dark crimson spots, on the side next the sun, and covered 
with russet over the base. Eye, small and closed, set in a narrow 
and angulai' basin. Stalk, half an inch long, very slender, inserted in 
a deep, narrow, and russety cavity. Flesh, white, tender, sweet, and 
briskly flavoured. 

An apple of hardly second-rate quality, grown about the north-eastern 
parts of Sussex ; it is in use from October to Christmas. 

WHITE WHORLE.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch 
and three-quarters high ; round, even in outline. Skin, quite yellow, 
with a greenish tinge on the shaded side. Eye, open, with divergent 
segments, set in a very shallow basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, short and slender, inserted in a shallow, narrow cavity. Flesh, 
tender, juicy, sweet, and agreeably flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple, in use from October to Christmas, but not of high 
merit. It has a great resemblance to Do^\'nton Pippin. 

WHITE WINE. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a 
half broad in the middle, and two inches and a half high, narrowing 
towards the apex; conical, slightly angular on the sides, and ribbed 
round the eye. Skin, greenish yellow, strewed with russety dots, on 
the shaded side, but deep yellow, reticulated with iine russet, and 
dotted with small russety specks, on the side exposed to the sun, and 
with a ray of fine lilac-purple on the base encircling the stalk. Eye, 

16 



242 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

open, with long acute segments, set in a deep and ribbed basin. Stalk, 
five-eigbths of an inch long, down}', thick, and fleshy, inserted in a 
round cavity, which is lined with delicate russet. Flesh, white, firm, 
crisp, and pleasantly acid. 

A culinary apple much grown in the Tweedside orchards, where it is 
known by the name of the Wine Apple ; it is in use from October to 
Christmas. 

White Winter Calville. See Cahille Blanche iVHiver. 

WHITING PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, and 
two inches high ; roundish oblate, obtusely angular. Skin, yellow, 
with an orange tinge on the side exposed to the sun, and the whole 
surface strewed with rather bold russet dots. Eye, small, with erect, 
convergent segments, set in a pretty deep basin, which is sometimes 
angular, and sometimes quite round and smooth. Stamens, marginal ; 
tube, short conical. Stalk, short and stout, quite within the cavity. 
Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and juicy, with an agreeable flavour. 
Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A Worcestershire apple, much grown in the districts of South 
Shropshire and Worcestershire ; it is in use up till January. 

WHITMORE PIPPIN.— Fruit, below medium size, two inches and 
a quarter wide at the base, and the same in height, but narrowing 
towards the apex ; conical, and obtusely angled on the sides. Skin, 
pale greenish yellow in the shade, but with a beautiful red cheek next 
the sun, and very sparingly strewed with a few minute dots. Eye, 
closed, set in a narrow and shallow basin. Stalk, about half an inch 
long, inserted in a wide, round, and even cavity. Flesh, white, tinged 
with green, tender, juicy, sub-acid, and slightly sweet. 

A dessert apple of second-rate quality ; in use from November to 
April. 

WHORLE PIPPIN (Summer Thorle ; Watsn^i's New Nonesuch; 
Thorle Pippin; Lady Derby). — Fruit, below medium size, two inches 
and a quarter wide at the middle, and an inch and three-quarters high ; 
oblate, handsome, and regularly formed. Skin, smooth, shining, and 
glossy, almost entirely covered with fine bright crimson, which is 
marked with broken streaks of darker crimson, but on any portion 
which is shaded it is of a fine clear yellow, a little streaked with pale 
crimson. Eye, scarcely at all depressed, large, half open, with broad, 
flat segments, which frequently appear as if rent from each other by an 
over-swelling of the fruit, and set in a very shallow basin, which is 
often very russety, and deeply and coarsely cracked. Stalk, a quarter 
of an inch long, inserted in a wide cavity. Flesh, yellowish white, 
firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a brisk, refreshing, and pleasant 
flavour. 

A beautiful little summer dessert apple of first-rate quality ; ripe in 



APPLES. 243 

August. In the south it is but little known, but in Scotland it is to be 
met with in almost every garden and orchard. 

In all probability the word Thorle, which is its common appellation in Scotland, 
is a corruption of Whorle, which is no doubt the correct name of this apple. The 
name is supposed to be derived from its resemblance to the whorle^ which was the 
propelling power, or rather impetus, of the spindle, when the distaflf and spindle 
were so much in use. 

WICKHAM'S PEARMAIN {Week Pertmam).— Fruit, small, two 
inches wide, and about two inches high ; Peamiain-shaped, and quite 
flat at the base. Skin, yellow, tinged and dotted with red, on the 
shaded side, but bright red on the side next the sun, and marked with 
patches and specks of russet round the eye. Eye, large and open, 
with long acuminate segments, reflexed, and set in a round, even, and 
plaited basin. Stalk, half an inch long, fleshy, inserted without any 
depression. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, crisp, juicy, sugary, and 
highly flavoured. 

An excellent dessert apple ; in use from October to December. It wan raised by 
a Mr. Wickham. of Week, near Winchester, In the catalogue of the London 
Horiicultund Society it is called '• Wick Pearmain." but as the name I have adopted 
is that by which it is best known in Hampshire, I prefer retaining it. 

WILDING BITTER-SWEET.— Fruit, small, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and the same high ; ovate, ribbed, and with prominent 
ridges round the eye. Skin, pale yellow, tinged with green and strewed 
■with russet dots, which have sometimes a greenish tinge. Eye, small 
and closed, with connivent segments, set in a nan-ow ribbed basin. 
Stamens, median ; tube, short conical. Stalk, short and slender, 
obliquely inserted by the side of a prominent lip in a narrow shallow 
cavity. Flesh, white, tender, with the flavour which is known as 
bitter-sweet. Cells, long, obovate ; abaxile. 

An esteemed cider apple, used for mixing with others in Hereford- 
shire. It has a strong resemblance to a small specimen of Keswick 
Codlin. 

Williams' Early. See Williams' Favourite. 

WILLIAMS' FAVOURITE {Willianu' Early; Williams' Red).— 
Fruit medium sized, two inches and a half wide, and two inches and a 
quarter high ; conical. Skin, entirely covered with crimson, marked 
with broken bands of greenish yellow. Eye, small and closed, set in a 
wide shallow basin. Stalk, an inch long, curved, and obliquely 
inserted in a wide shallow depression. Flesh, white with a greenish 
tinge, remarkably tender, not very juicy, and with a fine balsamic 
aroma. 

A very handsome early cooking apple of American origin ; ripe in 
the beginning of August. This would be an excellent market apple. 

Williams' Red. See Williams' Favourite. 

Winter Belle Bonne. See Belle Bonne. 



244 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Winter Broading. See Broad-end. 

WINTER COD LIN. — Fruit, very large, three inches and an eighth 
wide at the middle, and three inches and a half high ; conical, gene- 
rally five -sided, with prominent ribs on the sides, which extend to the 
apex, forming considerable ridges round the eye. Skin, smooth, yel- 
lowish green, and marked with dark dots. Eye, large and open, set in 
a deep and very angular basin. Stamens, basal ; tube, large, wide, 
funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch long, inserted in a deep, smooth, 
and angular cavity. Flesh, greenish white, tender, juicy, sweet, and 
sub-acid. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A fine old culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from September 
to February. It has a good deal of resemblance to Catshead. 

The tree is a strong, vigorous, and healthy grower, and an excellent 
bearer. 

WINTER COLMAN [Black Jack ; Norfolk Colman ; Norfolk 
Storing). — Fruit, above medium size, three inches wide, and two inches 
and a quarter high ; roundish and flattened, obtusely angular on the 
side, and ribbed at the crown. Skin, yellowish green, with a tinge of 
dull red, on the shaded side, but deep dull mahogany brown on the side 
next the sun, which becomes clearer and more red as it attains maturity. 
Eye, with broad, erect, convergent segments, set in a rather shallow 
and plaited basin. Stamens, median, inclining to basal ; tube, conical. 
Stalk, short, thick, and deeply inserted. Flesh, firm, crisp, and briskly 
acid. Cells, round ; axile, closed. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality ; in use from November to 
April. 

The tree is a very strong and vigorous grower, so much so, that in 
its youug state it is not a great bearer, but when grafted on the para- 
dise stock it produces abundantly. 

WINTER GREENING {Claremont Pippin ; French Crab ; Easter 
Pippin ; Ironstone Pipjnn ; John Apple ; Young's Long Keeping ; 
Robin ; Yorkshire Eobin). — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and 
three-quarters wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish, 
widest at the middle, and narrowing towards the crown, round which 
are a few small ridges. Skin, smooth and shining, of a dark lively 
green, strewed with minute russety dots, and with a blush of dull red 
where exposed to the sun. Eye, small and closed, set in a shallow and 
plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, half 
an inch long, inserted in a round cavity, which is lined with russet. 
Flesh, greenish, very close in texture, brittle and juicy, with a very 
sharp and pleasant acid. Cells, obovate ; axile, slit. 

A culinary apple of first-rate quality, which comes into use in 
November, and has been known to last under favourable circumstances 
for two years. Dry sand is a good article to preserve it in. 

The ^^tree is very hardy, a free and good grower, and an abundant 
bearer. 



APPLES. 245 

I have not adopted here the nomenclature of the Horticultaral Society's Cata- 
logue, for two reasons. First, because Winter Greening is the previous name, and, 
so far as I can find, the original one. It is also very applicable, and not subject to 
the same objection which Mr. Lindley has to French Crab. Second, because there 
is already in the Horticultural Society's Catalogue the "White Easter" — the 
"Paasch Appel" of Knoop — and the two names being so similar may tend to 
confusion, a result of already too frequent occurrence, and most desirable to be 
avoided. The name Winter Greening is also more descriptive. 

WINTER HA WTHORNDEN.— Fruit, largo, from three inches and 
a half to four inches wide, and two and three-quarters to three mches 
high ; roundish ovate, flattened, and bluntly angular. Skin, deep 
yellow with a greenish tinge, but when quite ripe rich yellow on the 
shaded side, and with a thin bright red cheek, which is somewhat 
streaked with crimson, on the side next the sun, thinly strewed with 
large russet dots. Eye, small and half open, with short, slightly 
divergent segments, set in a rather deep basin, with rather knolDbed 
plaits. Stamens, median ; tube, varying between deep funnel-shape and 
deep conical. Stalk, very short, deeply inserted in the wide irregular 
cavity. Flesh, with a yellowish tinge, firm, crisp, and juicy, with a 
pleasant mild acidity. Cells, elliptical ; abaxile. 

A large and very handsome cooking apple ; in use from November 
till after Christmas. 

This is a very distinct apple from the New Hawthomden introduced 
by Mr. Rivers in 1847, and is much superior to it, being of greater 
weight and of much firmer texture. I received it fi'om Mr. George 
Paul, of the Nurseries, Cheshunt. See New Hawthoi'den. 

WINTER LADING. — Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three- 
quarters wide at the middle, and two inches and a half high ; roundish, 
and narrowing towards the crown, irregularly formed, sometimes with 
one prominent angle on one side. Skin, bright green, marked with 
patches and dots of thin russet. Eye, closed, set in an angular basin. 
Stalk, three-quarters of an inch long, curved, inserted in a deep, round 
cavity. Flesh, greenish white, juicy, sweet, very tender and delicate, 
with a pleasant acid. 

An excellent sauce apple ; in use from October to Christmas. 

It is grown in the north-eastern parts of Sussex, about Heathfield. 

WINTER MAJETIN.— Fruit, medium sized ; roundish ovate, with 
ribs round the crown. Skin, smooth, dark green, covered with thin 
dull brownish red on the side next the sun. Eye, closed, with broad 
erect segments, set in a narrow basin, which is much furrowed and 
plaited. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, three- 
quarters of an inch long, slender, inserted in a deep and narrow cavity, 
which is lined with russet. Flesh, greenish white, firm, crisp, brisk, 
and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A first-rate culinary apple, bearing a considerable resemblance to 
the London Pippin, but does not change to yellow colour by keeping 



246 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

as that variety does ; it is in use from January to May. The tree is 
an abundant bearer. 

This variety is, strictly speaking, a Norfolk apple, where it is much grown for 
the local markets. It was first made public by Mr. George Lindley, Avho intro- 
duced it to the notice of the London Horticultural Society. In the " Guide to the 
Orchard," it is stated that the Aphis lanigera, or " Mealy Bug," so destructive to 
most of our old or.^hard trees, seems to be set at defiance by the Majetin " An 
old tree now growing in a garden belonging to Mr. William Youngman, of Norwich, 
which had been grafted about three feet high in the stem, has been for many years 
attacked by this insect below the grafted part, but never above it, the limbs and 
branches being to this day perfectly free, althougli all the other trees in the same 
garden have been infested more or less with it." 

WINTER MARIGOLD.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter 
wide, and two inches high ; roundish ovate, bluntly angular. Skia, 
lemon-yellow, with broken streaks of bright crimson all over the sur- 
face. : Eye, small and closed, with connivent segments, set in a shallow 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, a quarter of an inch 
long, inserted in a deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, sweet, 
and pleasantly flavoured. Cells, open, oblate or obovate ; axile. 

A dessert apple ; in use up till Christmas, when it shrivels. It is 
not of high merit. 

WINTER PEACH. — Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, and 
two inches and a half high ; oblate, with very prominent ribs, like the 
White Calville, and these extend to the crown, where they form promi- 
nent ridges. Skin, smooth and shining, rich cream-colour. Eye, 
open, with broad segments, which are divergent, set in a deep angular 
basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, very short, deeply 
imbedded in the cavity. Flesh, very tender and juicy, with a fine 
acidity, as tender as that of the White Calville. Cells, closed, 
obovate ; axile. 

A valuable cooking apple, which keeps till April. I received it from 
Messrs. Richard Smith & Co., of Worcester. 

WINTER PEARMAIN {Sussex Scarlet Pearmain ; Duck's Bill).— 
Fruit, medium sized, two inches and three-quarters wide at the base, 
and the same high ; conical, somewhat five-sided towards the crown, 
where it is considerably ribbed. Skin, smooth and shining, at first 
greenish yellow, with faint streaks of dull red on the shaded side, 
and entirely covered with deep red on the side next san ; but it 
changes by keeping to deep yellow, streaked with flesh-colour on the 
shaded side, and a beautiful clear deep red or crimson on the side next 
the' sun ; strewed all over with small russet dots. Eye, large, gene- 
rally open, but sometimes closed, with short convergent segments, set 
in a pretty deep and prominently plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
coni(3al or funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short, not exceeding a quarter of 
an inch long, inserted in a deep, funnel-shaped cavity, which is lined 
with russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, juicy, and sweet, with a 
brisk and very pleasant flavour. Cells, ovate ; axile. 



APPLES. 247 

A very valuable and beautiful apple, suitable either for dessert or 
culinary use from December to the end of April. The tree attains 
about the middle size, is very hardy, and an excellent bearer. 

This is a well-known Sussex variety, under the name of Duck's Bill, and is 
much (irown upon the Weald. It is the Wviter Pearmain and Winter Quoining 
of the London markets, and it is also grown in the Kentish orchards under these 
names. 

WINTER PIPPIN.— Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and two inches high ; roundish, depressed at the crown, obtusely 
ribbed, with ridges round the eye. Skin, bright red on the side 
exposed to the sun, and yellow, with a few pale broken streaks of red, 
on the shaded side ; the surface dotted with russet. Eye, small and 
quite closed, set in an angular basin. Stamens, median ; tube, small 
conical. Stalk, slender, about half an inch long, nearly imbedded in 
the russety cavity. Flesh, yellowish, firm, crisp, and agreeably 
liavoured. Cells, roundish obovate ; axile, open. 

This is at the present time considered one of the best six Gloucester- 
shire cider apples. 

WINTER POMEROY.— Fruit, medium sized, three inches wide, 
and two inches and a half high ; roundish or roundish ovate ; distinctly 
five-sided, especially towards the apex, forming ridges, and rather flat 
at the base. Skin, smooth, deep yellow on the shs^ded side, strewed 
with bold russet dots, and with a bright red cheek on the side next the sun. 
Eye, open, with erect, convergent, and somewhat divergent segments, 
set in a moderately deep basin. Stamens, median ; tube, short, funnel- 
shaped. Stalk, long and very slender, inserted in a deep narrow cavity, 
surrounded with a patch of pale brown russet. Flesh, yellowish, firm, 
crisp, and pleasantly sub-acid. Cells, elliptical ; axile, open. 

A useful cooking apple ; in season from December till January. 

WINTER QUOINING {Winter Qii£ening).—YnuU medium sized, 
two inches and quarter wide, and rather more than two inches and a 
half high ; conical, distinctly five-sided, with five acute angles, extend- 
ing the whole length of the fruit, and terminatiDg at the crown in five 
equal and prominent crowns. Skin, pale green, almost entirely covered 
with red, which is striped and mottled with deeper red, and marked on 
the shaded side with a thin coat of russet. Eye, small and closed, 
with loDg pointed segments, set in a narrow and angular cavity. 
Stamens, median ; tube, conical, inclining to funnel-shape. Stalk, 
short, or about half an inch long, and slender, deeply inserted in a 
narrow and angular cavity. Flesh, greenish yellow, tender, soft, 
not very juicy, sugary, rich, and perfumed. Cells, obovate ; abaxile. 

A good old English apple, suitable either for the dessert or culinary 
purposes ; it is in use from November to May. 

The Winter Quoining is a very old English apple. See Queening. 

Winter Queening. See Winter Pearmain and Winter Quoining, 

Winter Red-streak. See Camhusnethan Pippin. 



248 THE FRUIT MANUAL.' 

WINTER RUSSET. — Fruit, about medium size, two inches and a 
quarter wide, and two inches high ; roundish and flattened ; the sides 
are angular, and the crown is ribbed. Skin, entirely covered with 
brown russet, which is thick but not rough, and in some specimens 
there is a tinge of orange ground colour, and in others there is a patch 
of smooth, shining, dark crimson. Eye, closed, with broad green leaf- 
like segments, set in a moderately deep and rather angular basin. 
Stalk, from a quarter to half an inch long, woody and slender, inserted 
in an open and moderately deep cavity. Flesh, greenish white, very 
firm and crisp, but not juicy, with a brisk, somewhat sweet, and agree- 
ably perfumed flavour. 

An excellent kitchen apple, which bakes well, and makes good sauce ; 
in use from Christmas till the end of February, and does not shrivel 
like most of the russets. 

I received this from Mr. G. S. Wintle, of Gloucester, and it is generally met 
with in the orchards of that neighbourhood. 

WINTER STRAWBERRY.— Fruit, medium sized; roundish, in- 
clining to conical, with obtuse angles ; knobbed round the crown. 
Skin, yellow, striped with broken streaks of red. Eye, closed, sur- 
rounded with plaits in a shallow basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
conical or funnel-shaped. Stalk, half an inch to an inch long, 
inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellowish, crisp, juicy, briskly 
acid, and with a pleasant aroma. Cells, obovate ; axile. 

A culinary apple ; in use from December to March. 

WINTER WHORLE.— Fruit, small, two inches and a half wide, 
and an inch and three-quarters high ; oblate, undulating round the 
crown. Skin, yellowish green in the shade, and orange striped with 
broken streaks of crimson next the sun ; russety all over the base and 
in the basin of the eye. Eye, closed, with flat convergent segments, 
set in a round plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, over half an inch long, straight, inserted in a rather shallow, 
wide cavity. Flesh, j^ellowish, tender, juicy, sweet, and of good 
flavour. Cells, open, ovate, pointed ; axile. 

An excellent late -keeping dessert apple, adapted for the North of 
Scotland ; it keeps in good condition till March. 

It was sent to me by my excellent friend Dr. J. Mackenzie, of Eileanach, 
Inverness. 

WITHINGTON FILLBASKET.— Fruit, very large, four inches 
wide, by three and a quarter high ; roundish and depressed, promi- 
nently and obtusely angular on the side and ribbed at the crown. 
Skin, uniformly green or yellowish green, and occasionally with the 
faintest tinge of dull red where fully exposed to the sun, and thickly 
strewed with minute russet dots. Eye, quite closed, with convergent 
segments, and set in a deep angular and plaited basin. Stamens, 
basal ; tube, short, funnel-shaped. Stalk, very short and stout, im- 



APPLES. 249 

bedded in the cavity. Flesh, firm, crisp, and pleasantly acid. Cells, 
obovate ; axile. Core, very small for the size of the fruit. 

A large and very handsome culinary apple ; in use during September 
and October. 

WoUaton Pippin. See Court Penda Plat. 

WOODCOCK. —Fruit, medium sized ; of an oval shape, tapering a 
little towards the crown, which is narrow. Skin, entirely covered with 
bright red, which is very dark on the side next the sun, but on the 
shaded side it is thin red and yellow streaked with red. Eye, 
closed, with rather long segments, set in a moderately deep basin, 
and sun-ounded with fine knobs. Stamens, rather basal ; tube, short, 
conical. Stalk, a quarter to half an inch long, inserted obliquely, 
with a large sweUing at its base on one side, which is said by its 
appearance to give the name to the fruit. Flesh, yellowish, some- 
times stained with red under the skin, tender, juicy, and acid. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, slit. 

A Herefordshire cider apple. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 1073. 

This is one of the oldest cider apples, and is highly commended by 
the writers of the seventeenth century ; but according to Mr. Knight 
it has long ceased to deserve the attention of the planter. It is said 
that the name of this apple is derived from an imagined resemblance 
in the form of the fruit and fruit-stalk, in some instances, to the head 
and beak of a woodcock ; but Mr. Knight thinks it probable that it 
was raised by a person of that name. 

Woodcock. See Green Woodcock, 

WOODLEY'S FAVOURITE.— Fruit, medium sized, three inches 
wide, and two inches and a quarter high ; roundish and rather flat- 
tened at the crown, bluntly angular. Skin, rather greasy when 
handled, deep yellow, and with a faint blush of crimson where 
exposed to the sun. Eye, rather large, with broad, flat segments, set 
in a wide and plaited basin. Stamens, marginal ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, half an inch to three-quarters long, set in a wide and rather 
deep cavity. Flesh, yellowish, tender, juicy, and with a pleasant mild 
acidity. Cells, ovate ; abaxile. 

An excellent cooking apple ; in use from October to Christmas. It 
is a fine heavy apple. Sent me by Messrs. Wood & Ingram, of 
Huntingdon. 

Woodpecker. See Baldwin. 

Wood's Huntingdon. See Cowt of Wick. 

Woodstock Pippin. See Blenheim Pippin. 

WOOLIMAN'S LONG (Ortley ; Fan Dj/?i^).— Fruit, medium sized ; 



250 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

oblong. Skin, clear deep yellow on the shaded side, but bright scarlet 
on the side next the sun, sprinkled with imbedded pearly specks and 
russety dots. Eye, large, set in a moderately deep and plaited basin. 
Stalk, slender, inserted in a rather deep and even cavity. Fleshy 
yellowish, crisp, brittle, juicy, with a rich, brisk, and perfumed flavour. 

An excellent apple of first-rate quality, suitable either for culinary 
or dessert use ; it is in season from December to April. 

This is an American apple, and originated in the State of New Jersey, U.S. 

WORCESTEK PEARMAIN.— Fruit, medium sized, two inches ancl 
three-quarters wide, and the same in height ; conical, even and very 
slightly angular towards the crown, where it is narrow. Skin, very 
smooth, and completely covered with a brilliant red, dotted with fawn- 
coloured freckles ; here and there in some of the specimens the yellow 
ground shows faintly through the red ; from the stalk cavity issue 
branches of russet, which extend over the base. Eye, small, closed,, 
with long, connivent segments forming a cone set on the apex of the 
fruit, with a few prominent plaits round it. Stamens, marginal ; tube, 
long, funnel-shaped. Stalk, from a quarter to three-quarters of an 
inch long, deeply inserted in an even cavity. Flesh, very tender,, 
crisp, very juicy, sweet, and sprightly, with a pleasant flavour. Cells, 
obovate ; axile, slit. 

A handsome early kitchen or dessert apple, ripe in August and 
September. The tree is a free bearer, and from the great beauty of 
the fruit is a favourite in the markets. 

Messrs. Richard Smith & Co., of Worcester, sent me this in 1873. It is a 
seedling from Devonshire Quarrenden. 

WORMSLEY PIPPIN (Knight's CodUn).— Fruit, large, three inches 
and a half broad in the middle, and three inches high ; ovate, widest 
at the middle, and narrowing both towards the base and the apex, with 
obtuse angles on the sides, which terminate at the crown in several 
prominent ridges. Skin, smooth, deep clear yellow, with a rich golden 
or orange tinge on the side next the sun, and covered with numerous 
dark spots. Eye, large and open, with long acuminate segments, 
placed in a deep, furrowed, and angular basin. Stamens, median ;. 
tube, conical. Stalk, short, inserted in a deep and round cavity,, 
which is thickly lined with russet. Flesh, yellow, tender, crisp, rich, 
sugar}^ brisk, and aromatic. Cells, roundish ovate ; axile. 

A most valuable apple, either for the dessert or culinary purposes ; 
it is in season during September and October. 

This admirable apple was raised by T. A. Knight, Esq., and first brought into 
notice in 1811. It is named from Wormsley Grange, in Herefordshire, where 
Mr. Knight was born, August 12th, 1759. As a culinary apple it is not to be 
surpassed -, and even in the dessert, when well ripened, Mr. Knight considered it 
closely resembled the Newtown Pippin. The iree is hardy, healthy, a free and 
abundant bearer. It has been found to succeed in every latitude of these kingdoms. 
Even in Kosshire, the late Sir G. S. McKenzie found it to succeed well as an 
espalier. It ought to be cultivated in every garden, however small. 



APPLES. 251 

Wygers. See Golden Beinette. 

WYIlEN PIPPIN (WarwkksJiire Pippin; Arleij ; Girkin Pippin).— 
Fruit, below medium size, two inches and a half broad, and two inches 
high; oblate, even and handsomely shaped. Skin, smooth, pale 
greenish yellow in the shade, but with a dull orange blush next the 
sun, and sprinkled all over with russety dots and patches of delicate 
russet, particularly on the base. Eye, large and open, set in a wide, 
shallow, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, conical. Stalk, 
very short, imbedded in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, tinged with 
green, tender, very juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. Cells, obovate ; 
axile, closed. 

A valuable and delicious dessert apple of first-rate quality ; in use 
from December to April. The tree is a healthy and good grower, and 
an excellent bearer. 

This variety is said to have originated from seed saved from an apple which 
Ijord Craven had eaten while on his travels from France to Holland, and which was 
planted at Wykcn, about t.vo miles from Coventry. According to Mr. Lindley, 
the originiil tree, then very old, was in existence in 1827, and presented the appear- 
ance of an old trunk, with a strong sucker growing from its roots. 

Wyker Pippin. See Golden Reinette. 

YELLOW ELIOT.— Fruit, of a good size, rather more flat than 
long, having a few obtuse angles terminating in the crown. Eye, small, 
with short diverging segment of the calyx. Stalk, short. Skin, pale 
yellow, slightly shaded with orange on the sunny side. 

Specific gravity of the juice, 107G. 

The cider of this apple in a new state is harsh and astringent, but 
grows soft and mellow with age, and was much esteemed by the writers 
of the seventeenth century. 

Yellow Harvest. See Early Harvest, 

YELLOW INGE STRIE.— Fruit, small, an inch and three-quarters 
wide, and an inch and five-eighths high ; of a handsome cylindrical 
shape, flattened at both ends. Skin, smooth, of a fine clear yellow, 
tinged with a deeper yellow on the side next the sun, and marked with 
small pinky spots. Eye, small, and partially closed, set almost even 
with the surface, but sometimes in a wide and shallow basin. Stamens, 
median ; tube, funnel-shaped. Stalk, from half an inch to three- 
quarters long, set in a rather shallow and smooth cavity. Flesh, 
yellow, firm, crisp, and delicate, with a profusion of brisk and highly 
flavoured vinous juice. Cells, closed, ovate ; axile. 

A beautiful and delightful little dessert apple of first-rate quality, 
bearing a conbiderable resemblance to the Golden Pippin ; it is in use 
during September and October. 

The tree is large, spreading, and an excellent bearer. 

This, and the Red Ingestrie, were raised by T. A. Knight, Esq. See Red 
Jngestrie. 



252 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

YELLOW NEWTOWN PIPPIN (Large Yellow Newtown Pippin),— 
Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and three- 
quarters high ; roundish, irregular in its outline, and prominently 
angled on the sides. Skin, of a uniform deep straw colour, which is 
rather deeper and richer on the side next the sun than on the other, 
and thinly covered with delicate net work of fine grey russet, inter- 
spersed with several large dark spots. . Eye, large and closed, with long 
linear segments, set in a wide and irregular basin, from which issue 
several deep russety furrows. Stalk, short, deeply inserted in an 
uneven and angular cavity, which is partially lined with russet. Flesh, 
yellowish, crisp, juicy, and slightly sub-acid, but with an agreeable 
flavour. 

A first-rate dessert apple ; in use from December to March, and 
ripens better in this climate than the Newtown Pippin. 

YELLOW STYRE. — Fruit, small, two inches and a quarter wide, 
and the same high ; roundish ovate, and sometimes round, regular in 
its outline. Skin, lemon-yellow, very much striped with broken 
streaks of crimson on the side next the sun, but only a few paler on 
the shaded side. Eye, set in a rather wide and plaited basin, with 
erect, connivent segments. Stamens, median ; tube, funnel-shaped. 
Stalk, curved, a quarter to half an inch long, inserted in a rather deep, 
narrow cavity. Flesh, yellow, soft, and tender, with a sweet and brisk 
juice. Cells, elliptical ; axile, open. 

A very old and now very scarce Herefordshire cider apple, of great 
merit. 

YORKSHIRE GREENING (Coates's ; Yorkshire Goose Sauce).— 
Fruit, large, three inches and a half wide, and two inches and a half 
high ; oblate; and slightly angular on the sides. Skin, very dark green, 
but where exposed to the sun tinged with dull red, which is striped 
with broken stripes of deeper red, very much speckled all over with 
rather bold grey russet specks, and over the base with traces of greyish 
brown russet. Eye, closed, with incurved convergent segments, set in 
a shallow, irregular, and plaited basin. Stamens, median ; tube, 
conical. Stalk,' short, stout, and fleshy, covered with grey down, 
inserted in a wide and rather shallow cavity. Flesh, greenish white, 
firm, crisp, and very juicy, with a brisk but pleasant acidity. Cells, 
obovate ; abaxile. 

A first-rate culinary apple ; in use from October to January. 

Yorkshire Robin. See Winter Greening. 
Young's Long Keeping. See Winter Greening. 



APPLES. 



253 



LISTS OF SELECT APPLES, 

ADAPTED TO VARIOUS LATITUDES OF GREAT BEITAIN. 



I.— SOUTHERN DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND, 

AND NOT EXTENDING FURTHER NORTH THAN THE BIYEB TBENT. 



Dessert. 
Benoni 

Devonshire Quarrenden 
Early Harvest 
Early Julyan 
Irish Peach 
Joaneting 
Kerry Pippin 



1. Summer Apples. 

Marparet 
Mr. Gladstone 
Sack and Sugar 
Summer Golden Pippin 

Kitchen. 
Carlisle Codlin 
Duchess of Oldenburg 



Keswick Codlin 
Lord Suffield 
Manks Codlin 
Stirling Castle 
Springrove Codlin 



Dessert. 
Adams's Pearmain 
American Mother Apple 
Borsdorfer 
Blenheim Pippin 
Coe's Golden Drop 
Cornish Aromatic 
Court of Wick 
Cox's Orange Pippin 
Downton- Pippin 
Early Nonpareil 
Fearn's Pippin 
Franklin's Golden Pippin 
Golden Pippin 
Golden Reinette 
Golden Winter Pearmain 
Lucombe's Pine 
Margil 
Melon Apple 
Nanny 



2. Autumn Apples. 

Pine Apple Russet 
Pine Golden Pippin 
Pitmaston Golden Pippin 
Pitmaston Pine Apple 
Pomeroy 
Ribston Pippin 
Sykehouse Russet 
Red Ingestrie 
Reinette Van Mons 
Yellow Ingestrie 

Kitchen. 
Bedfordshire Foundling 
Breitling 
Cellini 

Cox's Pomona 
Ecklinville 
Emperor Alexander 
Flower of Kent 
Forge 



Gloria Mundi 
Golden Noble 
Greenup's Pippin 
Harvey Apple 
Hawthornden 
Hoary Morning 
Kentish Fill Basket 
Lemon Pippin 
Loddington 
Lord Derby 
Mere de Menage 
Nelson Codlin 
Nonesuch 
Stirling Castle 
Tower of Glammis 
Wadhurst Pippin 
Waltham Abbey Seedling 
Winter Quoining 
Wormsley Pippin 
Yorkshire Greening 



Dessert. 
Ashmead's Kernel 
Barcelona Pearmain 
Boston Russet 
Braddick's Nonpareil 
Claygate Pearmain 
Cockle's Pippin 
Cornish Gilliflower 



3. Winter Apples. 

Court Pendu Plat 
D'Arcy Spice 
Downton Nonpareil 
Dredge's Fame 
Duke of Devonshire 
Dutch Mignonne 
Golden Harvey 
Golden Russet 



Hughes's Golden Pippin 
Hubbard's Pearmain 
Keddleston Pippin 
Lamb Abbey Pearmain 
Lodgemore Nonpareil 
Maclean's Favourite 
Mannington's Pearmain 
Mela Carla 



254 



THE FI^UIT MANUAL. 



Nonpareil 
Northern Spy 
Ord's Apple 
Pearson's Plnte 
Pinner Seedling 
Piimaston Golden Pippin 
Pitmaston Nonpareil 
Pitmaston Pine Apple 
Ross Nonpareil 
Russet Table Pearmain 
Sam Younf? 
Sturm er Pippin 
Wyken Pippin 



Kitchen. 
Alfriston 
Beauty of Kent 
Brabant Bellefleur 
Brownlees's Russet 
Dumelow's Seedling 
French Crab 
Gooseberry Apple 
Hanibledon Deux Ans 
Hanwell Souring 
Lane's Prince Albert 
Lord Derby 
MinthuU Crab 



Norfolk Beefing 
Norfolk Colman 
Norfolk Stone Pippin 
Northern Greening 
Reinette Blanche 

d'Espagne 
Rhode Island Greening 
Round Winter Nonesuch 
Royal Pearmain 
Royal Russet 
Striped Beeting 
Winter Majeting 
Winter Pearmain 



IL NORTHERN DISTRICTS OF ENGLAND, 

EXTENDING FROM THE RIVER TRENT TO THE RIVER TTNE. 



1. Summer Apples. 



Dessert. 


Margaret 


Keswick Codlin 


Devonshire Quarrenden 


Oslin 


Lord Suffield 


Early Harvest 


Whorle 


Manks Codlin 


Irish Peach 




Nonesuch 


Joaneting 


Kitchen. 


Springrove Codlin 


Kerry Pippin 


Carlisle Codlin 
2. Autumn Apples. 




Dessert. 


Ribston Pippin 


Gloria Mundi 


Borsdorfer 


Stamford Pippin 


Greenup's Pippin 


Downton Pippin 


Summer Pearmain 


Hawthornden 


Early Nonpareil 


Wormsley Pippin 


Lemon Pippin 


Franklin's Golden Pippin 


Yellow Ingestrie 


Mere de Menage 


Golden Monday 


Kitchen. 


Nelson Codlin 


Golden Winter Pearmain 


Cellini 


Nonesuch 


Red Ingestrie 


Emperor Alexander 
3. "Winter Apples. 


Tower of Glammis 


Dessert. 


Keddleston Pippin 


Bedfordshire Foundling 


Adams's Pearmain 


Margil 


Blenheim Pippin 


Barcelona Pearmain 


Nonpareil 


Dumelow's Seedling 


Brad dick's Nonpareil 


Pitmaston Nonpareil 


French Crab 


Clay gate Pearmain 


Royal Pearmain 


Mere de Menage 


Cockle's Pippin 


Scarlet Nonpareil 


Nelson Codlin 


Court of Wick 


Sturmer Pippin 


Northern Greening 


Court Pendu Plat 


Sykchouse Russet 


Round Winter Nonesuch 


Golden Pippin 


KlTCIIEX. 


Yorkshi. e Greening 


Golden Reinette 


Alfriston 





APPLES. 255 

III. BORDER COUNTIES OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND, 

AND TUB WARM AND SHELTERED SITUATIONS IN OTHER I'AUTS OF SCOTLAND. 



1. Summer and Autumn Apples. 



Dessert. 
Cellini 

Devonshire Quarrenden 
Edinburtjh Cluster 
Karly Jul van 
Federal Pearmaiii 
Golden Monday 
Greenup's Pippin 
Grey Leadington 
Irish Peach 
Kerry Pippin 



Margaret 

Melrose 

Nonesuch 

Oslin 

Ravelston Pippin 

Red Astrachaa 

lied Ingotrie 

Sammor Pearmain 

Sutnmer Strawberry 

White Paradise 

Whorle 



Wormsley Pippin 
Yellowr Ingestrie 

Kitchen. 
Carlisle Codlin 
])utch Codlin 
Hawthornden 
Keswick Codlin 
Manks Codlin 
Nelson Codlin 
Springrove Codlin 



Dessert. 
^Adams's Pearmain 
•Barcelona Pearmain 
^Braddick's Nonpareil 
Court of Wick 
*Downton Pippin 
*Golden Pippin 
^Golden Russet 
*Margil 
►Nonpareil 



2. Winter Apples. 

Those marked • require a wall. 

•Pearson's Plate 
•Pennington's Seedling 
•Ribs'on Pippin 
•Scarlet Nonpareil 
•Sturmer Pippin 

Sykehouse Russet 

Wykeu Pippin 

KlTCHEV. 

Bedfordshire Foundling 



Brabant Bellcfleur 
Dumelow's Seedling 
Royal Russet 
Rymer 

Tower of Glammis 
Winter Greening 
Winter Pearmain 
Winter Strawberry 
Yorkshire Greening 



IV. NORTHERN PARTS OF SCOTLAND, 



and othek exposed situations in engi and a^d scotland. 

1. Summer and Autumn Apples. 
Those marked * require a trail. 



Dessert. 

Devonshire Quarrenden 
Early July an 
Irish Peach 
Kerry Pippin 
Nonesuch 



•Ravelsron Pippin 
bummer Strawberry 

Kitchen. 
Carlisle Codlin 
Hawthornden 



Keswick Codlin 
Manks Codlin 
Melrose 



Dessert. 

•Golden Russet 

Grey Leadington 
•Margil 



2. Winter Apples. 
Winter Strawberry 

Kitchen. 

Tower of Glammis 



Warner's King 
Winter Greening 
Yoikshire Greening 



256 



THE FEUIT MANUAL. 



V. FOR ESPALIERS OR DWARF BUSHES. 



These succeed well when grafted on the Paradise or Doucin stock ; and from 
their small habit of growth, are well adapted for that mode of culture. 



Adams's Pearmain 
American Mother Apple 
Ashmead's Kernel 
Borovitsky 
Boston Russet 
Braddick's Nonpareil 
Cellini 

Christie's Pippin 
Claygate Pearmain 
Cockle's Pippin 
Coe's Golden Drop 
Cornish Gilliflower 
Court of Wick 
Court Pendu Plat 
Cox's Orange Pippin 
Downton Pippin 
Dutch Mignonne 
Early Harvest 
Early Julyan 
Early Nonpareil 
Franklin's Golden Pippin 
Golden Harvey 
Golden Pippin 



Golden Reinette 

Golden Russet 

Hawthornden 

Holbert's Victoria 

Hubbard's Pearmain 

Hughes's Golden Pippin 

Irish Peach 

Isle of Wight Pippin 

Joaneting 

Keddleston Pippin 

Kerry Pippin 

Keswick Codlin 

Lamb Abbey Pearmain 

Lucombe's Pine 

Maclean's Favourite 

Hanks Codlin 

Mannington's Pearmain 

Margaret 

Margil 

Melon Apple 

Nanny 

Nonesuch 

Nonpareil 



Oslin 

Pearson's Plate 
Pennington's Seedling 
Pine Apple Russet 
Pine Golden Pippin 
Pinner Seedling 
Pitmaston Golden Pippin 
Pitraaston Nonpareil 
Pitmaston Pine Apple 
Red ingestrie 
Reinette Van Mons 
Ronalds' Gooseberry 

Pippin 
Ross Nonpareil 
Russet Table Pearmain 
Sam Young 
Scarlet Nonpareil 
Scarlet Pearmain 
Sturmer Pippin 
Summer Golden Pippin 
Summer Pearmain 
Sykehouse Russet 
Yellow Ingestrie 



VL FOR ORCHARD PLANTING AS STANDARDS. 



These are generally strong growing or productive varieties, the fruit of which 
being mostly of a large size or showy appearance, they are on that account well 
adapted for orchard planting, to supply the markets. 



Alfriston 

Barcelona Pearmain 
Beauty of Kent 
Bedfordshire Foundling 
Blenheim Pippin 
Brabant Bellefleur 
Brownlees's Russet 
Cellini 

Cox's Pomona 
Devonshire Quarrenden 
Duchess of Oldenburg 
Dumelow's Seedling 
Dutch Codlin 
Emperor Alexander 
English Codlin 
Fearn's Pippin 
Flower of Kent 
Forge 
French Crab 



Gloria Mundi 
Golden Noble 
Golden Winter Pearmain 
Gooseberry Apple 
Hambledon Deux Ans 
Hanwell Souring 
Harvey Apple 
Hoary Morning 
Hollandbury 
Kentish Fill Basket 
Kerry Pippin 
Keswick Codlin 
Lane's Prince Albert 
Lemon Pijopin 
Lewis's Incomparable 
Loddington 
London Pippin 
Longville's Kernel 
Lord Derby 



Lord Grosvenor 
Manks Codlin 
Margaret 
Mere de Menage 
Minchull Crab 
Minier's Dumpling 
Nelson Codlin 
Norfolk Bearer 
Norfolk Beefing 
Northern Greening 
Reinette Blanche d'Es- 

pagne 
Reinette du Canada 
Rhode Island Greening 
Ringer 

Round Winter Nonesuch 
Royal Pearmain 
Royal Russet 
Bymer 



APPLES. 



257 



Small's Admirable 
Stirlini; Castle 
Striped Beefing 
Toker's Incomparable 
Tower of Glammis 



Waltham Abbey Seedling 
Winter Oodlin 
Winter Colman 
Winter Majeting 
Winter Pearmaia 



Winter Quoining 
Wormsley Pippin 
Wyken Pippin 
Yorkshire Greening 



THE BEST DESSERT APPLES, 
AKRANGED IN THEIR ORDER OF RIPENING. 



July. 
Joaneting 
Margaret 

July and August. 
Early Harvest 
Sack and Sugar 

A ugust. 
Irish Peach 

Devonshire Quarrenden 
Large Yellow Bough 
Whorle Pippin 

A ugust and September. 
Old King of the Pippins 
Oslin 
Summer Golden Pippin 

September. 
Alexandra 

September and October. 
Bowyer's Russet 
Kerry Pippin 
Pineapple Russet 
Pomeroy of Hereford 
Wormsley Pippin 
Yellow Ingestrie 

October. 
American Mother 
Nanny 

October and November. 
Breedon Pippin 
Pine Golden Pippin 
Red Ingestrie 

October to December. 
Broughton 
Crofton Scarlet 
Early Nonpareil 
Franklin's Golden Pippin 
Gravenstein 



October to January. 
American Golden Russet 
Cornish Aromatic 
Golden Winter Pearmain 
Harvey's Wiltshire 

Defiance 
Isle of Wight Pippin 
Keeping Russet 
Lucombe's Pine Apple 
Maclean's Favourite 
Scarlet Pearmain 
Washington 

October to February. 
Barton's Incomparable 
Brookes's 

Cox's Orange Pippin 
Essex Pippin 
Micklehara Pearmain 
Morris's Court of Wick 
Morris's Russet 
Osterley Pippin 
Pomme Grise 
Sykehouse Russet 

October to March. 
Court of Wick 
Hormead Pearmain 
Mannington's Pearmain 

October to April. 
Api 

October to June. 
Morris's Nonpareil Russet 

November to January. 
Borsdorfer 
Downton Pippin 
Ribston Pearmain 

November to February, 

Esopus Spitzenburgh 
Loan's Pearmain 
Margil 
Powell's Russet 



Reinette Jaune Sucree 
Ronald's Gooseberry Pip- 
pin 
Ross Nonpareil 
Russet Table Pearmain 
Sam Young 
Siely's Mignonne 
Stoke Edith Pippin 

November to March. 
Barcelona Pearmain 
Claygate Pearmain 
Cobham 

Keddlcston Pippin 
Mrs. Ward 
Pack horse 
Pennington's Seedling 

November to April. 
Braddick's Nonpareil 
Forman's Crow 
Golden Pippin 
Golden Reinette 
Hubbard's Pearmain 
Reinette Franche 
Scarlet Golden Pippin 
Wheeler's Russet 

November to May. 
Ashmead's Kernel 
Coe's Golden Drop 
D'Arcy Spice 
Reinette Grise 

December and January. 
Padley's Pippin 
Pitmaston Pine Apple 

December to February. 
Adams's Pearmain 
Aromatic Russet 
Byson Wood Russet 
Caraway Russet 
Christie's Pippin 
Golden Nonpareil 
Hughes's Golden Pippin 
Huut'sDuke of Gloucester 

17 



258 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



Melon 

Pitmaston Golden Pippin 
Pitmaston Nonpareil 
Robinson's Pippin 
Kosemary Russet 

December to March. 
Beachamweli 
Federal Pearraain 
Golden Knob 
Golden Russet 
Hunt's Deux Ans 
Mela Oarla 
Pearson's Plate 
Reinette de Breda 
Reinette Diel 
Ribston Pippin 
Siegende Reinette 
Taunton Golden Pippin 
Yellow Newtown Pippin 

December to April. 
Eldon Pip])in 



Jonathan 
Newtown Pippin 
Pinner Seedling 
Reinette Carpentin 
liusiiock Pearmain 
Screveton Golden Pippin 
Shakespere 
Wyken Pippin 

December 1o May. 
Cornish Gilliflower 
Court Pendu Plat 
Golden Harvey 
Holbert's Victoria 
Lord Burghley 
Northern Spy 
Reinette Van Mons 
Reinette Verte 

January to April 
Boston Russet 
Brickley Seedling 



Calville Blanche d'Hiver 
Cockle's Pippin 
Farleigh Pip})in 
Lamb Abbey Pearmain 
Scarlet Nonpareil 
Twiiiing's Pippin 

January to May. 
New Rock Pippin 
Nonpareil 
Ord's 
Uellner's Gold Reinette 

February to May. 
Duke of Devonshire 

February to June. 
Lodgemore Nonpareil 
Sturmer Pippin 
Wan stall 



THE BEST KITCHEN APPLES. 
ARRANGED IN THE ORDER OF RIPENING. 



August. 
Early Julyan 
Sugarloaf Pippin 
Summer Stibbert 
William!>'s Favourite 

August and September. 

Carlisle Codlin 

€ole 

Duchess of Oldenburgh 

English Codlin 

Keswick Codlin 

Lord Suffield 

Red Hawthornden 

August to October. 
Jolly Beggar 
Springrove Codlin 
Stirling Castle 

September and Octoher. 
Grand Duke Constantine 
Nonesuch 
bummer Pearmain 

September to December. 
Emperor Alexander 
Golden Noble 
Lord Grosvenor 
Waltham Abbey Seedling 



September to January. 
Broad-eyed Pippin 
Nelson Codlin 
Winter Codlin 

October, 
Cellini 
Cox's Pomona 

October to December. 
Fall Pippin 
Greenup's Pippin 
Hawthornden 
Hoary Morning 
Lord Derby 
Moore's Seedling 

October to January. 
Brown Kenting 
Castle Major 
Catshead 
Ecklinville 
Flower of Kent 
Galloway Pippin 
Glory of the West 
Gloucestershire Costard 
Harvey Apple 
Herefordshire Costard 
Hollandbury 
Kenti&h Pippin 



Loddington 

Melrose 

Mere de Menage 

Rabine 

Kvmer 

Tom Putt 

Yorkshire Greening 

October to February. 
Beauty of Kent 
Lady Henniker 
Lane's Prince Albert 
Lueombe's Seedling 
Pile's Kusset 
Wadhuis'o Pippin 
Waaler's King 
Watson's Dumpling 

November to January, 
Kentish Fill-Basket 
Queen of Sauce 
Email's Admirable 
Toker's Incomparable 
Winter Hawthornden 

November to February. 
Blenheim Pippin 
Caroline 
Fearn's Pippin 
Grange's Pearmain 



APPLES. 



259 



Tower of Glammis 

November to March. 
Baxter's Pear main 
Bedfordshire Foundling 
Dnmelow's Seedling 
Holland Pippin 
Hoiskreiger 
Minchull Crab 
Round Winter Nonesuch 
Royal Pearmain 
Royal Kusset 
Royal Somerset 

November to April. 
Alfriston 

Brabant Bellefleur 
London Pippin 
Northern Greening 



Omar Pasha 
Reinette du Canada 
Rhode Island Greening 
Winter Colman 

November to May. 
Betty Geeson 
Minier's Dumpling 
Striped Beefing 
Winter Greening 
Winter Quoining 

November to July. 
Norfolk Stone Pippin 

December to February. 
Harvey's Pippin 
Mitchelson's Seedling 



December to March. 
Dredge's Fame 
Hanwell Souring 
Stamford Pippin 

December to April. 
Dutch Codlin 
Reinette Blanche d'Es- 

pagne 
Sweeny Nonpareil 
Winter Pearmain 

January to May. 
Brown lees's Russet 
Hambledon Deux Ana 
Winter Majetin 

January to June, 
Norfolk Beefing 



THE BEST CIDER APPLES. 



HEREFORDSHIRE. 



Furnished by Dr. Henry Bull, op Hereford. 



Bran Rose 
Cherry Norman 
Cherry Pearmain 
Coccagee 
Cowarne Red 
Cwmray 
Dymock Red 
Eggleton Styre 
Forest Styre 
Foxwhelp 
Garter 

Oennet Moyle 
Green Wilding 
Hagloe Crab 
Handsome Norman 
Kiniiston Black 



Munn's Red 
Old Bromley 
Pym Square 
Red Norman 
Red Royal 
Red Splash 
Red-streak 
Royal Wilding 
Skyrme's Kernel 
South Quoining 
Strawberry Norman 
Tanner's Red 
Wilding Bitter-sweet 
White Norman 
White Must 
White Styre 



DEVONSHIRE. 
Fdrkished by Mr. R. T. Veitch, Nurseryman, Exbtsb. 



Han gd own 
Tremleit's Bitter 
Kingston Black 
Pound Apple 
Sweet Elford or Alfred 
Tom Putt 



Greasy 
Ponsford 
Red Cluster 
Slack my Girdle 
Soldier 
Northwood 



260 



THE FKUIT MANUAL. 



SOMERSETSHIRE. 

Furnished by Mr. R. H. Poynton, Nurseryman, Taunton, from the most 
NOTED Cider Makers. 



Black Hereford — A large white apple, 
" good for extra prime tipple " 

Chibble's Wilding — A sweet yellow 
apple with a long stalk, which gives 
much briskness to cider 

Granville — A small red apple, giving a 
high colour 

Hangdown — A. small yellow apple 

Kingston Black — This of itself makes a 
thin cider ; but a few only communi- 
cate a high colour to other ciders 

Large Jersey — Good, but not a great 
cropper 



Morris's Apple — " Never blights," of 
medium size, high colour, and a very 
fair eating apple in January 

Streaked or Royal Jersey — Small red 

Darbin Red-streak 

Lurley Bitter-sweet 

Red Cluster 

Sweet Reinette 

Pound — Very large 

Cadbury — The cider quickly turns black 
after drawing 



APEICOTS. 



SYNOPSIS OF APEICOTS. 
A. KERNELS BITTER. 



* Back 


of the stone impervious. 


A. Freestones. 






Royal 


Alberge 






St. Ambroisc 


Brussels 






Shipley's 


Large Early 






White Masculine 


Liabaud 








Luizet 






B. Clingstones. 


Pine Apple 






Black 


Red Masculine 






Montgamet 


Roman 






Portugal 


*''fi 


Bacli 


of the stone pervious.1[ 


Alsace 






Large Red 


Beauge 






Moorpark 


Desfargcs 






Oullins Early Peach 


Early Moorpark 






Peach 


Frogmore Early 






Sardinian 


Hemskerk 






Viard 




B. 


KERNELS SWEET. 


A. Freestones. 






Turkey • 


D'Ampuy^ 






Provence 


Angoumois 








Breda 






B. Clingstones. 


Kaisha 






Orange 


Musch Musch 









t The bony substance at the back of the store is ptrvious by a passage through 
which a pin may be passed from one end to the other. 



APRICOTS. ^1 

Abricotin. See Red Masculine, 

ALBERGE. — Fruit, small and flattened, narrower at the apex than 
at the base, and marked on one side with a very shallow suture. Skin, 
often thick and rough to the feel ; greenish on the shaded side, but 
deep yellow where exposed to the sun, and marked with reddish spots. 
Stalk, inserted in a deep and narrow cavity. Flesh, deep orange, 
adhering somewhat to the stone, firm, vinous, and perfumed with an 
admixture of brisk acidity. Stone, large and flat. Kernel, bitter. 

This is generally used for drying and preserving. It is ripe in the 
end of August. The tree of this variety • is the largest and most 
vigorous grower of all the apricots, and bears abundantly. It is raised 
from seed, and is used in France as a stock on which to bud other 
kinds ; and hence there are many varieties of the Alberge, one of 
which has a sweet kernel, and is called Alberge Aveline. 

Alberge de Montgamet. See Montganiet, 

D'Alexandrie. See Musch Musch, 

ALGIER. — The Algier Apricot is one of the earliest recorded varieties 
in this country. It is mentioned by Parkinson, Ray, Miller, and For- 
syth, but there is no mention made of it by any other Enghsh authors 
except Meager, who has it in the list of varieties cultivated in the 
Brompton Park Nursery in 1G90. What this variety was it is difficult 
now to determine. Mr. Thompson referred it to the Portugal, and as 
the meagi'e description we have of it by Miller and Forsyth accords 
very much with that variety, there is every reason to conclude that Mr. 
Thompson was correct. Parkinson's account of it is : '' The Algier 
Apricocke is a smaller fruit than any of the other, and yellow, but as 
sweete and delicate as any of them, having a blackish stone within it 
little bigger than a Lacuro [Black Heart] cherry-stone. This, with 
many other sorts, John Tradescante brought with him returning from 
the Algier voyage, whither he went voluntary with the Fleete that went 
against the Pyrates in the yeare 1620." 

ALSACE. — This is a variety of the Moorpark, and is of a very large 
size, with a rich and juicy flavour. The tree, unlike the others of the 
race, is vigorous and hardy, and does not die ofi" in branches as the 
Moorpark does. 

Amande Aveline. See Breda. 

D'AMPUY. — This is a form of the Breda, and, like it, has a sweet 
kernel. It also resembles the Alberge, from which it difl'ers in the 
latter having a bitter kernel. This variety is much grown in the 
department of the Rhone, where it is chiefly used for compotes. 

ANGOUMOIS (Anr/oumois Hatif ; Anjou; Bouge; Violet). — Small, 
oval, flattened at the apex, marked on one side with a shallow suture. 



262 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Skin, clear, deep yellow on the shaded side, but dark rusty brown on 
the side next the sun. Stalk, inserted in a deep and narrow cavity. 
Flesh, deep orange or reddish yellow, juicy and melting, separating 
from the stone ; rich, sugary, and briskly flavoured, but, when highly 
ripened, charged with a fine aroma. Stone, broad and ovate, imper- 
vious. Kernel, sweet. 

Eipe in the end of July. The tree is of very slender growth, with 
strong brown shining shoots. 

There seems some confusion among pomologists regarding this. Diel makes it 
synonymous with Abricot Gros Orange, and I have met with it in some London 
nurseries under the name of Orange, where it caused great embarrassment by the 
diflSculty of its propagation, for the true Orange Apricot takes freely on the stocks 
usually employed for apricots ; this, however, as Bretonnerie says, requires to be 
budded on the almond. I quite agree with the author of the Luxemberg Cata- 
logue in making Angoumcis synonymous with Violet, the Violet of Duhamel 
being a very similar variety, if not identical. It is evident that it is not the 
Prunus dasycarpa he refers to when describing the Violet, for, at page 142, t. 1, 
he mentions Abricot Noir as being grown at Trianon, the description of which is 
clearly that of Prunus dasycarpa. 

Ananas. See Breda. 

Ananas. See Pine Apple. 

Angoumois Hatif. See Angoumois. 

Anjou. See Angoumois. 

Anson's. See Moorpark. 

A TROCHETS. — An excellent variety of the Peach Apricot, which 
blooms much later than that variety, and consequently is a better 
bearer, as its blossoms escape the early spring frosts. It was raised 
at Angers by M. Mille't, in 1840, and he named it A Trochets from the 
circumstance of its producing the fruit in clusters. 

Aveline. See Breda. 

BEAUGE. — A large variety of the Peach Apricot, ripening later 
than it in the middle of September. 

BELLE BE TOULOUSE.— A very excellent late variety of the 
Peach Apricot ; the latest of all. 

BLACK {Noir ; Du Pape ; Purple). — Fruit, small, about the size 
and shape of a small Orleans plum, to which it bears some resemblance. 
Skin, of a purple colour on the side exposed to the sun, but reddish 
yellow on the shaded side, and covered with a delicate down. Flesh, 
reddish yellow, adhering a little to the stone, juicy but tasteless, 
insipid, and quite worthless to eat. Stone, small, impervious on the 
back. Kernel, bitter. 

Ripe in the beginning of August. The tree grows from ten to 
fifteen feet high, and is more fitted for an ornamental than a fruit-tree. 



APRICOTS. . 268 

Blanc. See White Masculine, 
Blenheim. See Shipleifs. 

BREDA (Amande Aveline ; Aveline : Ananas: De Hollande ; Has- 
.sehui^ssmandel ; Xoisette). — Fruit, below medium size or small, roundish, 
compressed on the sides, in some cases so much as to be of a four- 
sided shape ; divided on one side by a deep suture, which extends from 
the base to the apex, where it terminates in a depression. Skin, deep 
orange on the shaded side, but deep dull reddish orange, dotted with 
brown and red dots, on the side next the sun. Stalk, deeply inserted 
in a narrow cavit}'. Flesh, deep orange, tender, juicy, rich, and highly 
flavoured, separating freely from the stone. Stone, small, smooth, 
and more round than that of any other variety, and without any pervi- 
ous channel on the back. Kernel, sweet, like that of a hazel nut. 

An excellent early apricot, ripe on walls from the beginning to the 
middle of August ; but on standards, which bear well in sheltered 
situations, it does not ripen till September. The tree is a good grower, 
with pretty strong shoots. 

There is a diversity of opinion among pomologists as to what is the true Breda 
Apricot. It is evident that the variety here described is not the Breda of Miller 
and other authors of the last century; nor is it that which is still grown in nur- 
series at the present lime, for both Roman and Brussels are to be found under the 
name of Bieda. Knoop says the Breda Apricot is large, and sometimes larger than 
the Bois-le-Duc, which is the largest of all apricots. It cannot, therefore, be the 
same as this. In the Horticultural Tour of ihe Ck)mmittee of the Caledonian 
Honicultural Society it is stated, when treating of the horticulture of Breda, " The 
Breda Apricot is well known and highly esteemed in Scotland, both on account of 
its large size and fine flavour, &c." The only conclusion I can come to there- 
fore is, that the large apricot described by Miller, and which was cultivated in the 
gardens of this country for Breda, was either the Brussels or Orange. The 
Abricot de Hollande which I now describe has long been cultivated as the true 
Breda. 

Brown Masculine. See Red Masculine. 

BRUSSELS. — Fruit, medium sized, rather oval, flattened on the 
sides, marked with a suture, which is deep at the base, but diminishes 
at the apex. Skin, pale yellow, dotted with white on the shaded side, 
but red, interspersed with dark spots, next the sun. Flesh, j-ellow, 
firm, brisk flavoured, and separating freely from the stone. Stone, 
small, impervious on the back. Kernel, bitter. 

A good hardy variety, ripe in the middle of August, but the fruit 
must not be allowed to become too ripe, as it is then pasty. 

The tree is a free grower and an excellent bearer. It is the best to- 
cultivate as a standard, and in favourable situations it produces fruit 
of finer flavour than when grown against a wall ; but then it is a 
fortnight later. 

CANINO GROSSO. — A fine large apricot, ripening at the same 
time as Royal. The tree is very robust. 



264 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Common. See Roman. 
Crotte. See Montgamet, 
De HoUande. See Breda. 
De Nancy. See Peach. 

DESFARGES. — Fruit, large, somewhat oval, widest towards the 
apex, and narrowing a little towards the stalk, marked with a narrow 
and rather deep suture. Skin, covered with very fine down, sometimes 
almost smooth, of a deep golden yellow when ripe, mottled with reddish 
orange, and strewed with dark red dots. Flesh, tender, juicy, per- 
fumed, and with a slight musky flavour, separating from the pervious 
stone. Kernel, bitter. 

A very early apricot ; ripe in the middle of July. 

This was raised by M. Desfarges of St. Cyr, near Lyons, and M. Mas says it is 
invaluable for market. 

DE SALUCE. — A large variety of the Peach Apricot. 

De Syrie. See Kaisha. 

Du Clos. See Luizet. 

Dunmore. See Moorpark. 

DUVAL. — A large variety, raised from the Peach Apricot, a fort- 
night later in ripening than its parent. 

EARLY MOORPARK. — Fruit, roundish, inclining to oval, with a 
very deep suture on one side extending from the base to the apex. 
Skin, yellow, mottled and dotted with crimson on the exposed side. 
Flesh, in all respects resembling that of the Moorpark. Stone, oblong, 
with a covered channel along the back, which is pervious. Kernel, 
bitter. 

This ripens three weeks before the Moorpark, and is a first-rate 
variety. 

Early Orange. See Orange. 

Early Red Masculine. See Red Masculine. 

FROGMORE EARLY.— Fruit, small, two inches wide, and an inch 
and three-quarters high ; roundish, and very frequently oblate, much 
depressed at the crown, from which issues a deep suture, extending 
the whole length of the fruit into the stalk cavity. Skin, pale yellow 
on the shaded side, and deep yellow where exposed to the sun, fre- 
quently with a blotched dark crimson cheek, which is mottled with 
darker crimson. Flesh, deep orange, tender, melting, very juicy, and 
richly flavoured. Stone, with a perforated channel. Kernel, bitter. 



APRICOTS. 265 

This excellent early apricot ripens on a wall from the 9th of July 
successionally till the 20th. It is three weeks earlier than Moorpark. 

It was raised at the Royal Gardens, Frogmore, between the Royal and the Large 
Early apricots; and Mr. Jones, the Royal Gardener, sent it to me quite ripe on 
the 20th July, 1875. 

Friihe Muscateller. See Red Mascxdine, 

GLOIRE DE POURTALES.— This is very similar to Canino 
Grosso ; is a bad bearer, and not worth cultivating. 

GOLDEN DROP.— Fruit, small, about the size of the Orange 
Apricot. Skin, bright orange, with streaks of red on the exposed side. 
Flesh, melting and juicy, with a rich flavour somewhat resembling a 
pine-apple. 

An excellent early apricot, ripe in the middle of July. The tree is 
very tender. 

This was raised by Mr. Rivers of Sawbridgeworth, from Musch-Musch. 

Gros d'Alexandrie. See Large Early. 
Gros Commun. See Roman. 
Gros Peche. See Peach. 
Gros Precoce. See Large Early, 
Gros Rouge. See Large Red. 
Grosse Friihe. See Large Early. 
Hasselnussmandel. See Breda. 

HEMSKERK. — Fruit, rather large, round, flattened on the sides ; 
the suture distinct, higher on one side than the other. Skin, yellow 
on the shaded side, and reddish next the sun. Flesh, bright orange, 
tender, rich, and juicy, separating from the stem. Stone, small, per- 
vious on the back. Kernel, bitter. 

This very much resembles, and, according to some, equals, the 
Moorpark. It ripens in the end of July and beginning of August. 
The tree is hardy and an excellent bearer, closely resembling in its 
wood and foliage the Moorpark, of which it is a variety. It is much 
more hardy than that variety, and not liable to gum and die off" in the 
same manner. 

Hunt's Moorpark. See Moorpark. 

KAISHA {De Syrie). — Fruit, medium sized, roundish, marked with 
a suture, which is deep towards the stalk, and gradually diminishes 
towards the apex, which is pitted. Skin, pale lemon-coloured on the 
shaded side, and tinged and mottled with red next the sun. Flesh, 



THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

transparent, separating freely from the stone, clear pale yellow, tender, 
and very juicy, sugary, and richly flavoured. Stone, small, roundish. 
Kernel, sweet. 

An excellent early variety ; ripe in the middle of August. 

It was introduced from Svria by Mr. Barker, Consul at Aleppo, from Avhom I 
received grafts in 1842, and it was first brought into notice by Messrs. James 
Veitch & Son, of Exeter. 

LAKGE EARLY {Gros Precoce ; Gros cV Alcxandrie ; Grosse 
Fruhe ; De St. Jean ; Precoce cVEsperen ; Precoce cf Hon grie). — Fruit, 
above the medium size, rather oblong, and flattened on the sides, con- 
siderably swollen on one side of the suture, which is deep and extends 
across to the opposite side of the apex, which terminates in a sharp 
point. Skin, pale orange on the shaded side, bright orange and 
spotted with red next the sun ; slightly downy. Flesh, deep orange, 
rich, juicy, separating from the stone, which is very flat, oval, sharp 
at the point, and deeply channelled, but not pervious on the back. 
Kernel, bitter. 

One of the most valuable apricots, not only on account of its excel- 
lent flavour, but for its great earliness, being ripe in the end of July 
and beginning of August. 

LARGE RED {Gros J?o«//^).— This is a variety of the Peach 
Apricot, and of a deeper colour than that variety. It is large, and of 
a deep orange-red colour. The flesh is rich and juicy, and separates 
freely from the stone. Stone, pervious along the back. Kernel, bitter. 

The tree is hardier than the Moorpark. 

LIABAUD. — Fruit, large, oval, and inclining to oblate, being some- 
what flattened ; marked with a narrow, pretty deep suture. Skin, pale 
yellow, with a tinge of orange next the sun. Flesh, pale orange, 
tender, juicy, transparent, melting, richly flavoured and perfumed, 
separating freely from the stone, which is impervious. Kernel, bitter. 

An early apricot of excellent quality ; ripe nearly a month before 
Moorpark. 

The tree is hardy and a good bearer, 

Eaised by M. Liabaud at Croix-Rousse, near Lyons. 

LUIZET {Bu Clos). — Fruit, large, oval, marked on one side by a. 
distinct suture, which is higher on one side than the other. Skin, 
orange, covered next the sun with a crimson cheek, which is dotted 
with darker crimson. Flesh, deep yellow, firm, rich flavoured, and 
perfumed, separating freely from the stone, which is impervious. 
Kernel, bitter. 

A fine early apricot ; ripe in July. 

Eaised by M. Luizet, of Ecully, near Lyons. 

Male. See Portugal, 



APBICOTS. 267 

MONTGAMET {CrottS ; Alhenje de Montijamet). — Fruit, of small 
size, oval, somewhat compressed on the sides, and marked with a shal- 
low suture. Skin, pale yellowy with a slight tinge of red on the side 
next the sun. Flesh, yellowish, firm, adhering to the stone, juicy, 
and agreeably acid, but when well ripened it is highly perfumed. Stone, 
impervious, roundish. Kernel, bitter. 

Ripe in the end of July, and generally used for preserving. 

MOORPAKK [Anson's ; Dunmore*s ; Hunt's Moorpark ; Oldaker^s 
Moorpark ; Sudlow' a Moorpark ; Temples; Walton Moorpark). — Fruit, 
large, roundish, and compressed on the sides, marked with a shallow 
suture, which is considerably swollen on one side, giving the fruit an 
irregular form. Skin, pale yellow on the shaded side, and deep orange 
clouded with brownish red, interspersed with brown and red specks, on 
the side next the sun. Stalk, inserted in a wide and open cavity, 
deeply furrowed on one side. Flesh, deep reddish orange, very juicy, 
particularly rich and vinous, and separating freely from the stone, 
which is large, rough, and rugged, and the back of which is not 
channelled but covered, preserving a cavity which is filled with fibre, 
and through which a pin may be passed from one end to the other. 
Kernel, bitter. 

A well-known apricot of great excellence ; ripe on walls in the end 
of August and beginning of September. 

The tree is a free grower in its early stages, producing long and 
strong shoots, and acquiring a luxuriance which is not conducive to 
the production of fruit. To counteract this should be the chief aim of 
the cultivator. The way to do this is to root-prune the tree about the 
beginning of August, by removing a portion of the soil and cutting 
away some of the strongest of the roots. This will check the too 
abundant supply of sap, diminish the excessive production of wood, 
regulate the development of the tree, and consequently tend to a pro- 
duction of fruit. A south-east aspect is the best on which to grow the 
Moorpark. If grown on a south wall it ripens unequally, the side next 
the sun being quite ripe when the other is hard. 

There is a disease to which the Moorpark is liable, and which is 
sometimes attended with very serious consequences. It shows itself 
first in the leaves, which all of a sudden flag and wither away, and the 
branch which bears them dies. Frequently a whole limb, or the whole 
of one side of a tree, will exhibit this appearance in the space of a few 
hours. This effect arises, not as some say from the stock on which it 
is worked, or the soil on which it is planted, for it is met with on 
every description of stock and in all kinds of soil. It is not the 
result of a languid circulation, for trees in the full vigour of 
growth are as subject to it as those which are aged and going 
to decay ; but it is because of the naturally delicate constitution 
of this variety, which cannot withstand uninjured this variable 
climate of ours. It is caused from injuries received by frost either in 
spring or early summer, or in winter after a wet autumn when the 



268 THB FRUIT MANUAL. 

wood has not been properly ripened. The frost lacerates the sap 
vessels of the external layers of the wood, and the circulation is limited 
to the inner layers. When vegetation commences, and after the leaves 
are fully developed on the injured branch, the demand on the powers 
of the branch for a supply of sap to the leaves fails, ar.d when the sun 
becomes powerful and evaporation increases the supply becomes pro- 
portionately less, and for want of nourishment the leaves flag and the 
branch withers and dies. 

I doubt very much if there is any material difference between the 
Moorpark and the Peach Apricot. As the Peach Apricot reproduces 
itself from the stone many seedlings have been raised from it, to which 
the raiders have given names ; but these so closely resemble the 
original in every particular, that they are not worthy of being looked 
upon as distinct. I believe the Moorpark is one of these ; it resembles 
the Peach Apricot so closely as not to be distinguishable from it ; and 
the only character to show that they are not identical is, that the 
Moorpark will grow on the common plum and mussel stock, while the 
Peach will not, and the Moorpark does not grow on the Damas Noir, 
while the Peach Apricot does. 

The Moorpark Apricct is said by some to have been introduced by Lord Anson 
from the Continent, and planted at Moorpark, near Watford, in Hertfordshire. By 
others its introduction is ascribed to Sir Thomas More, who, in the beginning of 
last century, is also said to have planted it at Moorpark ; and a third account is 
that Sir William Temple introduced it. But by whomsoever it was raised or 
introduced, or at what period, it is quite certain it was very little known till late 
in the century. Neither Hitt nor Miller notices it in any of the editions of their 
works. I do not find it mentioned in any of the Brompton Park catalogues before 
1784, when it is called Temple Apricot. In 1788 it is first called Moorpark. I:ii 
1784 it was cultivated to the extent of three rows, or 300 plants ; but in 1797 the 
quantity was increased to thirty- five rows, or 3,500 plants. 

MUSCH MUSCH (cV Alexandrie).—Frmt, small, almost round, and 
slightly compressed, marked with a deep suture on one side. Skin, 
deep orange, tinged with red on the side exposed to the sun, and pale 
yellow where shaded. Flesh, orange, very tender and dehcate, juicy, 
rich, sweet, and perfumed, and so translucent as to show the appearance 
of the stone through it, and from which it separates freely. Stone, 
roundish and flattened, with a sharp ridge on the side. Kernel, sweet. 

This is a very sweet apricot ; ripe in the end of July. The tree is 
a free grower, but delicate on account of its early vegetation, which ex- 
poses it to the eff'ects of spring frosts. It is distinguished from every 
other variety by its greenish fawn-coloured shoots and its small pointed 
leaves. It requires a warm, sheltered situation. 

This variety is said by some to take its name from Musch, a town on the 
frontiers of Turkey ; but Regnier, in the Magazin Eneyclopediqtie for November, 
1815, says when he was in Egypt he saw small dried apricots, which were brought 
by the inhabitants from the Oasis, which were called Mich-mich. These were in 
all probability the variety now called Musch Musch. It was known to Duhamel, 
but it is not described by him, as its cultivation was unsuccessful in the neighbour- 
hood of Paris, on account of its early blooming and sufieriug from the spring frosts. 



APRICOTS. 269 

Musque Hatif. See Red Masculine, 

NEW LARGE EARLY.— Fruit, larger than Breda, about the size 
of Royal Apricot, oval. Skin, white, like Sardinian. Flesh, very rich, 
and with a sweet, honied juice. 

This is the earliest of all apricots, and ripens in an orchard house 
about the 20th of June. 

It was raised from Augoumois by ^fr. Rivers, of Sawbridgeworth, and first 
fruited in 1873. 

Noir. See Black, 

Noisette. See Breda, 

Oldaker's Moorpark. See Moorpark. 

ORANGE (Early Orange ; Persian ; Boyal Persian ; Royal George ; 
Royal Orange). — Fruit, above medium size, roundish, one side sweUing 
more than the other. Skin, pale orange in the shade ; deep orange, 
tinged with red, next the sun. Suture, well defined, deep towards the 
stalk. Flesh, deep orange, firm, and adhering to the stone, which is 
small, smooth, thick, and impervious. Kernel, sweet. 

Ripe in the middle of August. 

OULLINS EARLY PEACH (Peche Hatif d'Oullins).— This is an 
early form of the Peach Apricot, of large size, most delicious flavour, 
and ripens three weeks earher. The tree is a great bearer. 

This was raised at Oullins, near Lyons. 

Du Pape. See Black. 

PEACH (Peche; Gros Peche; Be Nancy ; De Wirtemherg ; Royal 
Peach). — Fruit, large, oval, and flattened, marked with a deep suture 
at the base, which gradually diminishes towards the apex. Skin, pale 
yellow on the shaded side, and with a slight tinge of red next the sun. 
Flesh, reddish yellow, very delicate, juicy, and sugary, with a rich 
and somewhat musky flavour. Stone, large, flat, rugged, and pervious 
along the back. Kernel, bitter. 

Ripe in the end of August and beginning of September. 

This is not the Abricot Peche of Duhamel, that being our White Masculine ; but 
the Abricot Peche of Bretonnerie and Schabol. 

I regard the Peach Apricot and the Moorpark as distinct varieties, but they are 
so similar in all essential points that they may for all practical purposes be 
considered identical. There is no doubt, as nurserymen know, that while the 
Moorpark may be budded freely on the common plum, the Peach Apricot requires 
the Brussels, iirompton, and Damas Noir stocks. 

Forsyth says the Peach Apricot was brought to this country by the Duke of 
Northumberland in 1767 ; but Switzer, writing in 1724, speaks of "a very large 
kind of apricock that is cultivated at Woolhampton, Berkshire, as big as a large 
peach, and is there called the French Apricock." 

The Peach Apricot is supposed to have originated at Nancy, but at what period 



270 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

is unknown. It is not mentioned in the Jardln'er Frangais of 1653, nor in any 
of the editions of De la Quintinye. Tlie earliest record of it among continental 
writers is by Roger Schabol. 

PECHE TARDIF is a late form of Peach Apricot, to which it is 
quite similar, and ripens a fortnight later. 

Peche. See Peach. 

Peche Hatif d'Oallins. See Oiillins Early Peach. 

Persian. See Orange. 

PINE-APPLE (Ananas). — Fruit, large, roundish and flattened, and 
marked with a rather shallow suture. Skin, thin and deHcate, of a 
deep golden yellow on the shaded side, but with a highly coloured red 
cheek where exposed to the sun, and speckled with large and small red 
specks. The flesh is reddish yellow, tender, but somewhat firm ; never 
becomes mealy, but is juicy, and with a rich pine-apple flavour. Stone, 
oval, three-ribbed, and impervious along the back. Kernel, bitter. 

Ripens in the middle of August. 

PORTUGAL (Male). — Fruit, very small, resembling in shape and 
size the Red Masculine. It is round, and divided on one side by a 
deep suture. Skin, pale yellow on the shaded side, and deep yellow, 
tinged with red, and marked with brown and red russet spots on the 
side next the sun. Flesh, deep j^ellow, tender, melting, with a rich 
sugary and musky flavour ; adhering somewhat to the stone. Stone, 
almost round, impervious along the back. Kernel, bitter. 

Ripe in the beginning and middle of August. 

Precoce. See Pied Masculine. 

Prccoce d'Esperen. See Large Early. 

Precoce d'Hongrie. See Large Early. 

PRECOCE D'ORLEANS. — Fruit, round ; ripening at the same time 
as Precoce d'Oullins, to which it is much inferior. 

PRECOCE D'OULLINS.— A good early apricot, quite distinct from 
Oullins Early Peach, to which it is much inferior. The tree is a very 
delicate grower. 

PROVENCE. — Fruit, small ; compressed on the sides, marked with 
a deep suture, which extends from the base to the apex, and is higher 
on one side than the other. Skin, yellow on the shaded side, but red 
where exposed to the sun. Flesh, yellow and melting, with a rich 
flavour and pleasant aroma, but rather dry. Stone, rugged. Kernel, 
sweet. 

Ripe in the end of July. The tree is a free grower, with pretty long 
shoots, which are thickly set with triple and sometimes quadruple buds. 



JLPBICOTS. 271 



Purple. See Black, 



RED MASCULINE (Ahricotin ; Brown Masculitie ; Early Red Mas- 
culine; Frilhe Muscateller ; Mmque Hdtif ; Precoce). — Fruit, small, a 
little over an inch in diameter ; roundish, inclining to oblate, marked 
with a suture, which is rather deep at the stalk, and becomes more 
shallow towards the apex. Skin, bright yellow on the shaded side, 
and deep orange spotted with dark red next the sun. Flesh, deep 
orange, tender, and juicy, with a sweet and somewhat musky flavour, 
separating freely from the stone. Stone, thick, obtuse at the ends, 
and impervious along the back. Kernel, bitter. 

A very early apricot ; ripe on a wall in the middle and end of July. 

This is a very old variety, beinfj mentioned by Parkinson as early as 1629, and 
appears to have been so well known that every subsequent writer takes notice of it. 

ROMAN [Common ; Transparent). — Above medium size, oblong, 
sides compressed. Skin, pale yellow, with rarely a few red spots next 
the sun. Suture, scarcely perceptible. Flesh, dull yellow, soft, and 
dry, separating from the stone, and possessing a sweet and agreeable 
acid juice, that makes it desirable for preserving. Stone, oblong, im- 
pervious. Kernel, bitter. 

Ripe in the middle of August. 

Rouge. See Angoumois. 

ROYAL. — Large, oval, and slightly compressed. Skin, dull yellow, 
tinged with red where exposed. Suture, shallow. Flesh, pale orange, 
firm, juicy, rich, and vinous, separating from the stone. Stone, large 
and oval, impervious. Kernel, bitter. 

An excellent apricot, and little inferior to the Moorpark. Ripe in 
the beginning of August. 

Royal George. See Orange. 
Royal Orange. See Orange. 
Royal Peach. See Peach. 
Royal Persian. See Orange. 

SARDINIAN (De Sardaigne). — This is a small early apricot, not 
much larger than the Red Masculine, but equally as early, and much 
superior in flavour to it. The skin is white, but where exposed to the 
sun it is spotted with a few crimson spots, and sometimes has a flush 
of red. The fruit has a deep suture on one side. The flesh is very 
juicy, with a sprightly sweet flavour, which is very agreeable. The 
stone is very small, not more than half an inch long, with a covered 
channel, which is pervious. Kernel, bitter. 

The tree is a great bearer, and ripens its fruit as early as the Red 
Masculine. 



272 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

ST. AMBROISE. — This is a large, early apricot, almost the size of, 
and earUer than the Moorpark. It is compressed, of a deep yellow 
colour, reddish next the sun. Flesh, juicy, rich, and sugary. 

Ripe in the middle of August, and the most prolific apricot in culti- 
vation. 

De St. Jean. See Large Early. 

^BlVliWl'^ [Blenheim). — Large, oval. Skin, deep yellow. Flesh, yel- 
low, tolerably rich and juicy. Stone, roundish and impervious. Kernel, 
bitter. Very productive and early, but not so rich as the Moorpark. 

Eipe in the end of July and beginning of August. 

It was raised by Miss Shipley, the daughter of a former gardener to the Duke of 
Marlborough, at Blenheim. 

Sudlow's Moorpark. See Moorpark. 

TARDIVE D'ORLEANS.— This is a late variety, ripening a fort- 
night after the Moorpark, but the tree is a bad bearer. 

Temple's. See Moorpark. 

Transparent. See Roman. 

TRIOMPHE DE BUSSIER.— A variety of Peach Apricot which is 
rather later than its parent. 

TURKEY. — Medium size, nearly round, not coihpressed. Skin, 
deep yellow ; brownish orange next the sun, and spotted. Flesh, pale 
yellow, firm, juicy, sweet, and pleasantly sub-acid, separating from the 
stone. Stone, large, rugged, and impervious. Kernel, sweet. 

Ripe in the middle of August. 

VIARD. — This is an early variety of the Peach Apricot, with rich, 
juicy flesh. The tree is hardy. 

Violet. See Angoumois. 

Walton Moorpark. See Moorpark. 

WHITE MASCULINE [Ahricot Blanc; AbricotPeehe of Duhamel). 
— Fruit, small, round, and somewhat compressed at both ends. Skin, 
covered with a fine white down ; pale yellow, tinged with brownish red 
next the sun, and dull white in the shade. Flesh, pale yellow, adhering 
in some degree to the stone ; fine and delicate, juicy, sugary, and 
excellent. Kernel, bitter. 

Ripe in the end of July. 

The tree is of small growth, and very tender ; very similar in all its 
parts to the Red Masculine. It is rarely cultivated, except for its earli- 
ness ; and as there are other varieties of superior excellence possessing 
the same recommendation, the White Masculine is now seldom met with. 

De Wirtemberg. See Peach, 



BERBERRIES. 278 

LIST OF SELECT APRICOTS. 
L— FOR THE SOUTHERN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND, 

EXTENDING AS FAR NORTH AS TUB RIVER TRENT. 

Those marked with an asterisk * are suitable for small gardens. 
For Walls. 
* Early Moorpark Kaisha *New Large Early 

Frogmore Early Large Early *Oiillins Early Peach 

Golden Drop Moorpark * Peach 

For Standards. 
Breda Brussels Moorpark Turkey 



XL— FOR THE NORTHERN COUNTIES OF ENGLAND, 

EXTENDING FROM THE TRENT TO THE TTNB. 

Breda Hemskerk Roman 

•Early Moorpark ♦Large Early Shipley's 

Frogmore Early *Moorpark 



m.— BORDER COUNTIES OF ENGLAND AND SCOTLAND, 

AND OTHER FAVOURABLE SITUATIONS IN SCOTLAND. 

Breda Frogmore Early 'Moorpark 

Brussels Hemskerk Uoman 

♦Early Moorpark 



IV.— VARIETIES BEST ADAPTED FOR PRESERVING. 

Alberge Moorpark Roman 

Kaisha Musch Mosch Turkey 



BEEBERRIES. 

THE COMMON BERBERRY is found wild in hedgerows, and is 
also sometimes grown in shrubberies, both as an ornamental plant, and 
for its fruit, which is preserved in sugar, for use in the dessert. The 
best variety to cultivate for that purpose is the following, but it is 
difficult to be obtained true. 

STONELESS BERBERRY.— A variety of the Common Berberry, 

18 



274 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

without seeds. This character is not assumed till the shrub has become 
aged. Young suckers, taken from an old plant of the true variety, very 
frequently, and indeed generally, produce fertile fruit during the early 
years of their growth ; it is, therefore, necessary that the plants be 
taken from an aged stock, in which the stoneless character has been 
manifested, to be certain that the variety is correct. 



CHEEEIES. 



SYNOPSIS OF CHERRIES. 



All the varieties of cultivated cherries will be found to consist of 
eight races, into which I have arranged them : — 

I. The sweet, heart-shaped cherries, with tender and dark-coloured 
flesh, I have called Black Geans. 

II. The pale-coloured, sweet cherries, with tender and translucent 
flesh and skin, I have distinguished by the name of Red Geans. 

III. Dark-coloured, sweet cherries, with somewhat of the Bigarreau 
character. Their flesh is not so firm and crackling as that of the 
Bigarreaus, but considerably harder than in the Black Geans, and these 
I propose to call Black Hearts. 

IV. Includes the White Hearts or Bigarreaus, properly so called, 
with red or light-coloured mottled skin, and hard crackling flesh. 

V. Those having a dark skin and flesh, and deeply-coloured juice, 
are called Black Dukes. 

VI. Embraces all those nearly allied to the Black Dukes, but with 
pale red, translucent skin and flesh, and uncoloured juice ; they are, 
therefore, distinguished as Red Dukes. 

VII. Includes all those the trees of which have long, slender, and 
pendent shoots, and dark-coloured fruit, with acid, coloured juice, and 
are termed Black Morellos. 

VIII. I have called Red Morellos ; they include all those pale red, 
acid varieties, of which the Kentish cherry is the type. 



I. geans. 

Branches, rigid and spreading, forming round-headed trees. Leaves, 
long, waved on the margin, thin and flaccid, and feebly supported on 
the footstalks. Flowers, large, and opening loosely, with thin, flimsy, 
obovate, or roundish ovate petals. Fruit, heart-shaped, or nearly so. 
Juice, sweet. 



OHEBRIES. 



27(; 



§ Fruit obtuse, heart-shaped. Flesh tender and melting, 
* Flesh dark ; juice coloured. — Black Geans. 



Baumann's May 
Black Eagle 
Early Lyons 
Early Purple Gean 
Early Rivers 
Guigne Tr^s Precoce 
Hogg's Black Gean 



Joc-o-sot 

Knight's Early Black 

Late Purple Gean 

Luke Ward's 

Osceola 

Waterloo 

Werder's Early Black 



•• Flesh pale ; juice uncobured. — Red Gbans. 



Amber Ge.in 
American Doctor 
Belle d'Orleans 
Delicate 
Downer's Late 
Early Amber 
Early Jaboulay 



Frogmore Early 
Hogg's Red Gean 
Manning's Mottled 
Ohio Beauty 
Sparhawk's Honey 
Transparent Geau 



§§ Fruit heart-shaped. Flesh half-tender, firm, or crackling. 
* Flesh dark ; juice coloured, — Black Hearts. 



Bedford Prolific 

Bigarreau de Mezel 

Bigarreau Noir Hatif 

Bigarreau Noir de Schmidt 

Black Hawk 

Black Heart 

Black Tartarian 

Bohemiim Black Bigarreau 

Brant 

Biittner's Black Heart 



Corona 

Early Black Bigarreau 

Logan 

Monstrous Heart 

Ox- Heart 

Pontiac 

Powhattan 

Rival 

Tecumseh 

Tradescant's Heart 



** Flesh pale ; juice uncoloured. — Red Heabts or Bioabbbaus. 



Adams's Crown 

American Heart 

Belle Agathe 

Belle de Kocmont 

Bigarreau 

Bigarreau Esperen 

Bigarreau de Hildesheim 

Bigarreau de HoUande 

Bigarreau Jaboulay 

Bigarreau Legrey 

Bigarreau Napoleon 

Bigarreau Keverchon 

Bowyer's Early Heart 

Biittner's Yellow 

Champagne 

Cleveland Bigarreau 

Downton 

Drogan's White Bigarreau 

Drogan's Yellow Bigarreau 



Early Red Bigarreau 

Gascoigne 

Harrison's Heart 

Early Prolific 

Elton 

Florence 

Governor Wood 

Kennicott 

Lady Southampton's 

Late Bigarreau 

Lud wig's Bigarreau 

Mammoth 

Mary 

Red Jacket 

Rockport B'garreau 

Tardive de Mans 

Tobacco-Leaved 

White Heart 

White Tartarian 



*276 THE FBUIT MANUAL. 



II. GRIOTTES. 

Branches, either upright, spreading, or more or less long, slender, 
and drooping. Leaves, flat, dark green, glabrous underneath, and 
borne stiffly on the leaf stalks ; largo and broad in § , and small and 
narrow in §§. Flowers in pedunculate umbels, cup-shaped, with firm, 
stiff, and crumpled orbicular petals. Fruit, round or oblate, some- 
times, as in the Morello, inclining to heart-shaped. Juice, sub-acid 
or acid. 

§ Branches upright, occasionally spreading^ Leaves large and broad. 
* Flesh dark; juice coloured. — Black Dukes. 

May Duke 
Nouvelle Koyale 



Archduke 
Buttnefs October 
Duchesse de Palluau 
Empress Eugenie 
Jeffrey's Duke 



Royal Duke 
De Soissons 



Abesse d'Oignies 

Belle de Choisy 

Belle Magnifique 

Carnation 

Coe's Late Carnation 

Dechenaut 



** Flesh pale; juice uncoloured. — Red Dukes. 

Great Cornelian 
Late Duke 
Planch oury 
Reine Hortense 



Tomato 
Transparent 



§§ Branches long, slender, and drooping. Leaves small and narrow. 

• Flesh dark ; juice coloured. — Black Morellos. 

Double Natte 
Early May 
Griotte de Chaux 
Griotte Imperiale 
Grioite de Kleparow 



Morello 

Morello de Charmeux 

Ostheim 

Rataiia 

Shannon Morello 



♦* Flesh pale ; juice uncoloured.— RjiD Morellos or Kentish. 



All Saints 

Cluster 

Flemish 



Gros Gobet 

Kentish 

Paramdam 



A Bouquet. See Cluster. 

ABESSE D'OIGNIES. — Fruit, large and round, like a large Late 
Duke, and somewhat inclined to oblate. Skin, bright cornelian red, 
with sometimes a russety patch or amber- coloured mottle about the 
apex. Stalk, green, short, and very stout, little more than an inch 
long. Flesh, half tender, with a briskly acid flavour. Stone, large 
and coarse. 



CHERRIES. 277 

A second-rate cherry of the Red Duke class. It is a large and 
showy fruit, but not superior or equal to Belle Magnifique, which 
belongs to the same class. 

ADAMS'S CROWN {Adams s Crown Heart). — ^Fruit, medium-sized, 
obtuse heart-shaped, and slightly compressed on the side, marked 
with a shallow suture. Skin, pale red, mottled with yellow. Stalk, 
two inches long, inserted in a rather deep cavity. Flesh, white, 
tender, juicy, and richly flavoured. 

An excellent early cherry, allied to the White Heart. It is ripe the 
first week in July. The tree is an excellent bearer, and well suited 
for orchard planting. 

It is extensively grown in the orchards about Rainham, Sittingbourne, and 
Faversham, for the supply of the London markets. It is not a very old variety, 
as I have met with old people about Sittingbourne who recollect when it was first 
introduced. It is said to have been raised by a person of the name of Adams 
in that neighbourhood. 

Adams's Crown Heart. See Adame*s Crown, 

Allendorfer Kirsche. See Carnation. 

Allerheiligen. See All Saints. 

ALL SAINTS (Cerisier de la Toussaint: De St. Martin; Allerheili- 
gen ; Statshluhenderkirsche ; Immerhluhende ; Octoberkirsche ; St. Mav 
tins-weichsel ; ZwUlingskirsche ; Monats Weichsel ; Griinekirsche ; 
Cerisier ])leureur ; St. Martins Amarelle ; Monats marelle Cerise 
tardive; Tardive a Bouquet; Autumn-hearing Cluster; Marhceuf ; 
Guignier a rameaux pendants ; Tardif a grappes ; Weeping Cherry). — 
Fruit, small, oblate, slightly compressed on the side, which is marked 
with a shallow suture. Skin, bright red, becoming dark red as it 
hangs. Stalk, two inches long. Flesh, white, reddish near the stone, 
juicy, and acid. 

A rariety of cherry which is grown more for curiosity and ornament than for 
its fruit. It is Cerasus semperjlorens of Decandolle. 

Amarelle du Nord, See Eatajia. 

AMBER GEAN. — Fruit, below medium size, generally borne in 
clusters of three together, obtuse heart-shaped. Skin, thin and trans- 
parent, so as to exhibit the grain of the flesh through it, of a pale 
yellow or amber colour, tinged with delicate red. Stalk, slender, 
about one and a half inch long. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, and 
melting, with a rich, sweet, and delicious flavour. 

An excellent cherry, but small, which is an objection to it. It 
ripens in the beginning of August. The tree is an abundant bearer, 
succeeds well as a standard, and is well suited for orchard planting. 
The lateness of its maturity is a recommendation to it. 



278 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

Amber Heart. See White Heart, 

Ambree. See Belle de Choisy. 

Ambree a Gros Fruit. See Belle de Choisy, 

Ambree a Petits Fruits. See White Tartarian, 

AMERICAN AMBER (Bloodyood's Amher; Bloodgood's Honey ; 
Bloodgood's Netv Honey). — Fruit, medium-sized, produced in clusters 
of three and four together, roundish, inclining to cordate, and indented 
at the apex. Skin, very thin, smooth, and shining, of a clear pale 
yellow at first, but afterwards mottled and clouded with bright red. 
Stalk, an inch and a half to nearly two inches long, inserted in a 
narrow and shallow depression. Flesh, amber-coloured, tender, and 
very juicy, with a brisk but not a rich flavour. 

An American cherry of only second-rate quality ; ripe the middle 
of July. 

The tree is an abundant bearer ; a very strong and vigorous grower. 

It was raised by Mr. Daniel Bloodgood, of Flushing, Long Island, U.S.A., and 
I received it first from Mr. Warren, of Boston, in 1847. 

AMERICAN DOCTOR (The Doctor).— Fruit, medium-sized, obtuse 
heart-shaped, marked on one side with a shallow suture. Skin, clear 
yellow, washed with red. Stalk, an inch and a half long. Flesh, 
yellowish white, tender, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. End of 
June. 

I have named this " American Doctor " to distinguish it from the 
German "Doktorkirsche." 

AMERICAN HEART.— Fruit, above medium size, produced in 
clusters ; heart-shaped, and irregular in its outline, somewhat of a 
square figure, being in some instances almost as broad at the apex as 
the base. Skin, pale yellow, but changing to bright red, mixed with a 
little amber. Stalk, slender, nearly two inches long, inserted in a 
narrow and shallow cavity. Flesh, half tender, crackling, juicy, and 
well-flavoured. 

An American cherry of second-rate quality, requiring a very favour- 
able season to have it of good flavour. 

Anglaise Tardive. See Late Duke. 

Angleterre Hative. See May Duke, 

Ansell's Fine Black. See Black Heart. 

ARCHDUKE [Griotte de Portuyal).— Fruit, larger than that of 
May Duke, nine-tenths of an inch wide, and eight-tenths deep, obtuse 
heart-shaped, and with a deeply-marked suture at the apex, which 
diminishes towards the stalk, and very slightly pitted at the apex, in 



CHERRIES. 279 

which the yellow style -point is placed. Skin, thin, pale red at first, 
but becoming dark red, and when allowed to hang till fully ripe it is 
almost black. Peduncle, long. Stalk, very slender and green, an inch 
and a half to two inches long, deeply inserted. Flesh, deep red, very 
tender and juicy, sweet, and briskly flavoured ; but sugary when highly 
ripened. 

Ripe in the middle and end of July. The tree is somewhat pendu- 
lous when old. 

The true Archduke Cherry was for many years very scarce, Anglaise Tardive 
being propagated under that name, chiefly, I believe, through its being made 
synonymous with that variety by some authors. I met with the true sort in the 
nurseries at Sawbridgeworth in 1 847 ; and Mr. Rivers then informed me that it had 
been grown there by his ancestors for upwards of a century. The same variety is 
still propagated there. Even in Parkinson's time it was difficult to obtain it true, 
for he says, " Scarce one in twentie of our Nurseriemen doe sell the right, but give 
one for another : for it is an inherent qualitie almost hereditarie with most of 
them to sell any man an ordinary fruit for whatsoeuer rare fruit he shall aske for : 
so little they are to be trusted." 

Armstrong's Bigarreau. See Blgmvreau de Hollande. 

s. 

A Trochet. See Cluster. 

Autumn Bigarreau. See Belle Agathe. 

Baramdam. See Paramdam. 

BAUMANN'S IMAY {Bu/arreau de Mai).— Frmt, generally produced 
in pairs, rather below medium size ; ovate-cordate, and irregular in its 
outline. Skin, of a fine dark clear red, assuming a deeper colour 
when at maturity. Stalk, an inch and a half to an inch and three- 
quarters long, stout at the insertion, and placed in a narrow and irre- 
gular cavity. Flesh, purple, tender, juicy, sweet, and well-flavoured. 

As an early cherry this is a fruit of first-rate excellence, far sur- 
passing the Early May, which has hitherto been cultivated more on 
account of its earliness than any intrinsic merit it possesses ; and 
on this account Baumann's May, as it becomes more generally known, 
must ultimately supersede it. This excellent variety ripens in the 
third or last week in May. 

The tree is a most abundant and early bearer, with strong and 
vigorous shoots, and large dark-coloured leaves, but not like those of 
a Bigarreau ; neither is the character of the fruit in accordance with 
that class : hence Mr. Downing dropped the name of Bigarreau, and 
substituted that which I have adopted, 

I received it in 1846 from Messrs. Baumann, of Bolwyller, near Mulhausen, in 
Alsace. 

BEDFORD PROLIFIC {Sheppard's Bedford Prolific).— Yery much 
resembles Black Tartarian, with which I made it synonymous in the 
last edition of this work ; but it is inferior in quality to it. The tree 
is a free grower, a better bearer, and more hardy than Black Tartarian. 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Belcher's Black. See Corone. 

BELLE AGATHE [Autumn Bigarreau). — Fruit, small, prodaced 
in clusters ; heart-shaped, with a shallow but well-defined suture on 
one side of it. Skin, dark crimson, with minute yellow mottles over 
it. Stalk, an inch and a half to an inch and three-quarters long. 
Flesh, yellowish, firm, sweet, and very nicely flavoured. Juice, pale. 

This is a small Bigarreau, which hangs on the tree as late as the 
first week in October ; and neither birds nor wasps touch it. 

Belle Audigeoise. See Heine Hortense. 

Belle de Bavay. See Reine Hortense. 

Belle de Chatenay. See Belle Magnijique. 

BELLE DE CEOISY {Griottier de Choisy; Griottler de Palemhre; 
Cerise Doucette; Dauplmie ; DaupJiine de Palemhre; Schone von 
Choisy; Ambree ; Amhree de Choisy; Anihree a Gros fruit). — Fruit, 
generally produced in pairs ; large, round, slightly flattened at the 
base and the apex, as well as on the side, which is marked with 
an incipient suture. Skin, transparent, so much so as to show the 
texture of the flesh, of a beautiful amber colour, mottled with red, 
particularly where it is exposed to the sun, and becoming more so the 
longer it hangs. Stalk, from an inch and a half to two inches long, 
stout, and placed in a flat depression. Flesh, amber-coloured, tender, 
and very juicy, sweet, and without any admixture of acid. Stone, 
small for the size of the fruit, roundish. 

A most delicious cherry ; ripe the beginning of July. The tree is 
vigorous and spreading in its growth, perfectly hardy, and succeeds 
well as a standard or on a wall. It is not, however, a very abundant 
bearer. The leaves are very broad, of a dark green colour, and deeply 
dentated. 

According to the "Bon Jardinier," this variety was raised at Choisy, near 
Paris, about the year 1760, by M. Gonduin, gardener to the king, Louis XV. 

Belle de Laecken. See Beine Hortense, 

BELLE MAGNIFIQUE [Belle de Chatenay; Belle de Sceaux ; 
Belle de Spa; De Spa). — Fruit, very large, roundish oblate, incHning 
to heart-shaped. Skin, at first pale, gradually becoming sufl'used with 
red, and ultimately acquiring a uniform clear bright red. Stalk, an 
inch to an inch and a half long. Flesh, yellowish, tender, and sub- acid. 
Kipe from the middle and end of August. 

The tree is an immense bearer, and forms a handsome pyramid. 

Eaised by Chatenay of Sceaux, who was called " Magnifique " facetiously by his 
friends. 

BELLE D'OBLEANS. — Fruit, medium-sized, roundish, inclining 
to heart-shaped. Skin, pale yellowish white in the shade, but of a 



CHERRIES. 281 

thin bright red next the sun. Flesh, yellowish white, tender, juicy, and 
rich. 

Ripe in the beginning and middle of June. One of the earliest and 
richest flavoured cherries. 

Belle de Petit Brie. See Reine Hortense. 
Belle de Prapeau. See Eeine Hortense. 

BELLE DE ROCMONT {Bigarreau Couleur de Chair ; Biijarreau 
Gros Cceiiret ; Bujarreau lioK/je ; Cfcuret ; Cceur de P'ujeon ; Schone von 
llocmont ; Buntes Tauhenhcrz ; Marcelin : Bigarreau a gros fruit blanc ; 
Rothe Spanische). — Fruit, of medium size, not so large as the Bigar- 
reau ; obtuse heart-shaped, compressed on one side, which is marked 
with a broad and deep suture. Skin, thin and shining, of a pale yel- 
lowish white, with a few red dots on the shaded side, but marbled with 
pale and dark red on the side next the sun. Stalk, pretty stout, two 
inches or more in length. Flesh, white, rather tender and juicy for a 
Bigarreau, and of a sweet and excellent flavour. 

It is ripe in the end of July. The tree is hardy, pendulous in its 
growth, and an excellent bearer. The fruit is not of so rich a flavour 
as the Bigarreau ; it is earlier, and the tree being an abundant bearer 
it may be profitably grown as a market fruit. 

Belle de Sceaux. See Belle Magnifique. 

Belle de Spa. See Belle Magnijique. 

Belle Polonaise. See Griotte de Kleparow, 

Belle Supreme. See Reine Hortense. 

BIGARREAU [Graffion-, Turkey Heart; Italian Heart; West's 
White Heart; Bigarreau tardif; Bigarreau gros; Bigarreau Royal; 
Yellow Spanish). — Fruit, very large, obtuse heart-shaped, considerably 
flattened at the stalk, on the side marked with a shallow suture, 
and slightly depressed at the apex, less heart-shaped than most of the 
other Bigarreaux. Skin, finely marked with a bright red cheek, which 
is speckled with amber where exposed to the sun, and shading ofi" to a 
paler colour interspersed with crimson dots to the shaded side, which 
is of a pale amber, changing to brownish yellow when fully ripe. Stalk, 
from an inch and a half to two inches long, stout, and inserted in a 
flat and considerable depression. Flesh, of a very pale yellow, very 
firm, crackling and juicy, with a rich, sweet, and delicious flavour. 

A cherry of first-rate excellence, ripe in the middle and end of 
July. The tree is exceedingly vigorous, very hardy, an abundant bearer 
even when young, and admirably adapted for orchard planting. 

Among the French there are many varieties of the Bigaireau, several of which 
are mentioned by Duhamel, but there is none of them which can be identified with 
this unless it is the Bigarreau a gros fruit rouge. Forsyth gives the Cerisier 



282 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



Ambre of Duhamel as a synonym of this, which is decidedly an error. I have 
doubts whether the Ambre is a Bigarreau at all. In the Horticultural Society's 
Catalogue Harrison's Heart is made synonymous with this, but it is evidently 
different. The variety described above is the true Bigarreau, and is easily distin- 
guished from the Harrison's Heart by its broader foliage and its more round and 
even fruit. 

Bigarreau a Gros Fruit Blanc. See Belle de Bocmont. 

Bigarreau Belle de Bocmont. See Belle de Bocmont. 

Bigarreau Blanc de Drogan. See Drogan's White Bigarreau. 

Bigarreau Blanc Tardif de Hildesheim. See Bigarreau de Ililde- 
sheim. 

Bigarreau Couleur de Chair. See Belle de Bocmont. 

BIGARREAU DE HILDESHEIM (Hildesheimer ganz spate 
Knorpelkirsche ; Hildesheimer spate Herzkirsche ; Bigarreau Blanc tardif 
de Hildesheim; Bigarreau marhre de Hildesheim). — Fruit, medium- 
Bized, heart-shaped, flattened on one side, which is marked with a 
shallow suture, but convex on the other. Skin, shining, pale yellow, 
marbled with red on the shaded side, but of a fine dark red on the 
side exposed to the sun. Stalk, two inches long, somewhat curved, 
and set in a shallow cavity. Flesh, yellow, very firm, but not par- 
ticularly juicy, and when well ripened of an excellent sweet flavour. 
The stone is large, long, and compressed, but scarcely marked with a 
furrow. 

This is a valuable cherry on account of its late ripening, which 
under ordinary circumstances is the end of August and beginning of 
September, but if grown in a shaded situation it is not ready till 
October, and will hang on the tree till November. The tree is a strong 
and vigorous grower, producing long, straight, and thick shoots, and 
very large oblong leaves. It is a regular and generally an abundant 
bearer. 

This is of German origin, and is supposed to have originated in the neighbour- 
hood of Hildesheim, where it was first brought into notice by Superintendent 
Claudens, who communicated it to the Rev. J. C. Christ, and by whom it was first 
brought into notice. 

BIGARREAU DE HOLLANDE {Dutch Bigarreau; Spotted Bigar- 
reau ; Armstrong's Bigarreau ; Holldndische Grosse ; Princesse de Hol- 
lande ; Groote Princesse). — Fruit, produced in clusters, of the largest 
size, regularly and handsomely heart-shaped, slightly compressed on 
one side and marked with a very shallow suture on the other. Skin, 
adhering closely to the pulp, pale yellow on the shaded side, but of a 
beautiful light red, marbled with fine bright carmine, on the side 
exposed to the sun. Stalk, an inch and a half long, stout, inserted 
in a shallow cavity a little on one side of the fruit. Flesh, pale yel- 
lowish white, juicy, sweet, and when well ripened of an exquisite 
piquant flavour. Stone, small for the size of the fruit, heart- shaped. 



CHERRIES. 283 

An excellent cherry when well ripened ; ripe the beginning of July. 
The tree is an early and very abundant bearer, producing very heavy 
crops, a strong and vigorous grower, growing with spreading or rather 
drooping branches. 

Bigarreau de Ludwig. See Ludwig's Bigarreau, 

Bigarreau de Lyons. See FAirhj Jahoulay, 

Bigarreau de Mai, See Baumann's May. 

BIGARREAU DE MEZEL {Biyarreau Monstriieux de Mezel; 
Motistrose Marmorkirsche). — Fruit, very large, three-quarters to over 
an inch high and the same in width ; obtuse, heart-shaped, and flat- 
tened on both sides, one of which is marked with a slight suture, 
extending over the apex, where there is a slight nipple. Skin, very 
shiny, thick, and adhering to the flesh, of a pale rose striped with red 
at first, but changing to dark brown streaked with dark purple when 
fully ripe. Stalk, two inches and a half long, slender, set in a wide 
round cavity. Flesh, red, veined with pale rose, firm, juicy, and 
richly flavoured. 

A very large and handsome cherry, of excellent quality ; ripe in July. 

It was fonnd at Mezcl, near Clermont Ferrand, in the department of Puy de 
Dome, by M. Ligier de la Frade, prior to 1846, when it was first brought into 
notice, but it had existed in a vineyard at that place for thirty years before, and 
might have remained till this day without becoming known beyond the district 
had not a Horticultural Society been instituted which published an account of it 
in their bulletin, and distributed grafts. It is stated by the committee who first 
investigated it that 110 fruits weighed over two pounds. 

Some confusion exists between this and Bigarreau Gros Coeuret, which is a 
synonym of Belle de Rocmont, and in a third edition of this work I assisted in 
adding to it by making them synonymous. 

Bigarreau des Yignes. See Bigarreau Esperen. 

BIGARREAU ESPEREN {Bigarreau des Vignes).'—FTmU large, 
heart-shaped, and marked with a broad shallow suture. Skin, pale 
yellow, shaded with crimson, with deeper colour where fully exposed. 
Stalk, an inch and three-quarters long, stout, and inserted in a pretty 
deep cavity. Flesh, white, rose-tinted, firm, and crackling, richly 
flavoured. 

A very fine cherry, ripe in the middle of July. 

Though this bears his name, it was not raised by Major Esperen, 
but has for many years been cultivated in the provinces of Liege and 
Namur under the name of Bigarreau des Vignes. 

Bigarreau Gaboulais. See Early Jaboulay. 

Bigarreau Gros. See Bigarreau. 

Bigarreau Gros Coeuret. See Belle de Bocmont. 

Bigarreau Gros Monstrueux. See Bigarreau de Mezel. 



284 THE FBUIT MANUAL. 

. Bigarreau Gros Noir. See Tradescant's Heart. 

Bigarreau Jaboulay. See Early Jahoulay. 

Bigarreau Jaune de Drogan. See Drogans Yellow Bigarreau. 

Bigarreau Lauermann. See Bigarreau Napoleon. 

BIGARREAU LEGREY is a small Bigarreau of a cordate shape, 
the size of Belle Agathe, and is frequently produced in clusters of two, 
three, and four on the same stalk, like the Cluster cherry. It ripens 
at the same time as the Bigarreau, and is more curious than useful. 

Bigarreau Marbre de Hildesheim. See Bigarreau de Hildesheim. 

Bigarreau Monstrueux. See Bigarreau de Mezel. 

Bigarreau Monstrueux de Mezel. See Bigarreau de Mezel. 

BIGARREAU NAPOLEON. — {Bigarreau Lauermann; Lauermann's- 
Idrsche ; Late Mottled Bizarreau ; Lauermann'' s HerzJdrsche ; Napoleon's 
Herzkirsche). — Fruit, very large, heart-shaped, obtuse towards the 
stalk, considerably flattened on one side, and marked with a shallow 
suture, which extends from the stalk to the apex. Skin, pale yellow 
dotted with red, but as it becomes perfectly ripe these dots are lost in 
a beautiful deep red cheek, which overspreads the side exposed to the 
sun, leaving only a few yellow spots. Stalk, an inch and a half long, 
slender, and set in a moderately deep and even cavity. Flesh, very 
firm, white, and reddish at the stone, abounding in a very rich, sweet, 
and aromatic juice. 

A most delicious cherry, one of the best of all the Bigarreaus, 
whether regarding its great size, beautiful appearance, or particular 
richness of flavour. It is ripe the end of July and beginning of August. 

The tree is a very vigorous grower, very hardy, and not subject to 
gum. It maj^ be grown either against a wall or as a standard, and 
particularly the latter, as it soon forms a fine, large, and handsome 
tree. It is also a prolific bearer. 

The origin of this excellent cherry is unknown. Its present name is not that 
by which it was first known, for Truchsess received it from Herr Baars, of 
Herenhausen in 1791 under that of Grosse Lauermann's Kirsche, which is, in 
all probability, the original and correct one. That of Napoleon is of more recent 
origin, having first been given by Messrs. Baumann, of Bolwyller. 

BIGARREAU NOIR DE SCHMIDT.— Fruit, large, heart-shaped, 
terminating at the apex in a sharp point, and with a slight suture on 
one side. Skin, shining deep black. Stalk, an inch and a quarter to 
an inch and three-quarters long, set in a wide depression. Flesh, 
dark red, firm, sweet, and richly flavoured. 

A very fine large black Bigarreau ; ripe in July. 

It was introduced to this country by Mr. Rivers, and Avas awarded a first-class 
certificate by the Royal Horticultural Society in 1872. 



CHERRIES. 286 

BIGARREAU NOIR HATIF.— Fruit, about medium size, small 
for a Bigarreau ; obtuse heart-shaped, compressed on both sides, and 
flattened at the stalk, and slightly marked with a suture on one side. 
Skin, black, smooth, and shining. Flesh, firm, very dark red, with 
deep- coloured juice, sweet, with a somewhat bitter flavour. 

Ripe the middle of July, before the other Bigarreaus. The tree is 
an excellent bearer. 

Bigarreau Noir Monstrueux Pleureur. See Weeping Black Bigarreau, 

Bigarreau Papal. See Bigarreau Beverchon. 

Bigarreau Pleureur. See Weeping Black Bigarreau, 

Bigarreau Radowesnitzer. See Bohemian Black Bigarreau, 

BIGARREAU REVERCHON (Bigarreau Papal).— Fruit, large, 
obtuse heart-shaped, often uneven in its outline, marked with a dis- 
tinct suture on one side. Skin, smooth, shining, tough, and mem- 
branous, at first of a yellowish white, striped and stained with red, 
but when perfectly ripened deep purplish red. Stalk, stout, green, 
an inch and a half long, inserted in a deep and irregular cavity. 
Flesh, with a rosy tint, firm and breaking, richly flavoured, but not 
very juicy. 

A very excellent cherry ; ripe in the end of July and August. 

It is an Italian variety, introduced to Lyons by M. Paul Reverchon, brother of 
the excellent treasurer of the Congr^s Poraologique. 

Bigarreau Ribaucourt. See Bigaireau. 

Bigarreau Rouge. See Belle de Rocmont, 

Bigarreau Royal. See Bigarreau. 

Bigarreau Tardif. See Bigarreau, 

Bigarreau Tardif de Hildesheim. Se Bigarreau de Hildesheim, 

Black Bud of Buckinghamshire. See Corone, 

Black Caroon. See Corone. 

Black Circassian. See Black Tartarian. 

BLACK EAGLE. — Fruit, large, growing in clusters of two and 
three, produced in large bunches on the spurs ; roundish heart-shaped, 
considerably depressed, so much so as to be almost roundish oblate. 
Skin, of a very deep purple, becoming almost quite black when highly 
ripened. Stalk, an inch and a half long, rather slender. Flesh, 
tender, deep purple, with a very rich, sweet, and most dehcious flavour. 
Stone, small and veined. 

A very richly flavoured and excellent cherry ; ripe the beginning of 



286 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

July, and succeeding the May Duke. The tree is a very free grower, 
with much the habit of the May Duke, is quite hardy, aud an excellent 
bearer. It succeeds well as a standard, and is also well adapted for 
training against a wall. 

This excellent cherry was raised at Downton Castle, about the year 1810, by 
Miss Elizabeth Knight, daughter of T. A. Knight, Esq., from the seed of the 
Graffion or Bigarreau, fertilised by the pollen of the May Duke. 

BLACK HAWK. — ^Large, obtuse heart-shaped, uneven in its out- 
line, and compressed on the sides. Skin, deep, shining, blackish 
purple. Stalk, about an inch and a half long. Flesh, dark purple, 
tolerably firm, rich, and sweet. 

An American cherry. Ripe in the middle and end of July. 

BLACK HEART (AnselVs Fine Black; Early Black; Lacure ; 
Spanish Black Heart; Guigne Noire; Guigne Grosse Noire; Grosse 
Schivarze Herzkirsche). — Fruit, pretty large, distinctly and truly heart- 
shaped, undulating and uneven on its surface, sometimes quite mis- 
shapen with undulations, considerably flattened next the stalk, on the 
side which is marked with the suture. Skin, at first dark red, but 
changing as it ripens to dark blackish purple, and with a small russety 
dot at the apex, which is sometimes elongated to a sharp point. Stalk, 
from an inch and a half to an inch and three-quarters long, slender. 
Flesh, dark red, firm, but tender, adhering a little to the stone, and of 
a sweet, rather rich, and agreeable flavour. Stone, large and thick. 

A very old and well-known cherry, which still retains its popularity. 
Ripe the beginning and middle of Julj'. 

As an orchard variety it is still grown to a large extent, the tree 
being a strong grower and an abundant bearer, but there are many 
others which are much preferable. 

Black Morello. See Morello. 

Black Orleans. See Corone. 

Black Russian. See Black Tartarian. 

BLACK TARTARIAN [Tartarian ; Eraser's Black ; Eraser's Black 
Tartarian ; Eraser's Black Heart ; Ronalds* Black ; Ronalds'' Large 
Black Heart ; Circassian ; Black Circassian ; Black Russian ; Eraser's 
Tartarische Schwarze Herzkirsche). — Fruit, very large, obtuse heart- 
shaped. Skin, shining, of a dark blackish brown, becoming quite 
black when ripe. Stalk, an inch and a half to two inches long, 
inserted in a flattened cavity. Flesh, purpHsh, rather tender than 
firm, juicy, and very richly flavoured. The stone is small for the size 
of the fruit, and obtuse heart-shaped. 

This most delicious cherry is ripe the end of June and beginning of 
July, and is in greatest perfection when grown against a wall. The 
tree is quite hardy, a free and vigorous grower, at first having an 



CHERRIES. 287 

upright habit, but more spreading as it becomes aged. The leaves are 
large, and well sustained on stout footstalks. It is an abundant 
bearer, and well adapted for forcing. 

Tlie merit of having introduced this excellent cherry is due to the late Mr. 
Hugh Ronalds, of Brentford, who, in 1794, issued a circular, a copy of which is 
in my possession, in which he signifies his intention of distributing it at five 
shillings each plant. It was subsequently brought from Russia by the late Mr. 
John Fraser, who distinguished himself first by his botanical discoveries in North 
America, and afterwards by his travels in Russia. He purchased it from a 
German, by whom it was cultivated in St. Petersburg, and introduced it to this 
country in 1796. 

Bleeding Heart. See Gascoigne. 

Bloodgood's Amber. See American Amher, 

Bloodgood's Honey. See American Amber. 

Bloodgood's New Honey. See American Amber, 

BOHEMIAN BLACK BIGARREAU {Bigarreau Radowemitzer).-^ 
Fruit, of a roundish heart-shape, even and regular in its outline, and 
flattened a little on one side, where it is marked with a faint suture. 
Skin, jet black and shining. Stalk, dark green, remarkably short, 
being not more than one inch and a quarter long, stout, and rather 
deeply depressed. Flesh, quite black, firm, but not crackling, juicy, 
richly flavoured, and delicious. 

This is a fine large cherry, and ten days earlier than the common 
Bigarreau. 

Bouquet Amarelle. See Cluster, 

Bouquet Kirsche. See Cluster, 

BOWYER'S EARLY HEART.— Fruit, of medium size, obtuse 
heart-shaped. Skin, of a clear waxen yellow, marbled and tinged with 
red. Stalk, two inches long. Flesh, white, tender, juicy, with a sweet 
and particularly rich flavour. 

A delicious cherry of the first quality. Ripe the end of June. The 
tree is hardy, a free grower, and a very abundant bearer, and succeeds 
well as a standard. Whether as regards its fertility, or the excellence 
of the fruit, this variety deserves to be universally cultivated. 

BRANT. — Large, roundish heart-shaped, and uneven. Skin, deep 
dark red. Stalk, an inch and a half long, set in an angular cavity. 
Flesh, dark purplish red, half tender, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. 
Beginning of July. 

Brune de Bruxelles. See Ratafia, 

Brusselsche Rothe oder Orangen Princessenkirsche. See Carnation. 

Bullock's Heart. See Ox-Heart* 



288 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Buntes Taubenherz. See Belle de Rocrnont. 

Biittner's Schwarze Herzkirsche. See Buttner's Black Heart, 

Buschweichsel. See Clicster, 

Buscherkirsche. See Cluster. 

BUTTNER'S BLACK HEART (Biittner's Herzkirsche; Guigne 
Noire de Biittner). — Fruit, large, more so than the Black Heart, obtuse 
heart-shaped, flattened on one side, and marked with a suture, which 
extends over both sides of the fruit, but most deeply marked on that 
which is flattened. Skin, glossy, deep black on one side, but purplish 
black on the other. Stalk, an inch and a half long, set in a pretty 
deep cavity. Flesh, half tender, juicy, dark red, and very pleasantly 
flavoured. 

This is an excellent cherry, and bears a close resemblance to the old 
Black Heart, but is much superior, both in size and flavour, to that 
variety. It ripens in the middle of July. 

The tree is a strong, vigorous, and upright grower, very hardy, and 
an excellent bearer. It succeeds well as a standard, and might be 
cultivated to more advantage as an orchard variety than the old Black 
Heart. 

Biittner's Gelbe Knorpelkirsche. See Biittner's Yellow, 

Biittner's Herzkirsche. See Biittner's Black Heart. 

BUTTNER'S OCTOBER (Biittner s Spate Weichsel ; Biittner's Sep- 
tember and Octoberweichsel ; Buttners October Sukerweichsel ; Biittner's 
October Morello). — Fruit, large, round and flattened, somewhat oblate, 
with no suture, and indented at the apex, in which is the small 
russety dot. Skin, thin, separating freely from the flesh, and of a 
reddish brown colour. Stalk, slender, two inches long, set in a shallow 
depression. Flesh, light red, reticulated with whitish veins, juicy, 
and with a pleasant sub-acid flavour. 

This is a very excellent acid cherry, and useful for all culinary pur- 
poses. It ripens in October, and is the latest of all cherries. The 
tree is a good bearer, and succeeds well as a standard. It was raised 
by Biittner, of Halle. 

Biittner's October Morello. See Biittner's October. 

Biittner's October Sukerweichsel. See Biittner's October. 

Biittner's Octoberweichsel. See Biittner's October. 

Biittner's Spate Weichsel. See Biittner's October. 

Biittner's Wacksknorpelkirsche. See Biittner's Yellow. 

BUTTNER'S YELLOW {Biittner's Gelbe Knorpelkirsche; Biittner's 



CHERRIES. 289 

Wachsknorpelkirsche ; Jaime de Biittner ; Wachsknorpelkirsche) . — 
Fruit, medium sized, roundish heart-shaped, flattened at the stalk and 
on one side, and a little indented at the apex. Skin, clear pale yellow, 
and without any tinge of red, hut if it hangs long on the tree it 
becomes browTiish spotted. Stalk, stout, from an inch and a half to 
two inches long, inserted almost even with the fruit. Flesh, pale, 
very firm, but juicy, and of a sweet and particularly rich flavour. 
Stone, rather small, roundish ovate, and separates freely. 

It is the best of all the yellow cherries, and well deserving of culti- 
vation. It ripens in the middle and end of July. The tree is very 
healthy, vigorous, and hardy, succeeds well as a standard, and is a 
regular and abundant bearer. It was raised by Biittner, of Halle, and 
introduced in 1803. 

CARNATION (Crown ; English Bearer of some ; Grosse Cerise 
Rouge Pale ; de Villenne ; de Villennes Ambre ; Griottier Rouge Pale ; 
Nouvelle d'Angleterre ; Rouge d' Orange ; de Portugal ; Roihe Oranien- 
kirsche ; Oranienkirsche ; Hollandischekirsche ; Fleischfarhigenkirsche ; 
Allendorfen Kirsche ; Biiisselsche Roihe oder Orangen ; Prinzenkirsche ; 
d^ Orange ; Rouge de Bruxelles ; Weisse Malta sierkirsche). — Fruit, 
large, round, and flattened, inclining to oblate. Skin, thin, separating 
freely from the flesh, glossy, light red at first, but becoming of a 
deeper colour as it hangs, and of a pale yellow or amber colour where 
shaded. Stalk, from an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long, 
stout, and inserted in a shallow depression. Flesh, white, yellowish, 
tender, juicy, with a sweet and richly flavoured juice. The stone is 
of medium size, almost round, and sepnrates freely from the flesh. 

This is a most excellent and richly flavoured cheiTy. It is ripe in 
the end of July. The tree is hardy and healthy, and moderately 
vigorous, but not a good bearer. This may account for a variety of 
such excellence being so little cultivated. This is an old complaint 
against it, for Switzer says: "It is no extraordinary bearer. How- 
ever, one or two ought to be planted for its charming variety." 

This is one of the oldest cherries now found in our collections. It is first 
mentioned by Rea in 1665. and is subsequently enumerated in Meager's List. 
With all our pomological authors it has been a commended variety, but it is not 
noticed by Miller. 

Cerise a Bouquet. See Cluster. 

Cerise Doucette. See Belle de Choisy, 

Cerise Tardive. See All Saints. 

Cerisier de la Toussaint. See All Saints. 

Cerisier Pleureur. See All Saints. 

Cherry Duke of Duhamel. Sse Jeffreys'' Duke, 

Chevreuse Male. See Cluster. 

19 



290 THE FKUIT MANUAL. 

CHAMPAGNE. — A small or medium-sized Red Heart Cherry, of a 
pale red colour, somewhat mottled. Stalk, about two inches long, green, 
and slender. Flesh, very tender, and with a brisk flavour. 

This was raised by Mr. Charles Downing, of Newburg, U.S.A. 

CHURCHILL'S HEART. — Fruit, large, heart-shaped. Skin, 
shining, of a clear waxen pale yellow on the shaded side, but where 
exposed to the sun, of a bright red, mottled with dark red and orange. 
Stalk, two inches long, inserted in a shallow depression. Flesh, pale 
yellow, firm, sweet, and richly flavoured, but not very juicy. 

An excellent cherry, but now little cultivated. It ripens in the 
middle and end of July. The tree is hardy, and a good bearer, 
succeeds well as a standard, and in the estimation of Rogers is well 
adapted for orchard planting. 

Circassian. See Black Tartarian. 

CLEVELAND BIGARREAU [Cleveland].— Lw!ge, obtuse heart- 
shaped, sometimes with a swelling on one side near the stalk. Skin, 
pale yellow, with bright red next the sun, and mottled with crimson. 
Stalk, two inches long. Flesh, yellowish white, half-tender, juicy, 
sweet, and richly flavoured. 

A very excellent cherry. Ripe the third or last week in June and 
early in July. 

CLUSTER (a Bouquet; a Trochet of Noisette, but not of Duhamel 
Trauben Amarelle; Kluftchenskirsche ; Traubenkirsche ; Bouquetkirsche 
Troschkirsche ; Buscherkirsche ; Busch Weichsel ; Flandrische Weichsel 
Chevreuse Male ; Troskerskirsche ; Flanders Cluster). — Fruit, produced 
in clusters at the extremity of one common stalk, round, flattened at 
the stalk. Skin, thin, of a pale red at first, but changing the longer 
it hangs to dark red. Flesh, white, tender, and juicy, at first very 
acid, but becoming milder as it hangs on the tree. Stone, small, 
round, and a little compressed. It ripens in the end of July. 

This is cultivated more as an object of curiosity than for any real value it pos- 
sesses. If of use at all the only purpose it is fit for is baking or preserving. It is 
in all respects very similar to the Kentisli, except in the singular position of the 
fruit on the stalk. This is caused by the flowers containing several distinct styles ; 
more or less of these are fertilised and produce a corresponding number of fruit. 
In some cases the fruit is single, but varies to six in a cluster. This is a very old 
variety, being known to Parkinson in 1629, by whom it was called the Flanders 
Cluster Cherry, 

Some confusion has arisen between this variety and the Cerisier a Trochet of 
Duhamel, by Noisette adopting the nomenclature of the latter in his description of 
this, and hence the synonyms of the Cerisier a Trochet have been applied to the 
Cluster Cherry. The Cerisier a Trochet of Duhamel is a distinct variety, known 
also by the name of Ties Fertile, and it is the Straussweichsel of Truchsess. 

COE'S LATE CARNATION.— Medium sized, roundish. Skin, 
reddish yellow, clouded and mottled with bright red. Stalk, two 



CHERRIES. 291 

inches long. Flesh, tender, juicy, with a brisk sub-acid flavour, be- 
coming mellowed the longer it hangs. 

Ripe from the middle to the end of August; and continues to hang 
till September. 

Coeor de Pigeon. See Belle de Eocmont. 

Common Red. See Kentish. 

CORONE (Black Coroon ; Black Orleans ; Belcher's Black ; Hert- 
fordshire Black ; Large Wild Black ; Englische Schwarze Kronherz- 
kirsche ; Couronne ; Kerroon ; Crown). — Fruit, rather below the medium 
size, roundish, heart-shaped, marked on one side with a suture. Skin, 
deep shining black. Stalk, slender, two inches long, inserted in a deep, 
round, and narrow cavity. Flesh, dark purple, very firm, sweet, and 
well-flavoured. 

Ripe in the end of July and beginning of August. 

A very good small cherry for orchard planting, being produced in great qnan- 
titles, and on accoiu t of the firmness of its flesh capable of being transmitted to a 
distance without injury, but as a desirable variety for general purposes it cannot 
bear comparison with many others in cultivation. About the end of July it is 
found in enormous quantities in almost all the market towns of this country under 
the various names of Corone, Mazzard, and Merri«s, although these two latter 
names are also applicable to other varieties. In Ellis's "Agriculture Improved," 
for July, 1745, there is a long account of the Corone Cherry, part of which is as 
follows : — "At Gaddcsdeii we* were in a great measure strangers to this cherry 
thirty years ago ; for I believe I may be positive of it that I was the first who 
introduced this cherry into our parish about the year 1725, not but that it was 
growing in a few other places in Hertfordshire before then, as at Northchurch, a 
village situate in the extremest wes-tern }»art of that couny, where this fruit grew 
on standard trees in orchards, and brought great profit to their planters and 
owners, because in that time the Kerroon cherry was scarce and rare." It ift 
much grown in the counties of Buckingham and Hertford. 

Crown. See Carnation, 

Crown. See Corone. 

Curan. See Gascoigne. 

D'Aremberg. See Reine Hortense, 

D'Orange. See Carnation. 

Dauphine. See Belle de Choisy. 

DECHENAUT. — Fruit, large, roundish heart-shaped, broad at the 
stalk, rather flattened, and marked with a faint suture on one side. 
Skin, bright cornelian red, and shining, becoming darker red when 
quite ripe. The stalk is one inch and a half to one inch and three- 
quarters long, inserted in a wide and deep depression. Flesh, tender 
and succulent, with the May Duke flavour. 

This is a fine large cherry, ripening about the same time as the 
May Duke, and well worth cultivating. 



292 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

DELICATE. — Large, roundish, and flattened. Skin, thin and 
translucent fine rich amber-coloured, quite covered with mottling of 
crimson. Stalk, two inches long. Flesh, pale yello^v, translucent, 
tender, juicy, sweet, and with a rich, delicious flavour. 

A very excellent cherry ; ripe in the middle of July. 

De Portugal. See Carnation. 

DE SOISSONS. — Fruit, medium sized, obtuse heart-shaped, a little 
flattened, and pitted at the apex, somewhat uneven on one side and 
marked with a slight suture on the other. Skin, dark red. Stalk, 
short, about an inch or a little more in length, and inserted in a deep 
cavity. Flesh, reddish, tender, and juicy, with a brisk and pleasant 
sub-acid flavour. 

A good cherry for culinary purposes, ripe in the middle and end of 
July. The tree is a free and erect grower, but an indifierent bearer. 

De St. Martin. See All Saints. 

De Villenne. See Carnation. 

De Villenne Ambre. See Carnation. 

Doctor. See American Doctor. 

Donna Maria. Sse Eoyal Duke. 

Doppelte Natte. See Double Nattc. 

Double Glass. See Great Cornelian. 

DOUBLE NATTE {Doppelte Natte ; Kirsche Von der Natte ; Braune 
Friihkirsche). — Fruit, large for its class, roundish, but a little com- 
pressed on both sides, somewhat ovate towards the apex, and marked 
with a fine line on one side. Skin, dark brown or brownish black. 
Stalk, slender, slightly curved, pale green, and inserted in a flat de- 
pression. Sometimes the stalk is as much as three inches long, beset 
with leaves, and frequently with two fruit. Flesh, very red and juicy; 
juice also red, and when well ripened of a rather rich and somewhat 
aromatic flavour. Stone, oval. 

A very good cherry ; ripe in the beginning and middle of July. 

The tree is a good bearer, of rather small size, and handsome habit 
of growth. It is a more compact grower, and the shoots are longer, 
thinner, and more pendulous than the Morellos. 

Double Volger. See Gros Gohet. 

Doucette. See Belle de Choisy. 

DOWNER'S LATE (Dovner's Late Bed ; Downer's).— Fxmi, pro- 
duced in large bunches, medium sized, obtuse heart-shaped. Skin, of 
a delicate clear red on the exposed side, but paler and mottled with 



CHERRIES. 298 

pale yellow where shaded. Stalk, an inch and a half long, inserted in 
a shallow depression. Flesh, pale, tender, juicy, sweet, and richly 
flavoured. 

This is a very excellent late cherry, which succeeds well in this 
climate and is worthy of extensive cultivation. 

The tree is healthy, a good grower, and an excellent bearer. Ripe 
in the middle and end of August. 

It was raised at Dorchester, near Boston, U.S.A., by Mr. Samuel Downer, and I 
first received it from America in 1847. 

DOWNTON. — Fruit, above medium size, very obtusely heart- 
shaped, almost round, and slightly compressed on one side, which is 
marked with a delicate suture. Skin, tender, tinged on the side next 
the sun with delicate red, and mottled and dotted with deep red, but 
pale yellow where shaded. Flesh, pale amber, transparent, tender, 
and juicy, with a very rich and high flavour. 

A most delicious cherry of the first quality. It ripens in the middle 
and end of July, but is earlier when grown against a wall, for which 
purpose it is well adapted. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, healthy and hardy, and 
an excellent bearer. It succeeds well as a standard. 

It was raised by T. A, Knight, Esq., of Downton Castle, and was first intro- 
duced to the notice of the Horticultural Society in 1822. 

Dredge's Early White. See White Heart. 

Drogan's Gelbe Knorpelkirsche. See DrogarCs Yellow Bigarreau, 

Drogan's Weisse Knorpelkirsche. See Drogan's White Bigarreau, 

DROGAN'S WHITE BIGARREAU (Bigarreau Blanc de Brogan). 
— This is a very early form of the Bigarreau, being quite shrivelled 
when that variety is only just ripe. It is perfectly heart-shaped, 
rather pointed at the apex, and flattened on one side. Skin, yellow, 
mottled and flushed with red on the side that is much exposed. Stalk, 
an inch and a half long, stout. Flesh, firm, sweet, and richly flavoured. 

A very desirable variety ; ripe in the middle and end of June. 

DROGAN'S YELLOW BIGARREAU {Bigarreau Jaune de Dro- 
gan; DrogarCs Gelhe Knorpelkirsche ; Golden Bigarreau). — Fruit, large 
and round, more the shape of a May Duke than a Bigarreau. Skin, a 
fine clear pale yellow all over, and without the least tinge of red. 
Stalk, an inch and a half long. Flesh, very juicy, sweet, and very 
nicely flavoured, but not rich. 

A very ornamental and beautiful cherry ; ripe in the end of July 
and beginniug of August. 

DUCHESSE DE PALLUAU.— Fruit, large, one inch wide, eight- 
tenths of an inch long, oblate, without any suture on the side except 
what is indicated by a hair line, flattened and pitted at the apex, where 



294 THE FBUIT MANUAL. 

it is marked with a yellow point. Skin, thin, of a brilliant red colour, 
which becomes of a dark red as it attains maturity. The common 
peduncle is about half an inch long, and the stalk an inch and a half. 
The fruit generally grows singly and rarely in pairs. Flesh, yellowish, 
very tender and juicy, with a brisk and agreeable acidulous flavour. 
Juice, pale red. Stone, roundish oval and thick. 

A very fine cherry of the May Duke class. 

It ripens in the end of July, about a fortnight after the May Duke. 
The tree is exactly similar to the May Duke in the growth and in the 
leaves. 

Duke. See May Duke. 

Dutch Bigarreau. See Bigarreau de Hollande. 

Dutch Morello. See Morello. 

EARLY AMBER (Earhj Amber Heart).— Yxwii, above medium 
size, heart-shaped. Skin, pale amber, with a flush of red next the 
sun. Stalk, two inches long. Flesh, pale yellow, juicy, sweet, and 
richly flavoured. 

It ripens in the beginning of July. 

Early Black. See Black Heart. 

EARLY BLACK BIGARREAU.— Fruit, large, as largo as the 
Bohemian Black Bigarreau, distinctly heart-shaped, and very uneven 
in its outline. Skin, jet black. Stalk, an inch and a half to an inch 
and three-quarters long. Flesh, dark purple, very tender, richly 
flavoured, sweet, and excellent. 

This is a fine early Bigarreau ; ripe in the beginning of July. 

Early Duke. See May Duke. 

EARLY JABOULAY [Bigarreau Jahoulay ; Bigarreau GahouJais ; 
Bigarreau de Lyons). — Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shnped, uneven in its 
outline, rounded at the apex, and marked with a distinct, though not a 
deep suture. Skin, thin, deep amber, thickly mottled with blotches 
and dots of blood red of a bright colour ; sometimes it is quite pale 
and amber-coloured, with a little red on it in dots and spots ; when 
fully exposed and allowed to hang it is more overspread with red and 
becomes nearly black. Stalk, an inch and a half to two inches long, 
rather deeply inserted. Flesh, quite pale and opaline, very tender 
and very juicy, sweet, and of excellent flavour. Juice, pale. 

A first-rate early cherry ; ripe out of doors in the end of June, but 
in an orchard-house in the end of May and beginning of June. 

It is not a Bigarreau, but a Gean. 

EARLY LYONS (Guigne Hdtive de Lyons ; Base de Lyons). — 
Fruit, of the largest size, obtuse heart-shaped, rather bossed on its 
surface, and flattened on one side, which is marked with the suture. 



CHERRIES. 

Skin, of a mahogany colour, deeply mottled with bloqd red. Stalk, 
about an inch and a half long, stout, and not deeply inserted. Flesh, 
tender,' deeply stained with red, and of excellent flavour. Juice, red. 

An excellent and very handsome early cherry, ripening at the same 
time as Early Jaboulay, but much larger and of darker colour. 

EARLY MAY {Small May; Small Early May; May; Nain a 
Fruit Rond Precoce ; Nain Precoce ; Indulle ; Petit Cerise Ronde 
Precoce; Petit Cerise Rouye Precoce; Friihe Zwergweichsel ; 
Weisse Saner Kirsche ; Friihe Kleine Runde Zweryiveichsel). — Fruit, 
small, round, and a little flattened about the stalk and the apex. Skin, 
bright red at first, but the longer it hangs it becomes of a dark red. 
Stalk, about an inch long, slender, set in a shallow depression. Flesh, 
red, tender, juicy, and briskly acid. Stone, very small and round. 

The earliest of all cherries, ripe in the middle of June, but now not 
worth cultivation, since there arc so many other varieties which are 
almost equally as early and very superior to it as dessert fruits. It 
has for centuries been cultivated in this country, but more on account 
of its earliness than for any other merit it possesses. 

The tree is of dwarf habit of growth, with slender and pendent 
shoots. It is tender, and requires the protection of a wall, but is 
unworthy of such a situation. 

Early May Duke. See May Duke. 

EARLY PROLIFIC. — Fruit, above medium size, obtuse heart- 
shaped. Skin, pale amber, mottled with crimson. Stalk, two inches 
long. Flesh, tolerably firm, juicy, rich, sweet, and delicious. 

Ripe in the end of June. 

EARLY PURPLE GEAN [Early Purple Griotte ; Friihe 
Schwarze Herzkirsche ; German May Duke; Hdtive de Boutamand. 
— Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped, a little flattened on one side. 
Skin, of a uniform shining dark purple, almost black. Stalk, slender, 
from two to two and a half inches long, inserted in a pretty wide but 
shallow depression. Flesh, dark purple, tender, and very juicy, with a 
particularly rich, sweet flavour. 

A most delicious cherry ; ripe on a wall the last week of May or 
first of June. It is as early as the Early May, and about a fortnight 
earlier than the May Duke, to both of which it is far superior in rich- 
ness of flavour. 

The tree is vigorous and healthy, succeeds well as a standard, and is 
an excellent bearer, but it requires to be grown on the Mahaleb stock. 
To orchardists this would prove a valuable acquisition, both as regards 
the earliness and the rich flavour of the fruit. 

This variety was received by the London Horticultural Society from Decandolle, 
of Geneva, in 1822 ; and by M. Decandolle it was procured from M. Baumaun, of 
Bolwyller. 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Early Purple Griotte. See Early Purple Gean. 

EARLY BED BIGARREAU {Bigarreau Rouge de Gouhen).— 
The fruit is large, about the size of the ordinary Bigarreau, but of a 
decided heart-shape. The skin is bright red and transparent, like 
that of Belle de Choisy. The stalk is from an inch and a half to an 
inch and three-quarters long. Flesh, firm, rich, sweet, and excellent. 

This is a very excellent early cherry, ripening from the middle to 
the end of June, and quite ripe before the old Bigarreau begins to 
colour. 

The tree is like a Duke in its habit of growth, but the fruit is so 
delicately heart-shaped, and the flesh so firm, that it must be classed 
among the Bigarreaus. 

Early Richmond. See Kentish. 

EARLY RIVERS. — Fruit, produced in clusters of ten or twelve, 
two to four being on one peduncle ; large, nearly an inch in diameter, 
roundish heart-shaped, somewhat uneven and indented on the surface, 
marked with a faint suture, and slightly pitted on the apex, where 
there is a deep style-point. Skin, shining deep black. Stalk, an 
inch and three-quarters long, rather slender, green, and with a small, 
rather deeply-imbedded disk. Flesh, very tender, sweet, and agree- 
ably flavoured. Stone, extremely small. 

A very excellent cherry ; ripe in the end of June. The tree is an 
abundant bearer. 

This is a seedling, raised by Mr. Rivers from Early Purple Gean. The tree 
first produced fruit in 1869, and it receiyed a First Class Certificate from the Royal 
Horticultural Society in 1872. 

Elkhorn. See Tradescanfs Heart. 

ELTON. — Fruit, large, handsomely heart-shaped. Skin, pale 
waxen yellow on the shaded side, but beautifully mottled and dotted 
with bright red on the exposed side. Stalk, pretty stout, from two to 
two and a quarter inches long, set in a shallow depression. Flesh, 
pale, more tender than firm, juicy, sweet, and of a very rich flavour. 
Stone, medium sized, ovate. 

A very valuable and deliciously flavoured cherry ; ripe in the begin- 
ning and middle of July. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, hardy, healthy, and an 
excellent bearer. It succeeds well either as a standard or against a 
wall. The leaves are very long, more so than those of the Bigarreau, 
and hang down. The flowers are also of large size. 

This variety was raised in 1806, by T. A. Knight, Esq., from the Bigarreau or 
Graffion, impregnated with the White Heart. 

EMPRESS EUGENIE {Imperatrice Eugenie).— Yxmi, large, round- 
ish, inclining to oblate, marked on one side by a deep suture, which 
terminates at the apex in a long grey style-point. Skin, thin, bright 



CHERRIES. 297 

red, changing to dark purplish red. Flesh, pretty firm, very juicy, 
sweet, sugary, and with a fine refreshing acidity. 

A very fine form of May Duke, ripening a week earlier than that 
variety. 

It originated in a vineyard at Belleville, near Paris, where it was 
discovered by M. Varenne, and it was first propagated by M. A. 
Gonthier in 1855. 

English Bearer. See Carnation. 

Englische Schwarze. See Corone. 

Flanders Cluster. See Chester. 

Flandrische Weichsel. See Cluster, 

Fleischfarbigen Kirsche. See Carnation. 

FLEMISH. — Some pomologists have fallen into the mistake of 
regarding this cherry as synonymous with Gros Gobet ; others think it 
the same as the Kentish. The latter is nearer the truth ; but the 
Kentish and Flemish are decidedly difierent. The fruit of the two is 
somewhat similai* ; but the trees of the Flemish are less drooping than 
those of the Kentish, and the fruit is smaller, and about eight or ten 
days later. Any one who examines the two varieties as they are 
grown in the Kentish orchards will see at once that the varieties are 
difi'erent. 

FLORENCE {Knerett's Late Bigarreau). — Fruit, large, heart- 
shaped, flattened at the stalk, rather blunt towards the apex, and 
compressed on one side, which is marked with a shallow suture or 
fine line. Skin, smooth and shining, pale yellow mottled with red on 
the shaded side, but of a clear bright red dotted with deeper red on 
the side exposed to the sun. Stalk, about two inches long, slender, 
and inserted in a rather deep and wide cavity. Flesh, white, firm, 
and very juicy, of a rich, sweet, and delicious flavour. 

A cherry of first-rate quality, having some resemblance to a Bigar- 
reau, but with a more tender and juicy flesh. It ripens about the 
beginning and middle of August, being some time later than the 
Bigarreau and Elton. 

The tree is of moderate size, and of a spreading habit of growth ; it 
is an excellent bearer after being planted a few years, and requires to 
be planted against a wall. 

This variety was importe<1 from Fiorpnce towards the latter part of the last cen 
turj, and was planted at Hailingbury Place, in Essex. 

Four-to-the-Pound. See Tobacco -leaved. 

Eraser's Black. See Blaci Tartarian. 

Fraser's Black Heart. See Black Tartarian. 



298 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Eraser's Black Tartarian. See Black Tartarian. 

Eraser's Tartarische Schwarze Herzkirsche. See Black Tartarian, 

Eraser's White Tartarian. See White Tartarian. 

Eraser's White Transparent. See WJiite Tartarian. 

EROGMORE EARLY [Frogmore Early Bigarreau).—Frmt, large, 
obtuse heart-shaped, compressed on the side, and with a faint suture. 
Skin, pale waxen yellow in the shade, suffused with deep red next the 
sun. Stalk, two inches long, with a very small receptacle. Flesh, 
remarkably tender and melting, as much so as in a Gean, very juicy, 
and with an excellent flavour. 

A very delicious cherry, as early as the May Duke. The tree is an 
abundant bearer. 

Frogmore Early B,igarreau. See Frogmore Early. 

EROGMORE MORELLO.— This is a large form of the old Morello. 

Friihe Kleine Runde Zwergweichsel. See Early May. 

Friihe Schwarze Herzkirsche. See Early Furple Gean. 

Fnihe Zwergweichsel. See Early May. 

GASCOIGNE (Quran ; Bleeding Heart ; Gascoigne Heart ; Here- 
fordshire Heart : Bed Heart of some collections ; Guigne Bouge 
Hdtive). — Fruit, above medium size, heart-shaped, broad at the 
stalk, and terminating at the apex in an acute swollen point ; on one 
side it is marked with a rather- deep suture, which extends from the 
stalk across the apex and continues like a fine line on the other side. Skin, 
entii'ely covered with bright red, particularly on one side and round the 
apex, but on the other parts it is paler and mottled. Stalk, two inches 
long, slender, and very slightly depressed. Flesh, yellowish white, 
half-tender, juicy, and sweet. Stone, rather large and ovate. 

A very old variety of cherry, now rarely cultivated, being much in- 
ferior to the sorts which are generally grown. It ripens about the 
beginning or middle of July. 

The tree is rather a strong grower, but an indifferent bearer. 

This is one of the oldest varieties of cherries of which we have any record. It 
is mentioned by Parkinson, who says " it is known but to a lew." 

GASKINS, a corruption of Gascoignes, refers to those cherries 
originally obtained from Gascony. About Rye, in Sussex, the name 
is still in general use ; and these cherries are said to have been brought 
from France by Joan of Kent when her husband, the Black Prince, 
was commanding in Guienne and Gascony. See Guigne. 

German May Duke. See Early Purple Gean. 



CHERRIES. 299 

Glimmer t. See Gh-os Gobet, 

Gobet a Courte Queue. See Gros Gobet. 

Golden Bigarreau. See Drogan^s Yellow Bigarreau. 

GOVERNOR WOOD.— Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped. Skin, 
pale yellow, washed and mottled with bright red. Stalk, an inch and 
a half long. Flesh, half-tender, juicy, sweet, and very richly fla- 
voured. 

A very excellent cherry ; ripe in the begmning of July. 

GraflSon. See Bigarreau. 

Grand Glimmert. See Gros Gobet. 

Grande Zeelandoise. See Gros Gobet. 

GREAT CORNELIAN {Double Glass).— Yeryhrge, oblate, marked 
on one side with a very deep suture, which quite divides the fruit. 
Skin, thin and translucent, at first of a hght red, but becoming darker 
as it ripens. Stalk, an inch and a half long. Flesh, yellowish, tender, 
very juicy, with a fine sub-acid, vinous, and rich flavour. 

Ripe in the beginning of July. 

GRIOTTE DE CHAUX.— Large, roundish oblate. Skin, dark red 
and shining. Stalk, two inches long, and slender. Flesh, dark, 
tender, melting, and very juicy, with a brisk sub-acid flavour. 

This is a mild-flavoured Morello ; ripe about the end of July. 

GRIOTTE IMPERLALE.— A fine large obtuse heart-shaped cherry, 
of a dark mahogany colour. Stalk, not more than an inch long, very 
stout. Flesh, deep dark red, briskly acid, but not austere. 

A handsome black Morello cherry, which hangs till the end of August. 

GRIOTTE DE KLEPAROW (Belle Polonaise).— Medium sized, 
roundish oblate. Skin, dark red. Stalk, two inches long. Flesh, 
dark, tender, aud juicy, with a rich, sweet, and sub-acid flavour. 

A mild-flavoured Morello ; ripe in the end of July. 

Griotte de Portugal. See Archduke. 

Griotte Ordinaire du Morel. See Morello. 

Griottier de Choisy. See Belle de Choisy. 

Griottier de Palembre. See Belle de Choisy. 

Griottier Rouge Pale. See Carnation. 

Groote Princess. See Bigarreau de Hollande. 

Gros Coeuret. See Bdle ds Eocmont. 

GROS GOBET (Montmorency ; Montmorency a Courte Queue ; Gobet 
a Courte Queue; Montmorency d Gros Fruit; Cerise a Courte Queue: 



800 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



Cerise a Courts Queue de Provence ; Grosser Gohet ; Weichsel mit Kur- 
zen Stiel ; Grosse Montmorency mit Kurzen Stiel ; Volg^rs- Volger, or 
Double Volger ; Glimmert ; Grand Glimmcrt ; Guldemonds-kers ; Gul- 
dewagens-kers ; Eosenoble ; Schimmelpennings-kers ; Zeelandoise; Grande 
Zeelandoise ; Yellow Ramonde). — Fruit, above medium size, oblate, 
very much flattened at both ends, and marked on one side wiih a deep 
suture. Skin, smooth and shining, of a fine clear red at first, but 
becoming of a dark red the longer it haogs. Stalk, very short and 
thick, from half an inch to an inch in length, and set in a deep cavity, 
which has a deep groove on one side of it, formed by the suture. 
Flesh, white, tender, very juicy, and briskly acid ; but when allowed 
to hang and become perfectly ripe, it is more agreeably and pleasantly 
flavoured. Stone, medium sized, roundish, and adhering pretty closely 
to the flesh. 

This variety is only fit for preserving ; it ripens about the middle 
and end of July. 

The tree is an indifi'erent bearer, and on that account is almost out 
of cultivation. 

This cherry is by many called the Flemish, and by others the Kentish, but both 
of these are quite distinct varieties. Forsyth has evidently called it the Kentish 
on the authority of Duliamel, for the description he has giv^n of that variety 
is the same as that of Duhatnel for Gros Gobet, and not of the tru« Kentish. 
Lindley very properly describes it separately from the Kentish, under the name of 
Montmorency, accompanied with Duhamel's synonyms. 

Grosse Cerise Rouge Pale. See Carnation. 

Grosse de Wagnelee. See Heine Horiense. 

Grosse Montmorency mit Kurzen Stiel. See Gros Gobet. 

Grosse Schwarze Herzkirsche. See Black Heart. 

Grosser Gobet. See Gros Gobet. 

Griine Kirsche. See All Saints. 

GUIGNE, GEAN, or GEEN.— This word is derived from Guienne, 
whence these cherries were first obtained. See Gaskins. 

Guigne Grosse Noire. See Black Heart. 

Guigne Hative de Boutamand. See Early Purple Gean. 

Guigne Noire. See Black Heart. 

Guigne Noire de Biittner. See Biittner's Black Heart. 

Guigne Noire de Strass. See Reine Hortense. 

Guigne Noire Tardive. See TradescanVs Heart. 

Guigne Precoce de Werder. See Werder's Early Heart. 

Guigne Rouge Hative. See Gascoigne. 



CHERRIES. 301 

GUIGNE TRES PRECOCE.— Fruit, rather small, and not quite 
medium sized, obtuse heart-shaped, and rather uneven in its outline. 
Skin, quite black. Stalk, an inch and a half long, slender, deeply- 
inserted in a rather wide cavity. Flesh, very tender, juicy, and of 
good flavour. Juice, coloured. 

A very early black Gean ; a week earlier than Early Parple Gean, 
and ripe in the middle and end of June. In an orchard-house it is 
ripe in the end of May and beginning of June. 

Guignier a Feuilles do Tabac. See Tobacco-leaved. 
Guignier a Rameaux Pendants. See All Saints. 
Guldemonds-kers. See Gros Gobet. 
Guldewagens-kers. See Gros Gobet. 

HARRISON'S HEART (White Bigarreau; Harrison's Duke).— 
Fruit, medium sized, heart-shaped, flattened near the stalk, on the 
side which is marked with a shallow suture, which is not indented, but 
terminated by a small point or nipple, as in some of the peaches, where 
the style -point is. Skin, at first of a pale yellowish colour, thickly 
speckled and covered with red, but as it ripens it is completely over- 
spread, and thickly mottled and spotted with blood red, except at the 
apex, where the red is not so thick. Flesh, firm, but less so than the 
Bigarreau; yellowish white, rayed with white, juicy and well- flavoured, 
but not so rich as the Bigarreau. 

This has for some years been confounded with the Bigarreau. The true Har- 
rison's Heart is now very seldom met with, and the opinion has gone abroad that 
it is synonyujous with the Bigarreau. The chHracters, however, are very distinct ; 
the Bigarreau is of a roundi>h heart-shape, while the other is of a true heart-shape ; 
the apex of the Bigarreau is pitted, that of this is nippled ; the colour of the 
Bigarreau is pale, and only dark red next the sun ; this is almost entirely over- 
spread with red, and spotted with blood red. The stalk of Harrison'^ Heart is 
more slender than that of the Bigarreau ; the latter ripens in the second week in 
July, the former in the second ot August. 

Forsyth gives an apocryphal account of this being brought from India by 
General Harrison, who went out as Governor of St. George in 1710, and returned 
home in 1719, bringing this cherry with him. 

Hative de Lyon. See Early Lyons. 
Herefordshire Heart. See Gascoigne, 
Hertfordshire Black. See Corone. 

Hildesheimer Ganz Spate Knorpelkirsche. See Bigarreau de Hil- 
desheim. 

Hildesheimer Spate Herzkirsche. See Bigarreau de Hildesheim. 

HOGG'S BLACK GEAN.— Fruit, medium sized, obtuse heart- 
shaped. Skin, black and shining. Stalk, an inch and a half long. 
Flesh, dark, very lender, ricn'y flavoured, and very sweet. 

Ripe in the beginning of July. 



302 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



HOGG'S RED GEAN. — Fruit, medium sized, roundish, inclining 
to heart-shaped. Skin, red, freckled with amber yellow. Stalk, an 
inch and a half long. Flesh, yellowish, very tender and juicy, sweet, 
and richly flavoured. 

Ripe in the beginning of July. 

Hollandische Grosse. See Bigarreau de Hollande. 
Hollandischekirsche. See Carnation. 

HUNGARIAN GEAN. — Fruit, rather below the medium size, obtuse 
heart-shaped. Skin, amber-coloured, mottled with red on the side 
exposed to the sun. Flesh, half-tender, whitish, tolerably sweet and 
tender. Stone, large and ovate. 

A variety of second-rate quality ; ripe in July. The tree succeeds 
well as a standard, and is an abundant bearer. 

Hybrid de Laeken. See Reine Hortense, 

Imperatrice Eugenie. See Empress Eugenie. 

Indulle. See Early May. 

Italian Heart. See Bigarreau. 

Jaune de Biittner. See Biittner's Yellow. 

JEFFREYS' DUKE [Cherry Duke of Duhamel ; Jeffreys* Royal; 
Jeffreys* Royal Caroon; Royale ; Konigliche Weichselbaum der Chery 
Duke ; Konigliche Sussweichsel). — Fruit, about medium size, smaller 
than the May Duke, round, and flattened at both ends. Skin, of a fine 
deep red, which changes to very dark red the longer it hangs. Stalk, 
about an inch and a half long, inserted in a shallow cavity. Flesh, 
pale red, tender, very juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. 

An excellent cherry of first-rate quality. It is in season at the same 
time as the May Duke, but instead of being acid it is quite sweet 
before attaining its dark colour. Ripe the beginning and middle of July. 

The tree is peculiar in its growth, being of a very compact and 
upright habit, and never makes much wood in a season ; the shoots 
are very short, and thickly set with bloom buds. It succeeds well 
either as a standard or against a wall, and is an abundant bearer. 

It is said by Mr. Lindley that this variety was introduced by Jeffreys, of the 
Brompton Park Nursery, who died in 1785. The first notice I find of it, in the 
catalogues of that nursery, is in 1785, from which time it is called Royal and New 
Koyal, except in one instance in 1790, when it is entered as Jeffreys' Seedling. 
In Miller & Sweet's catalogue for 1790 it is called Jeffreys' tine new seedling. 

Jeflreys' Royal Caroon. See Jeffreys' Duke. 

JOC-0-SOT. — Fruit, large and handsome, somewhat obtusely heart- 
shaped, compressed on the sides, and deeply indented at the apex. 
Skin, shining, of a deep brownish black colour. Stalk, two inches 
long. Flesh, dark brownish red, tender, juicy, rich, and sweet. 

Ripe in the middle of July. 



CHERRIES. 803 

KENNICOTT. — Fruit, large, roundish heart-shaped, and compressed 
on the sides. Skin, of a fiae amber yellow, considerably mottled with 
deep glossy red. Flesh, yellowish white, firm, juicy, rich, and sweet. 

Ripe in the beginning and middle of August. 

KE^TISB. (Common Red : Earh/ Richmond ; Pie Cherry; Sussex; 
Virginian May). — Fruit, medium sized, round, and inclining to oblate 
in shape, marked on one side with a very faint suture, which in some 
specimens is not distinguishable, pitted at the apex, in which is a small 
style-point. Skin, at first pale flesh-coloured, but changing to clear 
deep red, and when allowed to hang it assumes a very dark and almost 
black colour. Stalk, varying from an inch to an inch and a half long, 
pretty stout, and inserted in a considerable depression. Flesh, yel- 
lowish, tender, juicy, and briskly flavoured. Stone, medium-sized, 
ovate, and flattened, adhering firmly to the stalk, so much so that it 
may be drawn out, leaving the fruit entire. 

This is larger than the Flemish, and a superior variety. It is the 
best cooking cherry, and is ripe in the middle and end of July. 

Kentish Heart. See White Heart. 
Kirsche von der Natte. See Double Natle. 
Kirtland's Mammoth. See Mammoth. 
Kirtland's Mary. See Mary. 
Kliiftchenkirsche. See Cluster. 
Knevett's Late Bigarreau. See Florence. 

KNIGHT'S EARLY BLACK.— Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped, 
irregular and uneven on its surface. Skin, dark dull red, becoming 
almost black when fully ripe. Stalk, two inches long, inserted in a 
deep and rather wide cavity. Flesh, dark purple, tender, juicy, and 
sweet, richly and highly flavoured. Stone, small and roundish. 

A delicious early cherry, ripe on standards in the end of June and 
beginning of July, about a week or ten days earlier than the May 
Duke. The tree is a free grower, strong, and vigorous, and a very 
abundant bearer. It succeeds well as a standard, but is well deserving 
of a wall, when the fruit will be much improved and produce much 
earlier than on standards. 

This valuable cherry was raised by T. A. Knip^ht, Esq., about the year 1810, 
from the seed of the Bigarreau impregnated with the pollen of the May Dake. 

Konigliche Sussweichsel. See Jeffreys' Duke. 

Konigliche Weichselbaum der Chary Doke. See Jeffreys' Duke. 

Kronherzkirsche. See Corone. 

Lacure. See Black Heart. 



304 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

LADY SOUTHAMPTON'S.— This is a medium sized, yellow, heai't- 
shaped cherry, of the Bigarreau class, with firm, but not juicy, flesh. 
It is now very little cultivated, and is but a worthless variety. 

Ripe in the end of July and beginning of August. 

Large Black Bigarreau. See Tradescanfs Heart. 
Large May Duke. See May Duke. 
Large Wild Black. See Corone. 

LATE BIGARREAU.— Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped, and 
uneven in its outline, broadly and deeply indented at the apex. Skin, 
of a fine rich yellow, with a bright red cheek, which sometimes extends 
over the whole surface. Stalk, an inch and a half long. Flesh, 
yellowish, considerably firm, sweet, and agreeably flavoured. 

A large and handsome late Bigarreau ; ripe in the middle of 
August. The tree is very productive. 

LATE DUKE {Anglaise Tardive). — Fruit, large, obtusely heart- 
shaped, and somewhat compressed. Skin, shining, of a fine bright red, 
which becomes darker as it ripens. Stalk, an inch and a half to two 
inches long. Flesh, pale yellow, tender, juicy, and richly flavoured. 

Ripe in the middle and end of August. 

Late Morello. See Morello. 

Late Mottled Bigarreau. See Bigarreau Napoleon. 

LATE PURPLE GEAN.— This is a fine late Black Gean, ripening 
in the latter end of July. 

Lauermann's Herzkirsche. See Bigarreau Napoleon. 
Lauermann's Kirsche. See Bigarreau Napoleon. 

LEMERCIER. See Heine Hortense. There is a Lemercier grown 
by Mr. Rivers which is later than Reine Hortense, and, before it is 
quite ripe, considerably more acid than that variety. The tree has 
also a more rigid and upright growth, like the Dukes ; but it is 
evidently a seminal variety of Reine Hortense, and, being a better 
bearer, is perhaps the preferable kind to grow of that admirable 
cherry. 

Lion's Heart. See Ox Heart. 

LOGAN. — Fruit, above medium size, obtuse heart-shaped. Skin, 
deep blackish purple. Stalk, an inch and a half long. Flesh, brownish 
red, almost firm, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. 

Ripe in the middle and end of July. The tree blooms late. 

Louis XVIII. See Reine Hortense. 

LUD WIG'S BIGARREAU {Bigarreau de Uidivig). -~Frmi, large 



GHEBBIES. 805 

and perfectly heart-shaped, terminating at the apes in a sharp point, 
with a slightly marked suture on one side. Skin, shiuing, of a fine 
bright red colour, which is evenly distributed over the whole surface, 
except that it is a little paler on the shaded side. Flesh, pale yellow, 
very tender and melting, much more so than Bigarreaus general y are. 

A delicious early Bigarreau, ripening just after the Early Red Bigarreau. 

In the " Dictionnaire de Pomologie " Mr. Leroy states that this is an 
English variety raised by Mr. Rivers, of Sawbridge worth. 

LUKE WARD'S [Lnheuards). — Fruit, medium sized, obtuse heart- 
• shaped. Skin, dark brownish red, becoming almost black as it ripens. 
Stalk, about two inches long. Flesh, half-tender, dark purple, juicy, 
sweet, and richly flavoured. 

An excellent cherry, superior in quality to either the Black Heart or 
Corone. It is ripe in the end of July and beginning of August. The 
tree is a free grower, hardy, healthy, but a bad bearer, and on that 
account its cultivation has to a great extent been discontinued. 

This is one of the oldest cherries known in this country, and seems to have 
been held in great estimation by all cultivators of fruit and fruit trees from Par- 
kinson to Miller, as there is scarcely any of the horticultural writers who have not 
mentioned it. It is first mentioned by Parkinson in 1629. 

MAMMOTH {Kirtland's Mammoth). — Fruit, very large, often an 
inch and an eighth in diameter ; obtuse heart-shaped. Skin, clear 
yellow, flushed and marbled with red. Stalk, an inch and a quarter 
long. Flesh, half-tender, juicy, sweet, and very richly flavoured. 

This is a magnificent cherry ; ripe in the middle and end of July. 

MANNING'S MOTTLED.— Fruit, above medium size, obtusely 
heart-shaped, and flattened on one side. Skin, amber-coloured, 
finely mottled, and flushed with red, somewhat translucent and shining. 
Stalk, slender, two inches long. Flesh, yellow, tender, juicy, sweet, 
and richly flavoured. 

Ripe in the middle of July. 

Marboeuf. See All Saints. 
Marcelin. See Belle de Roanont. 

MARY (Kirtland's Mary). — Large, roundish heart-shaped, and 
handsome. Skin, very much mottled with deep rich red on a yellow 
ground, and, when much exposed to the sun, almost entirely of a rich 
glossy red. Stalk, from one inch and a half to two inches long. 
Flesh, pale yellow, fii'm, rich, and juicy, with a sweet and high 
flavour. 

This is a very beautiful and very fine cherry ; ripe in the middle 
and end of July. 

May. See Early May. 

MAY DUKE (Duke ; Early Duke ; Early May Dvke ; Large May 

20 



806 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

Duke; Morris's Duke; Morris's Early Duke; Benham's Fine Early 
Duke; Thompson's Duke ; Portugal Duke ; Buchanan's Early Duke ; 
Milieu's Early Heart Duke; Arujleterre Hdtive; Roy ale Hdtive). — 
Fruit, large, roundish, flattened at both ends, indented at the apex, in 
the centre of which there is a small dot of russet. A very shallow but 
distinct suture extends all round the fruit. Skin, at first of a red 
cornelian colour, but becoming of a dark red when fully ripened. 
Stalk, about an inch and a half long, supported on a common peduncle, 
which bears several others. Flesh, red, tender, juicy, and richly 
flavoured. Juice, dark-coloured, and it stains red. Stone, small, 
nearly round, and slightly flattened. 

The tree is a free grower, with a characteristic upright habit, hardy, 
an excellent bearer, and the variety is one of the best for forcing. 
This is a very old variety. 

The name May Duke is supposed to be a corruption of Medoc, whence 
this kind of cherry was first brought. 

De Meruer. See Reine Hortense. 

Merveille de HoUande. See Reine Hortense. 

Merveille de Septembre. See Tardive de Mans. 

Milan. See Morello. 

Millett's Early Heart Duke. Bee May Duke. 

Monats-amarelle. See All Saints. 

Monats-weichsel. See All Saints. 

Monstrose Marmorkirsche. See Bigarreau de Mezel. 

Monstrueuse de Bavay. See Reine Hortense. 

Monstrueuse de Jodoigne. See Reine Hortense. 

Montmorency. See Gros Gobet. 

Montmorency a Courte Queue. See Gros Gobet. 

Montmorency a Gros Fruit. See Gros Gobet. 

Morelle. See Morello. 

MORELLO [Agnate or Murillo ; Milan; Black Morello; Dutch 
Morello; Late Morello; Ronalds* Large Morello; Cerise du Morel; 
Griotte Ordinaire du Morel; Morelle; Crown Morello). — Fruit, large, 
roundish, inclining to heart-shaped ; compressed a little on one side, 
which is marked with a slight suture, and somewhat depressed at the 
apex. Skin, dark red, but fchanging to a deeper colour, and becoming 
almost black the longer it hangs on the tree. Stalk, from an inch and 
a half to two inches long, inserted in a slight depression. Flesh, deep 
purplish red, tender, juicy, and briskly acid, but when allowed to hang 
till it attains its darkest colour it is rich and agreeably flavoured. 



CHERRIES. 807 

This is the best of all the cherries for culinary purposes, either for 
preserving or to be used in confectionery ; it ripens in July and 
August, and will continue on the tree as late as September. 

The tree is of a spreading habit of growth, with pendulous shoots ; 
it is very hardy, and an abundant bearer. It succeeds well as a 
standard, but is generally grown against a wall exposed to the north, 
where it produces its fruit of greater size and much later, and attains 
greater perfection than any other kind of fruit would do in a similar 
situation. 

This is a very old variety, being mentioned by Parkinson in 1629, and it appears 
to me that '*The great bearing cherry of Master Millen " of the same author is the 
same as the Morello, and hence Switzer calU it the " Milan " : " is a reasonable great 
red cherry bearing plentifully although it bee planted against a north wall, yet it 
will bee late ripe, but of an inditferent, sweet, and good relish." 

Morello de Charmeux. See Belle Magnijique. 

Morestein. See Heine Hortense. 

Morris's Duke. See May Duke. 

Morris's Early Duke. See May Duke. 

Nain a Fruit Rond Precoce. See Early May. 

Nain Precoce. See Early May. 

NAPOLEON NOIR is a medium sized very early Black Heart, 
with an uneven surface. The stone is very small. It is a most delicious 
cherry. 

Napoleon's Herzkirsche. See Biyarreau NapoUon. 
Noir de Tartaric. See Black Tartarian. 
Nouvelle d'Angleterre. See Carnation. 

NOUVELLE ROYALE.— Fruit, large, much more so than the May 
Duke, but similar to it in shape, and somewhat uneven in its outline. 
Skin, red at first, but becoming quite black the longer it hangs. Stalk, 
an inch and a quarter to an inch and a half long. Flesh, tender, juicy, 
and with the flavour of the May Duke. 

This is a late Duke cherry, well worthy of a place in every collection ; 
it ripens in the end of July, and the tree has a fine compact pyramidal 
habit. 

r 

Ochsenherzkirsche. See Ox Heart. 

Octoberkirsche. See All Saints. , 

OHIO BEAUTY.— Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped. Skin, pale 
yellow, overspread with red. Flesh, pale, tender, brisk, and juicy. 
Ripe in the beginning of July. 

Oranienkirsche. See Carnation. 



"m 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



OSCEOLA. — Fruit, above medium size, heart- shaped, and with a 
deep suture on one side. Skin, dark purplish red, almost black. Stalk, 
about two inches long. Flesh, liver-coloured, tender, very juicy, rich, 
and sweet. 

Ripe in the middle and end of July. 

OSTHEIM (Ostheimer Kirsche ; Ostheimer Weichsel). — Fruit, large, 
round, flattened at both ends, and very slightly compressed on the side. 
Skin, dark red, changing as it ripens to dark purplish red. Stalk, 
from an inch and a half to two inches long, placed in a wide and 
shallow depression. Flesh, dark red, tender, juicy, with a pleasant, 
sweet, and sub-acid flavour. Stone, small, roundish oval. 

An excellent preserving cherry, not so acid as the Morello ; it is 
ripe the end of July. The tree forms a thick, bushy head, with long, 
slender, and pendulous shoots ; it is an abundant bearer, and better 
suited for a dwarf than a standard. 

Ostheimer Kirsche. See Ostheim. 

Ostheimer Weichsel. See Ostheim. 

Ounce Cherry. See Tobacco-leaved. 

OX HEART {Lion's Heart ; Bullock's Heart ; Ochsenherzkirsche). — 
Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped, flattened on one side, wbicLi is 
-inarked with a suture. Skin, shining, dark purplish red. Stalk, two 
inches long, placed in a shallow depression. Flesh, somewhat firm, 
dark red, with a brisk and pleasant flavour, which is considerably richer 
when the fruit is highly ripened. Stone, roundish oval. 

A large, handsome, and very excellent cherry ; it ripens in the end 
of July. 

PARAMDAM (Baramdam). — Small and round, not quite half an 
inch in diameter. Skin, pale red. Stalk, an inch long. Flesh, pale, 
tender, with an agreeable and lively acidity. 

It ripens in the end of July. The tree is of very diminutive 
growth ; one in my possession, not less than 100 years old, being 
little more than seven feet high, and the stem not so thick as a man's 
arm. 

This is a variety of the native Cerasus vvlgnris. It was first brought to my 
notice hy a reference to Hitt's "Treatise of Fruit Trees." and on application to 
my friend, the late Kev. Henry Manton, of Sleafoid, he was so go'id as to procure 
me trees from the very holt to which Hitt refers in the followinj^ Hccount of it : — 

" I have near Sleaford in Lincolnshire met with a ditlereni kind of cherry to 
any of the former ; it is calkd the Baramdam. which is the name of the place 
where it grows, in a perfect wild manner, so that not any one can give account of 
thejr being planted. Mr. Pattison, the proprietor of the land, and present in- 
habitant, is now (1755) about sixty years of age, who told me their number was 
greatly increased in his time ; and he further added that, the same land had been 
the property of his father and grandfather, both of whom he knew veiy well, but 
neither of them was ever able to give him any account of its heing planted. And 
I am by just reasons prompt to say there is no marks of art in any part of the 



CHERRIES. ^09 

Holt, but they increase by suckers like black thorns, and bear upon as sfnall 
bushes. I have more than once curiously examined them ; for, soon after the 
time that I first saw them, 1 entered into a confract with the right honourable Lord 
Robert Manners, which entra^ed me to reside the greatest part of my time at 
Bloxhohne, which is no more than five miles from Baramdam. I have got some 
plants of the kind under my care, which thrive well and bear plentifully ; though 
before I saw the original Holt, I had hem told they would not thrive in any other 
place ; but I find them quite to the contrary, for they will grow and bear upon 
moist spungy land, where other cherries will not live long. This I have seen near 
Ancaster, where I bought some young plants, and there was a larger tree in that 
ground than any one at Baramdam ; it was quite healthy and free from moss, 
not^vithslanding its roots were in water the greatest part of the year. 

" They will root well the first year of laying, and I think that the best way to 
propagate them ; for the common kinds made use of for stocks are not so. good, 
being subject to make strong downright roots, whereas these are very fibrous, and 
grow very near the surface. 

" I have propagated the Duke Cherry upon them, and it is not so subject to 
blights as it is up(m the wild black or red, though it does not make so strong 
shoors ; but I think it is the better for that, for dwarfs or espaliers. 

"The trees upon their own roots never grow to be large ones, and the leaves 
are small and smooth, and are of a bright colour ; the young shoots are small, 
much like tho3e of the Morclla, and bear their fruit like them, the greatest part of 
which ripens in August, and but few in July. 

** It is a middle- sized round cherry, of a red colour, and its taste is not quite so 
sweet as some others ; though it is not a sour cherry, yet it has some little, 
flavour of bitter in it, like the wild black." 

Petit Cerise Rond Precoce. See Early May. 

Petit Cerise Rouge Precoce. See Early May. 

De Palembre. See Belle de Choisy. 

Pie Cherry. See Kentish, 

Planchoury. See Belle Maynijigice. 

PONTIAC. — Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped, compressed on the- 
sides. Skin, dai*k purplish red, nearly black. Stalk, an inch and a 
half to two inches long. Flesh, purplish red, half- tender, juicy, sweety 
and agi'eeable. 

It ripens in the latter end of July. 

Portugal Duke. See 2Jay Duke. 

POWHATTAN. — Fruit, medium sized, roundish heart-shaped, com- 
pressed on the sides, uneven in its outline. Skin, brownish red and 
glossy. Stalk, two inches long. Flesh, rich purplish red, half-tender, 
juicy, sweet, but not highly flavoured. 

It ripens in the end of July. 

Princesse de HoUande. See Biyarreau de Uollande. 

Quatre a la Livre. See Tobacco -leaved. 

' 'RATK'FXA{Bru7iede Bricxelles ; Batafia Weichsel ; Brusseler Bratme ; 
Brusselsche Bruyn). —Fiuit, medium sized, round, and a little flattened 



310 THE FEUIT MANUAL. 

on both sides, marked with a very faint suture on one side. Skin, 
dark brown, nearly black, and very shining. Stalk, an inch and a half 
to two inches long, placed in a shallow depression. Flesh, dark red, 
tender and juicy, with a briskly acid flavour, but which it loses and 
becomes richer the longer the fruit hangs on the tree. Stone, medium 
sized, ovate, and adhering closely to the flesh. 

This variety ripens in August. It has a close resemblance to the 
Morello, but is much smaller, and is used for the same purposes. 
The tree forms a close round head with slender, pendulous shoots, and 
is an excellent bearer. 

Eatafia Weichsel. See Batafia, 
Red Heart. See Gascoigne. 

RED JACKET. — Fruit, large, heart-shaped. Skin, amber, covered 
with pale red, but when fully exposed entirely covered with bright red. 
Stalk, two inches long, slender. Flesh, half-tender, juicy, and of good, 
but not high, flavour. 

Ripe in the beginning and middle of August. It is valuable for its 
lateness. 

REINE HORTENSE {D'Aremberg ; Belle Audigeoise; Belle de 
Bavay ; Belle de Laeken; Belle de Prapeau; Belle de Petit Brie; Belle 
Supreme; Grosse de Wagnelee ; Guigne Noire de Strass ; Hybrid de 
Laeken; Louis XVIIL; Lemercier ; De Meruer ; Merveille de Hol- 
lande ; Monsti'ueuse de Bavay ; Monstru^use de Jodoigne ; Morestein ; 
Reifie Hortense Larose; Eouvroy ; Seize a la Livre). — Fruit, very 
large, one inch and one-twelfth long and an inch wide, oblong, and 
compressed on the sides. Skin, very thin and translucent, at first 
pale red, but assuming a bright cornelian red, and changing to dark 
brilliant red the longer it hangs. Stalk, very slender, about two inches 
long. Flesh, yellow, netted, very tender, and very juicy, with a sweet 
and agreeably acidulous juice. 

A very excellent cherry of first-rate quality ; it ripens in the middle 
and end of July. 

The tree is a free and vigorous grower and an excellent bearer. It 
was raised in 1832 by M. Larose, a nurseryman at Neuilly, near 
Paris, and first produced fruit in 1838. 

RIVAL. — Fruit, below medium size, obtuse heart-shaped, uneven in 
its outline, flattened on one side, and marked with a distinct suture. 
Skin, black. Stalk, an inch and a half long, slender. Flesh, firm 
and crackling, sweet, and richly flavoured. 

A very late small black Bigarreau, in use till the end of August 
and beginniug of September. It hangs as late as Belle Agathe. The 
tree is a profuse bearer. 

ROCKPORT BIGARREAU.— Fruit, large, obtuse heart-shaped, 
uneven in its outline, and with a swelling on one side. Skin, pale 



CHERRIES. 311 

amber, covered with brilliant deep red, mottled and dotted with 
carmine. Stalk, an inch to an inch and a half long. Flesh, 
yellowish white, firm, juicy, sweet, and richly flavoured. 
Ripe in the beginning and middle of July. 

Ronalds' Black. See Black Tartarian, 

Ronalds' Large Black Heart. See Black Tartarian. 

Ronalds' Large Morello. See Morello. 

Rose do Lyon. See Early Lyons. 

Rosenoble. See Gros Gohet. 

Rothe Oranienkirsche. See Carnation. 

Rothe Spanische. See BelU de Rocmont. 

Rouge Pale. See Carnation. 

Rouge d' Orange. See Carnation. 

Rouge de Bruxelles. See Carnation. 

Rouvroy. See Reine Hortense. 

ROYAL DUKE {Donna Maria). — Fruit, large, oblate, and hand- 
somely shaped. Skin, deep shining red, but never becoming black 
like the May Duke. Stalk, an inch and a half loug, united to a 
common peduncle, which is about half an inch long. Flesh, reddish, 
tender, juicy, and very rich. Stone, medium sized, roundish oval. 

A dehcious cherry of first-rate quality ; ripe about the middle of 
July. 

The tree is a free and upright grower like the May Duke, succeeds 
well as a standard, and is an excellent bearer. 

Royale. See Jeffreys' Duke. 
Royal Hative. See May Duke. 
St. Margaret's. See TradescanCs Heart. 
St. Martin's Amarelle. See All Saints. 
St. Martin's Weichsel. See All Saints. 
Schimmelpenning's-kers. See Gros Gohet. 
Schone von Choisy. See Belle de Choisy. 
Schone von Rocmont. See Belle de Rocmont. 
Schwarze Tartarische. See Black Tartarian. 
Seize a la Livre. See Rdne Hortense. 

SHANNON MORELLO. — Fruit, above medium size, round, and 



312 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

flattened at the stalk. Skin, dark purplish red. Stalk, long and 
slender. Flesh, tender, reddish purple, jaicy, and acid. 
Kipe in August. 

Sheppard's Bedford Prolific. See Bedford Prolific. 
Small Early May. See Early May, 
Small May. See Early May. 
Spanish Heart. See Black Heart. 

SPARHAWK'S HONEY {Sparrowhaivk's HoneTj). —Fruit, of 
medium size, roundish heart-shaped, and very regular in form. Skin, 
thin, of a beautiful glossy pale amber red, becoming a lively red when 
fully ripe, partially transparent. Stalk, of moderate length, rather 
slender, set in a round, even depression. Flesh, melting, juicy, with a 
very sweet and delicate flavour. 

An American melting, sweet cherry ; ripe the end of June and be- 
ginning of July. 

Spotted Bigarreau. See Bigarreau de Hollande. 
Staatsbluhenderkirsche. See All Saints. 
Superb Circassian. See Black Tartarian. 
Sussex. See Kentish. 
Tardive a Bouquets. See All Saints. 
Tardive a Grappes. See All Saints. 

TARDIVE DE MANS (Merveille de Septemhre).— Fruit, small, 
ovate, flattened at the stalk. Skin, smooth and shining, clear red 
in the shade, and mottled with purplish red where exposed. Flesh, 
firm, sweet, juicy, and nicely flavoured. 

This, like Belle Agathe, hangs very late, but it is not so large or so 
good as that variety. 

TECUMSEH. — Fruit, above medium size, obtuse heart-shaped, 
flattened on one side. Skin, reddish purple, or dark brownish red, 
mottled with red. Flesh, reddish purple, half-tender, very juicy and 
sweet, but not highly flavoured. 

Ripe in the middle and end of August, and is valuable as a late 
variety. 

Thompson's Duke. See May Duke. 

TOBACCO-LEAVED (Ounce Cherry; Four-to-the-Pound ; Quatre 
a la Livre ; Bigarreautier Tardif a Feuilles de Tahac ; Bigarreautier a 
Grandes FeuiUes ; Bigarreau Tardif; Guignier a Feuilles de Tahac ; Vier 
auf ein Pfund). — Fruit, rather below medium size, heart-shaped, 
somewhat flattened on one side, which is marked with a fine line ex- 



CHERTiTES. 313 

tending to the apex, and terminating in a curved point, such as is met 
with in some varieties of Peaches. Skin, tender, shining pale amber- 
coloured on the shaded side, but mottled and spotted with dark red on 
the side next the sun. Stalk, slender, two inches long, placed in a 
shallow cavity. Flesh, firm, pale amber-coloured, transparent, juicy, 
and with a sweet rich flavour. Stone, medium sized, ovate. 
It ripens in the beginning of August. 

There is nothing for which this cherry is remarkable, except its large leaves and 
high-sounding name ; however it came to be called " Four-to-the-Pound" would 
puzzle any one to imagine, but such is the name by which it was at one time 
known, and under whi< h it was found in all nurserymen's catalogues. It is a very 
old cherry, and is evidently of English or gin, being mentioned by Parkinson as 
early as 1629, under the more modest designation of " Ounce Cherrie." He says, 
"The Ounce Cherrie hath the greatest and broadest leafe of any other Cherrie, but 
beareih ihe smallest store of Cherries everie yeare that any doth, and yet blossometh 
well ; the fruit also is nothing answerable to the name, Ijeing not great, of a pale 
yellowish red, neere the colour of amber, and therefore some have called it the 
Amber Cherrie." There is no doubt it is this variety also which is described by 
Meaner under the name of " Cilie:;eberrylin," which he says is "as big as an 
indifferent Jipjle." The Germans ascribe its introduction on the Continent to 
the Karl of Murray, who had a seat at Menin, in Flanders, whence it was taken 
into Germany by M. Seebach, colonel of an Austrian regiment of cavalry, and 
who received it from Lord Murray's gardener under the name of Quatre a la Livre. 
The leaves are a foot and sometimes 18 inches long. 

TOMATO. — Fruit, very large, about an inch in diameter, roundish, 
and somewhat oblate, with shallow furrows on its sides like a tomato. 
Skin, clear red. Stalk, about an inch and a quarter long. Flesh, 
pale, tender, juicy, and agreeably flavoured. 

A handsome cherry of the Red Duke class. 

TRADESCANT'S HEART (E'/AAor7i ; St. Margaret's ; Large Black 
Blgarreau ; Bigarreau Gros Noir ; Guigne Noire Tardive). — Fruit, of 
the largest size, obtuse heart-shaped, indented and uneven on its sur- 
face, and considerably flattened next the stalk on the side marked 
with the suture. Skin, at first dark red, but changing when fully ripe 
to dark blackish purple. Stalk, slender, an inch and a half to an inch 
and three-quarters long. Flesh, dark purple, adhering firmly to the 
stone, firm, sweet, and briskly sub-acid. 

It ripens in the end of July and beginning of August. 

TRANSPARENT {De Jonghes Transparent). — Fruit, above medium 
size and oblate, with a bold style mark on the apex, and with a very 
faint suture on the side. The skin is thin and transparent, showing 
through it the netted texture of the flesh, and of a uniform pale red 
colour all over. Flesh, melting, tender, sweet, and delicious. 

This comes among the Red Dukes, and is allied to Belle de Choisy. 
It was raised by De Jonghe of Brussels from the Montmorency. 

TRANSPARENT GEAN.— Fruit, small, regularly heart-shaped, 
and marked with a suture which extends in a line over the whole. 
Skin, delicate, transparent, and shining, pale yellow, and finely mottled 



B14 THE FRUIT MANUAL. 

with clear red. Stalk, about two inches long, slender, and placed in a 
shallow depression. Flesh, tender and juicy, with a sweet and agreeable 
sub -acid flavour. 

An excellent little cherry ; ripe the middle and end of July. 

Trauben Amai-elle. See Clmter. 
Trauben Kirsche, See Clmter. 
Trempee Precoce. See Baumanns May. 
Troschkirsche. See Cluster. 
Troskerskirsche. See Cluster. 
Turkey Heart. See Bigarreau. 
Vier auf ein Pfund. See Tobacco-leaved. 
De Villenne. See Carnation. 
Virginian May. See Kentish. 
Volgers-Volger. See Gros Gobet. 
Wachsknorpelkirsche. See Buttner's Yellow. 
Ward's Bigarreau. See Momtrous Heart. 

WATERLOO. — Fruit, large, obtuse heai-t-shaped, flattened at the 
stalk, and compressed on the sides. Skin, thin, dark purple mixed with 
brownish red, covered with minute pale dots, and becoming almost 
black when fully ripe. Stalk, slender, an inch and a half to two inches 
long, set in a pretty deep cavity. Flesh, clear red, but darker red 
next the stone, tender, juicy, and with a rich and delicious flavour. 
Stone, roundish ovate. 

An excellent cherry ; ripe in the end of June and beginning of July. 
The tree is a free grower and a pretty good bearer, and succeeds well 
as a standard or against a wall. 

This variety was raised by T. A. Knight, Esq., in ISl.*), and was named from 
having produced fruit a few weeks after the occurrence of the Battle of Waterloo. 
It was raised from the Bigarreau impregnated with the pollen of the May Duke. 

Wax Cherry. See Carnation. 

WEEPING BLACK BIGARREAU {Bigarreau Fleureur ; Bigar- 
reau Noir Monstrueux Fleureur). — This is a large Black Bigarreau, 
about a fortnight earlier in ripening than the common Bigarreau, and 
it is distinguished from every other by the weeping habit of the tree, 
which makes it very ornamental. 

Weeping Cherry. See All Saints. 
Weichsel mit Kurzen Stiel. See Gi'os Gobet. 
Weisse Malvasierkirsche. See Carnation. 



CHEBBIES. 315 

Weisse Sauer Kirsche. See Early May. 

WERDER'S EARLY BLACK (Guigne Precocc de Werder ; Wer- 
dersche Fruhe Schwarze Herzkirscht). — Fruit, very large, obtuse heart- 
shaped, with a deep suture on one side. Skin, membranous, deep 
shining black. Stalk, short and stout, about an inch and a half 
long, set in a deep cavity. Flesh, purplish red, tender, very juicy, 
and with a very sweet and rich flavour. 

This is one of the most valuable early cherries, of very high flavour 
and richness, much earlier than the May Duke, being generally fit for 
use by the middle of June. 

The tree is a strong and vigorous grower, an abundant and regular 
bearer, and succeeds well as a standard. 

This variety is of German origin, and has been for some years in cultivation. 
It was sent by Sello, gardener to the King of Prussia, at Sans Souci, to Christ, in 
1794, and by him it was described in the first edition of his '* Handbuch." 

Werdersche Friihe Schwarze Herzkirsche. See Werder' s Early 
Black. 

West's White Heart. See Biyarreau. 

White Bigarreau. See Harrison's Heart. 

WHITE HEART (Amber Heart; Dredge's Early White; Kentish 
Heart; White Transparent). — Fruit, medium sized, heart-shaped. 
Skin, pale yellowish white on the shaded side, but mottled with dull 
red on the side exposed to the sun. Stalk, two inches long, very 
slender, and set in a shallow depression. Flesh, white, juicy, tender, 
sweet, and well-flavoured. 

A very good cherry, but only of second-rate quality, and now rarely 
cultivated ; it is ripe in the end of July. 

The tree is an excellent grower and very healthy, but is not a good 
bearer. At one time this variety was in high estimation, but now that 
there are so many others that are far superior to it it is hardly worth 
cultivating. 

WHITE TARTARIAN (Eraser's White Tartarian ; Erasers White 
Transparent Amhree a Petit Emit). — Fruit, small, roundish, inclining 
to obtuse heart-shaped, flattened at the apex, and marked on one side 
with a well-defined suture. Skin, transparent, pale yellow. Stalk, 
slender, two inches long, placed in a slight depression. Flesh, pale 
yellow, tender, juicy, and sweet. Stone, large and oval. 

A good cherry, but only of second-rate quality ; it is ripe in the 
middle and end of July. The tree is a free grower and a good bearer. 

White Transparent. See White Heart. 
Yellow Ramonde. See Gros Gobet. 
Yellow Spanish. See Bigarreau. 
Zeelandoise. See Gros Gobet. 
Zwillingskirsche. See All Saints. 



316 



THE FRUIT MANUAL. 



LIST OF SELECT CHERRIES, 

ARRANGED ACCORDING TO THEIR ORDER OF RIPENING. 

Those marked with an asterisk are adapted for small collections. 

I. FOR GARDENS. 

These all succeed well in the open ground, or as espaliers ; and those for dessert 
use are worthy of being grown against a wall, when they arc much improved 
both in quality and earliness. 





For Dessert Use. 




June. 


Transparent 


Mammoth 


Belle d'Orleans 


Frogmore Early 


*Mary 


*£arly Purple Gean 


Bigarreau de Mezel 


Bigarreau 


•Early Jaboulay 


*^ay DuUe 


August. 


Early Lyons 


Jeffreys' Duke 


TTI nrPTi f*#» 


Early Ked Bigarreau 


Cleveland Bigarreau 


ICennicott 


Early Rivers 


Rockport Bigarreau 


Red Jacket 


Werder's Early Black 


Black Eagle 


TppnmspTi 


Bowyer's Early Heart 


BohemianBIackBigarreau 
*Elton 


Late Duke 


July. 


Oceola 


September. 


Knight's Early Black 


Royal Duke 


Coe's Late Carnation 


*Black Tartarian 


Delicate 


Biittner's Yellow 


Waterloo 


Duchesse de Palluau 


Bigarreau deHildesheim 


Governor Wood 


Monstrous Heart 


Rival 


Belle de Choisy 


Joc-o-sot 

For Kitchen Use. 


Belle Agathe 


*Kentish 


* Belle Magnifique 


Griotte de Chaux 


*Morello 





II. FOR ORCHARDS. 

These being vigorous-growing and hardy varieties, and all, in various degrees, 
abundant bearers, are well adapted for orchard planting. 



Early Prolific 
Knight's Early Black 
Black Tartarian 
Adams's Crown 
May Duke 
Elton 
Black Hawk 



Biittner's Black Heart 

Kentish 

Mammoth 

Mary 

Bigarreau 

Amber Gean 



Late Duke 
Kennicott 
Red Jacket 
Rival 
Tecumseh 
Belle Agathe 



CHESTNUTS CBANBKEEIES. 317 



CHESTNUTS. 

We can hardly call the chestnut a British fruit. It is true that in some 
situations in the southern counties it ripens fruit, but that is generally 
so very inferior to what is imported from Spain and the south of France, 
that no one would think of planting the chestnut for its fruit alone. It 
is as a timber tree that it is so highly valued in this country. 

The following are the varieties that succeed best ; but it is only in 
hot summers that they attain much excellence : — 

DEVONSHIRE PROLIFIC (.Y^m; Prolijic).— This is by far the 
most abundant bearer, and ripens more thoroughly a general crop than 
any other. 

DOWNTON (Knight's Prolific). — This is distinguished by the very 
short spines on the husks, and is not so prolific as the preceding. 



CRANBERRIES. 

Though these are not grown so generally as the other kinds of 
fruits, there are some who have given their attention to the subject, 
and succeeded in forming artificial swamps where cranberries have 
been cultivated with success. Wherever there is a plentiful supply of 
running water, with abundance of peat soil, no difficulty need be ex- 
perienced in growing cranberries. The two species most worth 
cultivating are the English and the American. 

ENGLISH (f)xy coccus palustris). — This grows abundantly in bogs or 
swamps, in many parts of England. The fruit is the size of a pea, and 
the skin pale red ; they have a somewhat acid flavour, and a strong 
acidity. 

AMERICAN (Oxycoccus macrocarpus). — Of this there are three 
vari